Tuesday, January 27, 2009

PAD 170 Democracy Task 1

  1. Democracy is a government from the people, to the people and for the people. Explain.
  2. Responsibilities of the government in all nation in the world is becoming more complex and challenging. Explain.

39 comments:

hantu said...

Democracy is a form of goverment which its power belong to people . Like Abraham Lincoln(u.s president) has make a statement about democray about democray . He say that democracy is a form of goverment from the people to the people and for the people . From the sentences , we consider that democracy is a form of people based on people soveregnity not ruler soveregnity like monarchy and so on.

In political theory democracy are describes a small number of form of goverment . Democracy also are divided into two principles of definition . One of the priciples of democracy is that all members of society have equal acess to power . The second is all members will enjoy universally recognise freedom and liberty .

On the other hand , democracy also are divided into two parts basic categories direct and representative . In direct democracy , all the citizenzs in a state will participate directly in public decision but in representative democracy , citizen elect obviosly , models of direct democracy are only official to make political decision formulates law and administer programme for public interest . Today most of cuntries in the world like Malaysia and so on are practice reprentative democracy which also knownn indirect democracy because it is not suitable to practice direct democracy in large number of people in one place . Deferrent between ancien Greek era which has practice direct democracy because a number of people are small .

There are several varieties of democracy some of provide better representation and more freedom for their citizen than others . However if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balance such as the separation of power , tahn a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself . The majority rule often describe a characteristic feature of democracy , but without responsible government it is possible for rights of minority to be abused by the thranny of majority . An essential process in representative democracies are competative election , that are fair both substantvely and procedurally . Furthermore , freedom of political expression , freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personel interest .

Democracy has given many advantage for people and policy administration . it keeping human right and privilage and liberty in a country . One af the advantages of democracy is democracy provides for changes of government without any violance . People has their right to change the government or stay with old governmant according to their interest . By this method people will have a freedom and liberty to make a decision based from their advantage .So majority of people living under democracy elected government are happy and satisfy with that governmet or at least participated in its rise to power and therefore they must shoulder part of blame for its failing . The next advantage of democracy is that typically there is an election term which means that a government can only do so much damage before opposition get a chance to undo it . Moreover any government is bound by an election term after which it has to compete each other against other parties to regain authority . This system prevents monopoly of the rulling authority . The party whos rulling the country has to make sure it works for its people for it cannot remain being the authority after completing its term unless re-elected by the people .

This brings in a feeling of obligation towards the citizens . The rulling authorities owe their success in the election for citizens and nation . Its can make feeling of gratefullness towards the people .

Athough democracy are giving many advantage for people and administratin , it also brings many disadvantage .There are some of the disadvantage cause by democracy . For example not all the citizens are fully aware of the political scenario in their country . The common masses may not be aware of the political issues in society . This may result in people making the wrong choices during election .As the government is subject to change after every election term , the authorities may work with a short-term focus . As they have to face an election after the completion of each term , they may lose focus on working for the people and more focus to win an election . The other disadvantage cause by democracy is that mobs can influence people . Citizens may vote in favor of a party under the influence of the majority . compelled or influenced by the philosophies of those around , a person may not voice his true opinion .

As a conclusion democracy have its own advantage and disadvantage for people . As a human , we are responsible maximaze advantge and minimize disadvantage from democracy for our goodness .

rozienzakwan said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
rozienzakwan said...

WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?
The word ‘democracy’ is from the Greek word, that is ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratos’. ‘demos’ refers to ‘citizens or human and ‘kratos’ refers to power. So basically, democracy give means ‘people power’. As we all already know, democracy is a government that rule by a people for a people. Based on dictionary, the meaning of democracy is a government in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives. That is rule by the ruled. Secondly, democracy is a country or state or government that make a decision based on majority voice. Democracy use the principle of equality of rights, opportunity, and treatment, or the practice of this principle as a guide of making decisions. The example of democracy country is Malaysia, United States and United Kingdom.

TYPE OF DEMOCRACY
Democracy is about the people and their power. There are two types of democracy, that is direct democracy and indirect democracy.
Direct democracy is where everyone is given the opportunity to participate in making all policy decisions. The citizens have the right to voice their opinion and demand on what they want and also what their need by direct or also indirectly on public matters. For example they can voice out their opinion or dissatisfied on public matter by collect people voice or votes as a prove of majority decisions. In countries and large organizations, direct democracy is rarely utilized because it would be efficient. No decisions would ever be reached.
Indirect democracy or also called representative democracy is refers to a government that allowed the citizens to choose their representative to voice out their will and also fight for their right. Usually the choosen representative is asked to fulfil citizens needs including regulating laws, improve people safety and security, increase citizens standard of living, and also preserve peaceful and harmony environment within the country. People’s opinion will be voice up to the government through these representatives during parliament essambly. These representative are elected for only a certain period time. It is because an election process will be held every 4 or 5 years. In that period, the chosen representative need to prove that he or she can perform well and fulfil the people’s will that have been promise as a representative’s manifiesto before the individual been elected as a representative on people behalf.

THE CRITERIA FOR A DEMOCRATIC PROCESS
In a democracy or election process, there are a few criteria that acted as a rule for all members that do their responsibilities for their country as a citizens that is voting. First, is a effective participation. It means, All the members must have equal and effective opportunities for making their views known and an equal influence on what the policy should be. It is all up to an individual to choose the direction of government based on their own views. Secondly, is about voting equity. It is all about every member must have an equal and effective opportunity to vote and all votes must be counted as equal. All the vote will be counted by professional group and the vote count is keep as secret and confidential until the whole result is announce. The third criteria is a clear understanding. Each person must have equal and effective opportunities for learning about the relevant policies and their consequences. All voters retain right to get full information about it before make a vote. And the last criteria is a control of the agenda. The meaning of the point is all members must have their own opportunity to decide how to and if each matter is to be placed on the agenda. Therefore, all members retain the full rights that are implied by the four criteria listed above.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A DEMOCRACY GOVERMENT
Basically the democracy is an action that taken based on demand of people. The citizens are not only required to practice democracy but they also have the power to maintain it. As have been told before democracy is a government of people for a people, so they are the one who can control and maintain the flows of administration by a public policy. It is very important for citizens to realize their political right. They should be cautious, be rational and be active in the nation’s political matters. This is their right, they can voice out their needs and fight for a positive changes through a direct or indirect democracy. This is one of the advantages of citizens that live in democratic country. Their request will always be heard and be discuss in a parliament as long as it is reasonable and useful for citizens and not opposite and constitution. The good example of voice of Malaysian people that have been spoke lately is the unnessasary for a passenger at the back to wear a seat belt. At first the law of that matter have been decide. Many people disagree with the law because it will cause a lot of cost to obey it. With the majority voice of Malaysian, that new law is now still under consideration. The law can change according to a consideration of people’s needs. Democracy also needs a lot of tolerance or else no decisions would ever be reached. This is important because a democracy is rule by the majority. Many opinion need to be considered. Decisions made concerning on the nation’s administration such as public policy is all the majority decision. The minority party must be tolerance and must follow the decision that being made. Democracy also gives appropriate chances to individual to developed themselves. It is means all decision that being made according to public voice will give a chances to all member of citizens to change their level of living and learn how to be a leader if they are involve in politic later.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, it is important that malaysian's understand our structure and Constitution. Ignorance can cost and in an era when our Constitution is consistently in the news, it's important that every Malaysian and each of our allies understand exactly what it is we stand for and what we represent. Not understanding what we are stand for will leaves us open to manipulation and gives others power to interpret our intentions, values and objectives. Not understanding will cause us to support the objectives and agenda of others without realizing what we are supporting.
PREPARED BY : SITI NURFARAHIN BINTI MOHD ZAKI

MASIRAH JAMLIN said...

Democracy is a government from the people, to the people, and for the people.

In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and the second that all members enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.

Democracy is form of government in which power is held by people under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek ‘democratia’, “popular government”, then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens. In this form, there were no defined human rights or legal restraints upon the actions of assembly, making it the first instance of “illiberal democracy”.

A democratic country provides opportunity for the people to involve in making decision and formulate general policies. Democracy can be define as ‘the rule by the people’. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is ‘the rule by the people, to the people and for the people’. The government is chosen by the people and every individual has equal right. This ideology emerged due to the development of capitalist system in Britain and United State.

There are three important issues in a democratic country that is freedom, minority rights and property right. Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives. Other than that, a political or social unit that has such a government. The common people, considered as the primary source of political power. And also democracy is a political system that allows the citizen to participate in political decision-making, or to elect representatives to government bodies, where government by the people, and rule of the majority. Then, the principles of social equality and respect for the individual within a community.

There are two ways to implement democracy in a state that is direct democracy and representative democracy. Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. The supporters of direct democracy argue that democracy is more than merely a procedural issue. Most direct democracies to date have been weak forms, relatively small communities, usually city-states.

Athenian democracy was direct. Ancient Athens called itself a democracy because all citizen could take part in political decisions. In direct democracy rule, the people are directly involve in the ruling, in term of regulation of law and rule and the implementation of law and judgement. Law and rules are discussed and determined in the people assembly (perhimpunan rapat rakyat). The execution of government and judgement is carry out by the people together with the judges elected by the people. Rousseau believes that direct democracy is the pure and true democracy.

However, at the present time, it is difficult and impossible to implement this direct democracy system of governing. This is because the population in the in the modern era are expanding enormously and it is impossible to gather the masses in one place for such discussion. In Athens for example, all citizen were expected to participate, and the attendance at the sovereign assembly may have been as high as 6000. When decision-taking bodies had to be smaller, their members were selected by lot rather than by election. Every citizen of Athens had reasonably high probability of being chief executive for a day. When democracy was reinvented in the eighteenth century, every system was indirect: voters elected representatives who took decision for which they were answerable only at the next election. Therefore, representation democracy is put into practice in order to replace direct democracy.

The representation democracy is, where the people’s sovereignty in democracy ruling is represented by certain organization chosen by the people. The general result is determined by the chosen representatives whom being carefully observed and monitored by the people. The result is made on the basis of the majority. This periodic choosing is based on the equal politics principle and manages in an environment that ensures the freedom of politics. An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.

There are seven characteristics of democratic country. Firstly, from the aspect of the form of ruling. Democratic ruling is based on the agreement and desirable of the people. The people involvement in the political process is high and limitless. Citizen can choose their representative through the process of election. Secondly, from the aspect of political party. Political parties are permitted to compete and grow in democratic country. Citizen can compete openly in political parties to fight for the desire position. Citizens can voice their ideas and suggestion, can voice their argument and protest and also give support to the ruler.

Thirdly, from the aspect of ruler power. In a democratic country, the power of the ruler known as collective power. This means that the power is not only existed in one individual or body. The power is held by a group of representative that were chosen by the people. Any public policies must get the agreement from people before they were approved and implemented. Other than that, from the aspect of elections, democratic state carries out election in a definite period of time. It is to ensure that the citizens have the opportunity to involve in politics and choose their representative.

Besides that, from the aspect of ideology. There are numerous ideologies exist in a democratic state. There exist freedom to establish political parties and ideologies. Next, in the democratic state, the formation of law is done collectively. It is done openly to ensure that those laws would protect the citizens’ basis rights. The law also change according to the world development and transmission of time. Furthermore, from the aspect of free sociality and free press. Law in a democratic state protect the individual right from being intruded. It also protecting and ensure freedom in publishing and broadcasting opinion on the government policies.

In conclusion, many opinions stated that democracy is the best way of governing. The main advantage of a democratic system is that the people have the opportunity to choose their leader and if the people have the opportunity to choose their leader and if the chosen leader does not carry out his task as he supposedly to do, then in the next election the people can choose another leader to replace him. This situation allow the citizen to choose the best leader. The open-door policy in democratic ruling allows any parties to criticize the behavior and actions of the leader. This generate effectiveness and trustworthyness in administration.

faizah said...

Human used to live in nomad. During the Neolithic’s time, human change their lifestyle and started to live in a close group. Members of the group will increase from time to time and the group of society makes their own territory. The communities members will chose a person among them to become a leader. The leader is chose by following the criterion and other aspects. The leader is responsible as the ruler and need to enforce the new rules to ensure the freedom among community will always exists. All the rules will be amended as the routine in the society. The territory will be ruled under a new system and become a state. All state had theirs own sovereignty. The new system is an organized government. Every state had posses an authorized organization that responsible to make laws, implement policies and administer the matter of the state. This organization is known as ruler or government. As an example, a government for a given state is consists of parties that won the election. Each party that won has the responsibility to rule. There are various types of governments in practice around the world. A form of government is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state.
Monarchy is generally means hereditary rule by one person which means ‘one ruler’. Monarchy government is a government which leads by a king and it has been practice long ago in European an Asian country. This form of rule apply the king rule as the absolute power to rule. The countries that practice this form of government in the modern century are Brunei and Saudi Arabia. There are also three types of monarchy government, which are absolute monarch, limited monarch and constitutional monarch. Our country is practicing a limited monarch. Republic government is ruled by a President. The president is chosen by the citizens through an election. Example of countries that practice republic is China, India, France, Indonesia and so on. Federation government is formed from the union of several small states. The states that united would loss their sovereignty but when the federal state is formed from those small states, the state being formed would gain its own sovereignty. Malaysia, Brazil, United States, and India are practicing this kind form of government. Parliamentary government is the combination of power and function between legislative body and executive body. The member of legislative body is also member of executive body. Normally, parliamentary has two types of executive body, real executive and nominal executive. The real executive is where the Prime Minister acts as the chief of government. The nominal executive is where the King acts as the chief of the state. These powers are enshrined in the constitution. The legislative body or parliament has one clear party. This party has the minority chair. Characteristic of presidential government is the chief of government is called the President. His role is as the chief of the state. He is elected through general election. Presidential system separates its legislative body and from the executive body. This means that the President is not responsible to the legislative body. Unitary government is a state that established under a central government. The central of government has all rights and power to formulate law and it has been verified based on centralized legislative body. The central government also has the rights and absolute power in all aspects of administration and state’s government. The local power has the limited power and the government must follow the order from the central government.
The democracy government is the form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies with the voting citizen. The decision is made by the people themselves or by the representatives who act through the consent of the people, as enforced by election and the rule of law. Democratic state practices the principle of people’s sovereignty and whereas autocratic state practices the principle of ruler’s sovereignty. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is ‘the rule by people, to people and for people’. The democracy is the systems which provides opportunity for the people to involve in making decision and formulates general policies. People have the rights to choose their government and every individual has equal rights. Freedom, minority rights and property rights of every individuals of the state is the most important aspects in democracy government. Direct democracy and representative are two ways in order to ensure the participation of people in democratic rule. Direct democracy started in the period of the Yunani’s cities especially Athens. In direct democracy rule, the people involve directly in the ruling, in term of regulation of law and rule, implement of law and judgment. All the law and rules are discussed and determined in the people assembly. The execution of governing and judgment is carried out by the people together with the judges elected by people. Some of scholars said that the direct democracy is the pure and true democracy. However, at the present time, it is difficult and impossible to implement this direct democracy system of governing. This is because people in the modern era are expanding enormously and it is impossible to gather all the people in one place for such discussion. Therefore, representation democracy is put into practice in order to replace direct democracy. The representation democracy is where the people sovereignty in democracy ruling is represented by certain organization chosen by the people. The result is made on the basis of the majority. The periodic choosing is based on the equal politics principle and manages in environment that ensures the freedom of politics.
The people involvement in the political process is high and limitless. Citizen can choose their representative through the process of election. Political parties are permitted to compete and grow in democratic state. Citizen can compete openly in political parties to fight for the desire position. Citizens can voice their ideas and suggestion, can voice their argument and protest and also can give support to the ruler. In democracy, the power of ruler is known as collective power. The power does not exist only at one individual or body. The power of ruling is hold by a group of people. Any bills or policies must get the permission or agreement from people before they were approved and implemented. In democratic ruling, there always changes of government. The main advantage of democratic state is the people have the opportunity to choose their leader and if the chosen leader does not carry out his task as his supposedly to do, then in the next election, of the election, the people can choose another leader to replace him. This situations, provides chances for the citizens to choose the best leader. The open-door policy in the democratic ruling allows any parties to criticize the behavior and actions of the leader. This generate effectiveness and trustworthy in administration. While in autocratic state, there is no election. People need to accept their ruler and obey all rules made by the ruler.
It can be concluded that there are certain weakness and effectiveness in the democracy system as well as autocratic government. The form of democratic and autocratic rules also has gone through revolution and transformation according to the changers of time. Generally, the ruler is more alert and has own stand towards what happening around him. The environment aspects also could effect the decision done by him. However, these revolution, and transformation surely have their own certain reason and importance.

faizah said...

Human used to live in nomad. During the Neolithic’s time, human change their lifestyle and started to live in a close group. Members of the group will increase from time to time and the group of society makes their own territory. The communities members will chose a person among them to become a leader. The leader is chose by following the criterion and other aspects. The leader is responsible as the ruler and need to enforce the new rules to ensure the freedom among community will always exists. All the rules will be amended as the routine in the society. The territory will be ruled under a new system and become a state. All state had theirs own sovereignty. The new system is an organized government. Every state had posses an authorized organization that responsible to make laws, implement policies and administer the matter of the state. This organization is known as ruler or government. As an example, a government for a given state is consists of parties that won the election. Each party that won has the responsibility to rule. There are various types of governments in practice around the world. A form of government is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state.
Monarchy is generally means hereditary rule by one person which means ‘one ruler’. Monarchy government is a government which leads by a king and it has been practice long ago in European an Asian country. This form of rule apply the king rule as the absolute power to rule. The countries that practice this form of government in the modern century are Brunei and Saudi Arabia. There are also three types of monarchy government, which are absolute monarch, limited monarch and constitutional monarch. Our country is practicing a limited monarch. Republic government is ruled by a President. The president is chosen by the citizens through an election. Example of countries that practice republic is China, India, France, Indonesia and so on. Federation government is formed from the union of several small states. The states that united would loss their sovereignty but when the federal state is formed from those small states, the state being formed would gain its own sovereignty. Malaysia, Brazil, United States, and India are practicing this kind form of government. Parliamentary government is the combination of power and function between legislative body and executive body. The member of legislative body is also member of executive body. Normally, parliamentary has two types of executive body, real executive and nominal executive. The real executive is where the Prime Minister acts as the chief of government. The nominal executive is where the King acts as the chief of the state. These powers are enshrined in the constitution. The legislative body or parliament has one clear party. This party has the minority chair. Characteristic of presidential government is the chief of government is called the President. His role is as the chief of the state. He is elected through general election. Presidential system separates its legislative body and from the executive body. This means that the President is not responsible to the legislative body. Unitary government is a state that established under a central government. The central of government has all rights and power to formulate law and it has been verified based on centralized legislative body. The central government also has the rights and absolute power in all aspects of administration and state’s government. The local power has the limited power and the government must follow the order from the central government.
The democracy government is the form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies with the voting citizen. The decision is made by the people themselves or by the representatives who act through the consent of the people, as enforced by election and the rule of law. Democratic state practices the principle of people’s sovereignty and whereas autocratic state practices the principle of ruler’s sovereignty. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is ‘the rule by people, to people and for people’. The democracy is the systems which provides opportunity for the people to involve in making decision and formulates general policies. People have the rights to choose their government and every individual has equal rights. Freedom, minority rights and property rights of every individuals of the state is the most important aspects in democracy government. Direct democracy and representative are two ways in order to ensure the participation of people in democratic rule. Direct democracy started in the period of the Yunani’s cities especially Athens. In direct democracy rule, the people involve directly in the ruling, in term of regulation of law and rule, implement of law and judgment. All the law and rules are discussed and determined in the people assembly. The execution of governing and judgment is carried out by the people together with the judges elected by people. Some of scholars said that the direct democracy is the pure and true democracy. However, at the present time, it is difficult and impossible to implement this direct democracy system of governing. This is because people in the modern era are expanding enormously and it is impossible to gather all the people in one place for such discussion. Therefore, representation democracy is put into practice in order to replace direct democracy. The representation democracy is where the people sovereignty in democracy ruling is represented by certain organization chosen by the people. The result is made on the basis of the majority. The periodic choosing is based on the equal politics principle and manages in environment that ensures the freedom of politics.
The people involvement in the political process is high and limitless. Citizen can choose their representative through the process of election. Political parties are permitted to compete and grow in democratic state. Citizen can compete openly in political parties to fight for the desire position. Citizens can voice their ideas and suggestion, can voice their argument and protest and also can give support to the ruler. In democracy, the power of ruler is known as collective power. The power does not exist only at one individual or body. The power of ruling is hold by a group of people. Any bills or policies must get the permission or agreement from people before they were approved and implemented. In democratic ruling, there always changes of government. The main advantage of democratic state is the people have the opportunity to choose their leader and if the chosen leader does not carry out his task as his supposedly to do, then in the next election, of the election, the people can choose another leader to replace him. This situations, provides chances for the citizens to choose the best leader. The open-door policy in the democratic ruling allows any parties to criticize the behavior and actions of the leader. This generate effectiveness and trustworthy in administration. While in autocratic state, there is no election. People need to accept their ruler and obey all rules made by the ruler.
It can be concluded that there are certain weakness and effectiveness in the democracy system as well as autocratic government. The form of democratic and autocratic rules also has gone through revolution and transformation according to the changers of time. Generally, the ruler is more alert and has own stand towards what happening around him. The environment aspects also could effect the decision done by him. However, these revolution, and transformation surely have their own certain reason and importance.

rozienzakwan said...

DEMOCRACY IS A GOVERNMENT FROM PEOPLE TO THE PEOPLE AND FOR THE PEOPLE .

NAME:NURSYAZWANI BINTI ABU KASIM
MATRIX NO:2008253202
I.C NO:901026146082
GROUP:AMDP2
LECT:COLANEL SAIFUL ANWAR







DEMOCRACY

THE WORD DEMOCRACY ORIGINATE FROM THE GREEK “ DEMOS” MEANING “THE PEOPLE” AND “KRATIEN” MEANING “TO RULE” OR “THE PEOPLE TO RULE” WHICH MEANT LITERALLY. “RULE BY THE PEOPLE” (HTTP://EN.WIKIPIEDIA.ORG/WIKI/DEMOCRACY) OR “POWER OF THE PEOPLE”. THE IS THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT WHERE THE PEOPLE RULE THEMSELVES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY THROUGH THEIR REPRESENTATIVE. THERE ARE MANY DEFENATION ABOUT DEMOCRACY, ACCORDING TO ABRAHAM LINCOLN IN THEIR BOOKS, DEMOCRACY IS A GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE BY THE PEOPLE AND FOR THE PEOPLE. ACCORDING TO DICEY GOVERNMENT IS FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH THE GOVERNMENT BODY IS COMPARATIVELY LARGE FRACTION OF THE ENTIRE NATION.

IN A SHORT, A GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE , MEANING THAT PEOPLE EITHER DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY THROUGH THEIR REPRESENTATIVE GOVERN THEMSELVE AND THEIR WILL REMAINS SUPREME ON ALL QUESTIONS OF SOCIAL DIRECTION AND POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT. TRADITIONALLY THE PURPOSE OF DEMOCRACY IS TO PREVENT TYRANNY (THE ACCUMULATING OF TOO MUCH AUTHORITY IN THE HAND OF ONE OR A FEW). THAT IS DEMOCRACY IS NOT INTENDED TO GIVE US “GOOD” GOVERNMENT BUT TO PUT SOME LIMITS TO THE ABUSE OF POWER.

DEMOCRACY INCLUDE TWO TYPE OF DEMOCRACY, INCLUDED DIRECT AND INDIRECT DEMOCRACY.


DIRECT DEMOCRACY IS A POLITICAL SYSTEM IN WHICH ALL CITIZENS ARE ALLOWED TO INFLUENCE POLICY BY MEANS OF A DIRECT VOTE, OR REFRENDUM, ON ANY PARTICULAR ISSUE. SO WHEN THE PEOPLE THEMSELVE DIRECTLY EXPRESS THEIR WILL ON PUBLIC AFFAIRS PURE OR IN A MASS MEETING AND THEY ASSEMBEL FOR THIS PURPOSE AS OFTEN AS REQUIRED. FOR EXAMPLE , SMALL CITY-N SMALL STATE OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME. PURE OR DIRECT DEMOCRACY CAN EXIST AND FUNCTION ONLY IN SMALL STATES WITH A LIMITED, UNIFORM POPULATION CAN CONVENIENTLY MEET. MALAYSIA ALSO USED DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN GOVERN THEIR STATE.
INDIRECT DEMOCRACY IS A BROAD TERM DESCRIBING A MEANS OF GOVERNANCE BY THE PEOPLE THROUGH ELECTED REPRESENTATIVE . ONE CRITIQUE OF INDIRECT DEMOCRACY IS THAT IT CENTRALIZES POWER INTO THE HANDS OF A FEW, THEREBY INCREASING THE LIKELIHOOD OF CORRUPTION IN GOVERNMENT. A FORM OF INDIRECT DEMOCRACY IS DELEGATIVE DEMOCRACY IS DELEGATIVE DEMOCRACY WHEREBY DELEGATES ARE SELECTED AND EXPERTED TO ACT ON THE WISHES OF THE CONSTITUENCY. THE CONSTITUENCY MAY RECALL THE DELECATE AT ANY TIME AND THE REPRESENTATIVE ARE EXPECTED ONLY TO TRANSMIT THE DECISION OF ELECTORS. ANOTHER MORE FIMILIAR TYPE OF INDIRECT DEMOCRACY IS REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY IN WHICH THE PEOPLE ELECT GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS WHO THEN MAKE DECISIONS ON THEIR BEHALF. THE REPRESENTATIVE ARE DEMOCRACTICALLY SELECTED AND USUALLY HARDER TO RECALL. MOST OF THE COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD INCLUDING MALAYSIA PRACTICED REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY.




CONDITION FOR DEMOCRACY
A MODERN DEMOCRACY IMPLIES CERTAIN RIGHT FOR CITIZEN SUCH AS DEMOCRACY CAN GIVE RIGHT TO ELECT GOVERNMENT THROUGH FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS. DEMOCRACY ALSO ALLOWED CITIZEN TO PARTICIPATION IN ANY FORM. FORINSTEAD DEMOCRACY ALSO GIVE RIGHT THE RULE OF LAW FOR CITIZEN. HUMAN RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH, FREEDOM OF ASSEMBELY AND FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION..
ACCORDING TO IVOR BROWN IN A.C KAPUR BOOK (PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 7TH ED, 2000) THERE ARE SEVERAL BASICS OF DEMOCRACY INCLUDES.. FIRST IS AN ‘ACTION OF WILL’ PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE THE WILL TO HAVE DEMOCRACY AND THE POWER TO RETAIN IT TOO. THEY SHOULD BE CONSCIOUS OF THEIR POLITICAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES.
NEXT IS SENSE OF FELLOWSHIP, NO LIMITS CREATED BY RELIGION CASTE, BIRTH OR WEALTH, HARMONY CAN ONLY EXIST IN A SOCIETY OF EQUAL. THIS WILL ENSURE SOCIAL JUSTICE.. ADEQUATE PROVISION OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE INDIVIDUAL TO DEVELOP HIS PERSONALITY, EVERYONE HAS FREE ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE, SECURITY AGAINST UNEMPLOYMENT A MINIMUM WAGE, FAIR CONDITION OF WORK AND LEISURE AND PROVISIONS AGAINTS SICKNESS AND OLD AGE. IN OTHER WORDS, A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY MEANS A PARTNERSHIP AMONG EQUALS.ANOTHER IS, PARTICIPATION.. DOING THINGS IN COMMON WITH OTHER AND ASKING YOUR SHARE OF THE RESPONSIBILITIES INVOLVED. A CITIZEN SHOULD BE THINKING HUMAN WITH INDEPENDENT OPINION WITH INTEREST IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS.




DEMOCRACY ENSURE BOTH LIBERTY AND EQUALITY. NO ONE POSSESSED SPECIAL PRIVILEGES. ALL ARE EQUAL AMONG EQUALS IN TERM OF OPPURTUNITY AND EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW. IMPLIES RECOGNITION OF THE DUTIES OF THE GOVERNMENT AND THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE. THUS POPULAR ELECTION, POPULAR CONTROL AND POPULAR RESPONSIBILITY ARE MORE LIKELY TO ENSURE A GREATER DEGREE OF EFFECIENCY AND WELFARE THAN ANY OTHER SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. ENSURE SELF-GOVERNMENT A GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE FOR THEIR WELFARE AND THUS IT STIMULATES THEM TO SELF-EDUCATION. BELIEVES IN METHOD OF PEACEFUL PERSUASION AND RATIONAL ARGUMENT. A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY IS NOT LIABLE TO REVOLUTION.
TE DEFECT OF DEMOCRACY IS MEN MAY BE LAZY IN POLITICS. E MIGHT NOT BE INTELLIGENT OR IS NOT SUFFICIENTLY EDUCATED. TUS THE PROBLEM IS TO FIND AMONG TEM THE BEST MEN TO LEAD THEM. DEMOCRACY IS INEFFECIENT AS A FORM OF GOVERNMENT. IT IS BASED ON ASSUMPTION THAT ALL MEN ARE EQUAL AND TAN ONE MAN IS AS GOOD AS ANOTHER. HOWEVER MEN ARE NOT ALL EQUAL AS THEY MIGHT BE DIFFERENT IN TERM OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL ABILITY. THE REPRESENTATIVE CHOSEN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE BUT THEY STILL RULE BECAUSE OF MAJORITY. NEXT IS PARTY SYSTEM ELECTION PROPAGANDA MISGUIDES AND MISEDUCATE THE PEOPLE. PEOPLE VOTE FOR TE PARTY AND NOT FFOR THE CANDIDATES SO REPRESENTATIVE FOLLOWS WHAT THE PARTY WANTS INSTEAD OF WHAT THE PEOPLE WANTS..





DEMOCRACY ALSO HAVE THEIR WEAKNESSES IF THE STATE ARE USING THAT TYPE TO GOVERN THE STATE. THE WEAKNESS TO USING A DEMOCRACY IN GOVERN THE STATE IS, NO IMPORTANT MINORITY, PARTICULARLY IF IT IS A LARGE MINORITY WILL EVER BE CONTENT WITH A SUBORDINATES ROLE IN THE BODY POLITICS. GOVERNMENT ALSO MAY BE MANYYY UNWILLING OR UNABLE TO CARRY OUT PROMISES MADE ON ELECTION DAY AND WILL TRY TO SELECT ANOTHER ELECTION DAY MOST SUITABLE TO THEMSELVE IF THE SYSTEM ALLOW THIS. THERE ALSO MAY BE MANY PRESSURE GROUPS OR INTEREST WHICH STAND IN THE WAY OF SIMPLE STRAIGHT FORWARD LAW-MAKING OR GOOD REASONS WHY ADMINISTRATORS ACQUIRE CONSIDERABLE POWER. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DAY MAY TRY TO MANIPULATED THE CONSTITUTION IN ITS OWN INTEREST OR EVEN TO REWRITE IT IS POSIBLE. AND FINALLY SOME VOLUNTRY ASSOCIATIONS MAY TRY TO HARRAS AND OBSTRUCT THE PROPER OPERATIONS OF GOVERNMENT. AT THE SAME TIME FREDOM OF ASSEMBLY DISCUSSION AND EXPRESSION MAY LEAD TO FREKIISHNESS AND ECCENTRICITY BEING TOLERATED EVEN WHERE THERE ARE DANGEROUS FOR PUBLIC SAFETY.
FOR A CONCLUSION, DEMOCRACY GIVE MANY ADVANTANGEOUS TO PEOPLE. PEOPLE CAN GIVE THEIR IDEA AND VOICE THAT GOVERNMENT TO HEAR AND TAKE AND ACTION.A DEMOCRACY POLITIC SYSTEM IN WHICH ALL CITIZEN ARE ALLOWED TO INFLUENCE POLICY BY MEANS OF A DIRECT VOTE OR REFRENDUM.
kiki_90

LAURA said...

Democracy is a form of government in which power is held by “the people” under a free electoral system. The word democracy originates from the Greek “demos” meaning “the people” and “kratein” meaning “to rule” or “the people to rule” which meant literally: “Rule by the people” or “power of the people”. There are two types o democracy i.e Direct Democracy and Indirect Democracy. Direct democracy is a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of direct vote, or referendum, on any particular issue. So when the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs; pure or direct democracy. The people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. For example, small city-state of ancient Greece and Rome. Pure or direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet. While, Indirect democracy is a broad term describing a means of government by the people through elected representatives. One critique of indirect democracy is that it centralizes power into the hands of few, thereby increasing the likelihood of corruption in government. A form of indirect democracy is delegative democracy whereby delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. The constituency may recall the delegate at any time and the representatives are expected only to transmit the decisions of electors. Another more familiar type of indirect democracy is representative democracy in which the people elect government officials who then make decisions on their behalf. The representatives are democratically selected, and usually harder to recall. Most of the countries in the world, including Malaysia, practiced representative democracy. Democracy is a system of government that allows all citizens to have a say about who they want to be the government. This is usually done by voting for representatives called Members of Parliament during an election. The merits of democracy is democracy ensures both liberty and equality. No one posses special privileges. All are equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law. Besides, implies recognition of duties of the government and the rights of the people. Thus popular election, popular control and popular responsibility are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than any other system of government. Democracy also ensure self-government. A government by the people for their welfare and thus,it stimulates them to self-education. It also believes in methods of peaceful persuasion and rational argument.A democratic society is not liable to revolution. The disadvantage of democracy is men may be lazy in politics. Besides, democracy is inefficient as a form of government. It is based on assumption that all men are equal and than one man is good as another. However, men are not all equal as they might be different in term of physical and mental ability. The representative chosen may not be suitable but they still rule because of majority. In party system, election propaganda misguides and miseducate the people. People vote for the party and not for the candidate, so representative follows what the party wants, instead of what the people wants. Ensuring free decisions and informed decisions are of course are clearly interlinked, and political scientist Stephen Garvey thoroughly argues that voting the way it is typically done is so flawed that a more evaluative approach to democracy would be a better way to judge progress, determine leaders, and ultimately achieve a better (and real) democracy. This, he argues, is because an evaluative democracy
• Minimizes the role of political influence and manipulation by making the focus of political determinations on citizen evaluations which are based on the collective interest.
• Minimizes political campaigning.
• Minimizes or eliminates the role of political organizations.
• Minimizes the role of money.
• Establishes accountability of political and governmental decision-making through the standard of collective interest.
In essence, democracy (and the various issues raised for debate) would then driven by the people, not by leading political parties who decide the agendas based on their interests (which also results in a very narrow set of issues being discussed, and often contributes to low voter turnout). This has the potential, then, to be a much more people-driven (i.e. democratic) approach.
There also an expensive form of government. Governmental machinery is complex and its functions is involve much waste of time and money.
Democracy began in ancient Athens. All free citizens were entitled to vote on decisions made by the government. This only worked while the population was small. It was called direct democracy. Slaves did not get to vote. Democracy in Athens started on 5th century, where all twenty years old man and above have involved in this democracy. They involved in Assembly of People that will have a meeting for ten times a year. But when the people increased, they decided to vote their representatives through election. Their representatives will make laws and be their ruler.
With larger populations it is impossible to allow everyone to have a direct say, so we now have representatives to speak on behalf of a large number of people.
Abraham Lincoln said that democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people. This means decisions of the people because the people voted for their representatives because they agreed with the policies and ideas that this person's political party presented during the election. Government is by the people. That is, all people have a say in their government by electing representatives to parliament. Democracy is for the people because governments are meant to make decisions for the benefit of all citizens. This does not mean you will agree with every decision the government makes but it will make decisions that it believes are right at that time for the benefit of the country and its citizens. But nowadays, country which practice democracy faced a crisis. America is the one of country that practiced democracy .Since 1960,democracy in America is not so good and America faced a bad situation because of this. There are so many request from certain group and socialist. “So many democracy, makes democracy in AS sick, cause distemper democratic” said Samuel Hungtington. In Warrior Politics: Why Leadership Demands a Pagan Ethos, Robert D.Kaplan think that the evil on this 21 periods can happen from group of populist who just want take the advantages from democracy. In Malaysia some people likes blog writer, personal assistant used their power to voice public opinion. Sometimes this people more powerful than representative. But they not voice the right things and cause they make themselves in trouble. For example, Raja Petra the famous Malaysian blog writer and the representative, Teresa Kok were arrested under Akta Keselamatan Dalam Negeri (ISA). This is because their opinion will influence the integration in this country and can make others fight with themselves. Representative that have a task or job to make the rule as what the people want and will. But there are so many agenda in politics which is make the politician forgot what actually they must do and used their power to influence the people to vote for them to be their representative. They make a promise to the people that their will and wants will voice in parliament and surely will done by government. But after the representative got what they want, they will forget their promise .This shows that they used concept democracy as a mask to get higher vote and to get what they want that is a power. Democracy, extremism and war on terror make people losing rights. The use of fear in a democratic society is a well known tactic that undermines democracy.
For example, the US has also been widely criticized for using the War on Terror to cut back on various freedoms in the US, and often undermining democracy and related principles. By raising fears of another terrorist attack it has been easy to pass through harsher policies ranging from more stringent borders, to snooping on citizens in various ways.
Another example is the US military commissions act in 2006 which has increased already formidable presidential powers further, rolling back some key principles of justice such as habeas corpus (the traditional right of detainees to challenge their detention), allowing the President to detain anyone indefinitely while giving US officials immunity from prosecution for torturing detainees that were captured before the end of 2005 by US military and CIA. (It is also an example of how a seemingly non-democratic bill is passed in through a democratic system. The previous link goes into this in a lot more detail.)
Fear, scare stories and political opportunism have also been a useful propaganda tools during election time. For example, A November 6 Democracy Now! interview noted that the US government had long ago predetermined when the sentencing of Saddam Hussein would take place: conveniently just before the 2006 mid-term elections so as to try and get extra votes through the appearance of a successful action coming to a close.
Another example comes from the Iranian hostage crisis where Iranian students held some American hostages for over a year: A documentary that aired on a British cable channel (cannot recall details unfortunately) explained how Reagan, challenging Carter in the US presidential race, used a propaganda stunt that also helped him achieve popular support: Reagan and George H. W. Bush had struck a deal with the Iranian mullahs to provide weapons if they released the hostages the day after he was sworn in as President, rather than before, during Carter’s term.
This would allow Reagan to be sworn in with a very positive and triumphant view, and provide an image of him that could be used again and again in the future to help bolster him and his party, even though, as Robert Parry commented, “The American people must never be allowed to think that the Reagan-Bush era began with collusion between Republican operatives and Islamic terrorists, an act that many might view as treason.” [Robert Parry, The Bushes & the Truth About Iran, Consortium News, September 21, 2006]
Cynics will note (rightly) that such tactics are not new and they happen all the time. The problem is that many people (often cynics themselves) believe it, or importantly, believe it at that time. Because these things have happened throughout history does not automatically mean it should also happen in the future too.
Supposedly, society becomes more sophisticated and improves its knowledge of how these aspects work. We are supposed to be able to learn from past experiences, and if that were true, knowing that such things can happen, and yet they continue to do so all the time also signals a weakness or problem in the democratic institutions if such actions are not held accountable for they deceive the public into mis-informed decisions.
This is an overly complex situation as it goes to the heart of society and questions whether a society suffering this problem is truly democratic if systemically the mainstream media fails to hold those in power to account, either through fear of criticism that they are not being patriotic or through being part of the same elite establishment that reinforces each others views and perspectives, etc. The point is, perhaps regardless of whether this is easy to address or not, there may be a fundamental problem: not enough democracy, openness, transparency and accountability, thus letting these things happen, repeatedly.






CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the politicians as well as a representatives and the people should realized that they should follows the actual concept of democracy. They must make the ancient Athens as their role modal as they practiced the democracy successfully. Besides, they need to understand the concept of democracy and practiced it successfully as what Athens make in 5th century ago.

p@eh said...

The term democracy is derived from the greek words, demos and kratos; which meaning the people and latter power. Democracy, thus, means power for the people. It is now regarded as a form of government in which the people rule themselves either directly or indirectly through their representatives. This involves a freedom of choice in electing the rulers and the concent of the electors that those who receive the mandate should alone rule. It means that democracy has a popular base and it hinges upon the concent of the governed.

MacIver says, “Democracy is not the way of governing, whether by majority or otherwise, but primarily a way of determining who shall govern and broadly, to what ends.”

It is obvious that democracy allows every qualified citizen to express an opinion on affair of the State. But it also cannot secure that every man’s opinion shall influence the actions of the State. All citizens cannot be made to agree on all questions of importance. Moreover, all citizens cannot have a voice in determining the policy of the government. Even the most ardent democrat will not vote for lunatics, criminals or infants. Participation is sometimes limited by age, sex, property, literacy and education. Therefore, democracy does not mean participation by all the people. Whenever we speak of government by the people or the will of the people we mean the will of the majority for the time being.
The meaning of government for the people can best be explained in the word of Mazzini: “the process of all through all under the leading of the best and wisest.” The test of government is the welfare of the people, and that form of government is to be preferred which gives to human tendencies the fullest scope for development. The primary functions of a democratic government are similar to those of any other form of government. But, in addition to this, “democracy stimulates to self-education, for the participation in governmental activities, opens wider horizons for the individual and leads to broadened interests.”
The lessons of democracy are liberty, equality, fraternity and rationality. Its principle is that all persons who are fit to perform the duties of citizens should have a share in the direction of the State so that each man may have an identical opportunity to grow and expand to the best of his capacity, and there is no men or group of men who will exploit the weakness of others. Democracy does not differentiate between man and man. It raises the common man high on the pedestal of social and political glory and this is the meaning of a government for the people.
Democracy is, therefore, difficult to define and Freeman correctly says that “it is commonly very hard to make out what modern writers mean by democracy.” It is not a mere form of government. Dewey has aptly said that “to say that democracy is only form of government is like saying that home is more or less geometrical arrangement of brick and mortar”. Democracy, according to Barker, is a mode of spirit, an attitude of mind of those who profess it, and only those who profess it can practice it. There is synchronization of thoughts and action and this is the essence of democracy.

Democracy, as the form of government, there are two types of democracy, pure or direct, and representative or indirect.
When the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs, the type of government is called pure or direct democracy. The people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. But this type of democracy can exist or function only in small States with a limited, homogeneous population where people can conveniently meet and deliberate together. In large and complex societies, when the number of people is too large and the area of the State is too extensive, direct democracy is impracticable. It has long been familiar in Switzerland and the United States.
The prevailing system of democracy is indirect or representative. The will of the State is formulated and expressed not directly by the people themselves, but their representatives to whom they delegate the power of discussion and decision making. The representatives are periodically elected by the people. John Stuart Mill defines indirect or representative democracy as one in which “the whole people or some numerous portion of them, exercise the governing power deputies periodically elected by themselves.” In a representative democracy the ultimate source of authority remains with the people but it draws a distinction between the possession of authority which resides in the electorate and its exercise, which is by the elected representatives.
An “action of will.” The people should not only imbibe the will to have democracy, but the power to retain it as well. They should be fully conscious of their political rights and duties as vigilante is the rice of democracy. The citizens should not be silent spectators, simply watching the game of politics. Democracy demands from the rational man conduct and active participation in the affair of government. Democratic government is government by criticism. The people should have the courage to protest against and criticize the injustice and tyranny of the government. “To be articulate is its very life; to be dumb its demise.” It is only the will of the people to action which can save them from the tyranny of the rulers. The rulers become masters when citizens are passive. They become their servant when citizen assert and uphold their right that they are masters. The successful working of democracy depends upon the intelligence, interest, public spirit and civic sense of its citizens, the sense of ‘public spirit’ and social consciousness in brief.
Democracy involves fellowship, that is, the feeling of fraternity or what Giddings calls the ‘consciousness of kind’. Fellow-feeling aims at realization o a common end-the welfare of humanity. Fellowship appeals to our sense of common humanity. Democracy does not recognize class distinction. Fellowship knows no limits created by religion, caste, birth or wealth. It is only in a society of equals that harmony can be secured. By equality we mean, of course, equality of opportunity—a fair and open field for all. This kind of equality ensures social justice, which is very life-breath of democracy. When there exist vast inequalities of wealth, social justice cannot be obtained. A wide gap between rich and poor make it impossible for the latter to live and exercise their political right independently and freely. Where there is no equity, there can be neither liberty, nor fraternity nor rationality.
Democracy demands a spirit of tolerance. This is necessary, as democracy involves the rule of the majority and submission of minority or minorities to the decision of the majority. A rational majority is the perquisite of tolerance and tolerance is the basis of democracy. Exactly, the same rational role the minority is expected to play. It must not act in the irresponsible manner and play a constructive role in opposing and proposing to the party in office. There should prevail a sense of give and take; the habit of tolerance and spirit of compromise. There more there are cleavages and party squabbles in society the more difficult it is to make democracy operative and enthuse democratic spirit among citizens. The differences in majority and minority opinion prove beneficial only when they are directed toward the common good and are free from partisan consideration. Each party should have full and fair opportunity to express its opinion and influence government’s policy by reasoning and persuasion. But once the decision has been taken, it is the duty of the minority parties to abide by it and perform the well-recognized function of a responsible Opposition. A democratic vanquished should accept that at some future date their position may be reversed, and such, there should be wide agreement on the benefits of playing the game of politics according to the rules.
The education of people also plays the role in democracy government. According to Rousseau, that they are both sovereign and subjects and they must fill their dual obligations. A citizen of a democratic polity is not merely to obey; he has also to see if his obedience is rational. If citizens are educated and they have the courage to be critical, they possess the powers of discrimination to obey and to criticize. Besides, there should be a free and fearless mass media of communication which should serve and shaping public opinion. The press, most importantly, should be the guardian of the rights and liberties of the people, if democracy is to be a government of the people, for the people and by the people.
In conclusion, democracy is type of government that gives rights to the people to rule for their own goods. The main important factor is based on demand, tolerance of the people and chances to the people to give their opinion. The people should be responsible to choose their own government to rules them based on credibility and the ability to protect people’s rights. The representatives also should rules and protect the right of the people and implement policy and law of the government precisely. If this condition is fulfilled, there should be a government from the people, to the people and for the people.

lexus DRC said...

Democracy is a political system in which all the members of the society have an equal share of formal political power. In modern representative democracy, this formal equality is embodied primarily in the right to vote. Democracy also a form of government in which power is held by" the people" under a free electoral system.
The first principle of democracy is that all members of the society have equal access to power and the second that all members enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority". An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.

DEMOCRACY IN MALAYSIA


Democracy on the other hand, is a form of government in which the policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections.

GENERAL ELECTION

An important aspect of the democratic system is elections. Elections in the practice of democracy constitute a social contract between the people and the candidate or party (that succeeds to form a government).

When the majority of the people choose a party from among the contesting parties in an election (and the party then forms the government) it means the voters have certain expectations that the candidate will carry out.
The party that wins the election and forms the government should fulfil the party’s promises and manifesto proclaimed in the election campaign.

At the state level, elected representatives of the people sit in the State Legislative Assembly of each state. At the federal or national level, elected Members of Parliament sit in the Dewan Rakyat or House of Representatives.

There are two types of general election. First, the general election for the whole country, held once in every five years. The next is the by-elections, also considered a general election because the concept of the election itself constitutes the choosing of a representative by the public citizens for the Parliament and the State Legislative Assembly.

There are clear differences between the two types of election. The first type is only held after Parliament or the State Legislative Assembly is dissolved. The by-elections do not involve the dissolution of any of the assembly nor do they follow a fixed schedule.

The general election is usually held every 5 years. Prior to carrying out the election, the Yang di-Pertuan Agung must dissolve the Parliament on the advice or at the request of the Prime Minister.

This occurs at the federal level. At the State level, a general election is held after the State Legislative Assembly is dissolved by the Ruler or Yang Dipertua Negeri at the request of the Menteri Besar or Chief Minister.

As soon as Parliament is dissolved, the elections must be held within 60 days in West Malaysia and within 90 days in Sabah and Sarawak.

The time specified is reasonable for the Election Commission, to prepare the election arrangements and the contesting parties to get ready, hold campaigns and construct definite strategies following the regulations or laws that have been fixed from time to time.

For a general election, after the Yang di-Pertuan Agung dissolves Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister, the Election Commission will issue an order to the Managing Officer to organize the balloting process (election).
The responsibility of the Managing Officer is to issue a statement, through the Government Gazette or newspaper, on the date of nomination of candidate for the said election, the place and the time of election for every electoral constituency. The Election Commission also determines the date and place of balloting.

Any candidate who wishes to contest must obtain a nominator, a seconder and at least four other people, whose names are recorded in the nomination paper.
They must also be registered voters in the voters’ register of the constituency where the candidate is contesting.

The balloting day can be held after 3 weeks from the date of nomination but cannot exceed 8 weeks. On the balloting day, all voters who qualify to vote can carry out their responsibility by casting their votes in balloting places provided.

Before the balloting day arrives, the contesting parties are allowed to carry out election campaigns through political talks. The freedom of speech and assembly during the campaigns also show that the basic freedom as embodied in Article 10 of the Federal Constitution are protected in the country which practices a democratic system of government.

However, to ensure public security all political talks whether by the party that had held the reins of the government or the opposition, it is necessary to get police approval or permit.

State Legislative Assembly and Parliamentary Members

In a public general election the voters will choose two candidates who are deemed qualified to represent them in the Houses, that is, the State Legislative Council and the House of Representatives.

The candidate, who contests in a State Legislative Council district, is known as the candidate for the State Legislative Assembly seat while for the House of Representatives, as the candidate for Parliamentary or House of Representatives seat.

Those who win the elections will be designated State Legislative Assembly members or People’s Representatives depending on the level of the electoral district won.

A member of the State Legislative Assemblies cannot at the same time represent more than one electoral constituency. A people’s representative too, cannot be a member for both the Parliamentary Assemblies (House of Representatives and the Senate) or represent more than one electoral district.

The total membership of the State Legislative Assembly varies from state to state and this has to do with the issue of alignment of divisions or electoral constituencies determined and identified by the Election Commission authorities. The same goes for the membership of the House of Representatives.

Breakdown by State of House Representative’ Membership
State Membership
Perlis 3
Kedah 15
Kelantan 14
Terengganu 8
P. Pinang 13
Perak 24
Pahang 14
Selangor 22
F. T. Kuala Lumpur 11
F.T. Putrajaya 1
Negeri Sembilan 8
Melaka 6
Johor 26
F. T. Labuan 1
Sabah 25
Sarawak 28

Total
219



The Senate

Article 45 of the Federal Constitution provides that the members of the Senate also known as senators are selected and appointed.
• 2 members for each State shall be elected in accordance with the Seventh Schedule of the Federal Constitution (26 members)
• 2 members for the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and 1 member for the Federal Territory of Labuan and 1 member for the Federal Territory of Putrajaya shall be appointed by the Yang di – Pertuan Agong; and
• 40 members shall be appointed by the Yang di – Pertuan Agong


Senators, who are appointed, consist of those who have rendered excellent service in the commerce, business, industry, agriculture, art or social welfare. Senators can also be appointed from those who represent minority groups or people who can represent the interests of the native tribes.

The appointment of a Senator from this group is considered important in the legislative context.

The vast experiences in their respective fields can help the legislative body to refine related aspects and this definitely helps the executive body in the country’s administrative matters, based on the rules in the form of acts passed by the House of Representatives.
This wide experience is reinforced with the condition that a person can be appointed as a Senator from the age of 30 and above.

The duration in office of a Senator is different from that of a representative of the people. The length of time in office of a member of the House of Representatives is limited by dissolution of Parliament but not a Senator.

A Senator can hold his post for 3 years, even during the period Parliament is dissolved. However the post cannot be held for more than two terms that is, not exceeding 6 years whether continuously or intermittently.

asmawatiidris said...

INTRODUCTION
Democracy is from Latin words “Demos” that is mean “citizens” that’s mean the power in the citizen hands. Like what Aristotle said that the democracy governance is, one of the governing that already damaged, because the good governing is politics. In the phrase of Political Knowledge now, democracy is a politics in Aristotle particular period that is “every people have their right” is a foundation principles.
Many people already had given their own opinion about the concept of democracy. Mc. Iver admits that democracy is in the citizen hands, but the truth is the people selects about who must govern a state. Duguit also said that democracy is one of the governance where the majority voice will be given a right to govern. Nevertheless, democracy is too hard to be achieved if there have violence to the majority voice, because the spirit of democracy is to give a chance to all the people to make their own opinion about how the political governance governs a state. The citizens must be given a chance to make an opinion and decision because whatever the decision is making and the action that had been done will give an effect to the people live.
When the Abraham Lincoln introduced the slogan of “A government of the people, by the people and for the people” was means to gave a chance to every people to gave an advised, make a conversations and achieved an agreement between the party in an environment that can bring to the unity. When the decision had been achieved, it was a collective decision and the minority party will be given a chance with according to the spirit of freedom and impartiality. In this case, the minority party will respect the decisions of the majority party.
The decision that had been achieved was a decision for benefits to all the people. Because the function of a state is to take care the needs of the people, hence the people must make a decision on what the commander do. Because of that, the decision that must be taken must use the intelligence and justification that determine the motive and the missions of the state. The intelligence can be plan through the participation, the knowledge and the excellent educations. Therefore, to achieve the democracy spirit, the people must be given a good education and knowledge. The development of the democracy country cannot be achieved if the people not educated.
One more assesses that have in the democracy besides the freedom to give an opinion is the freedom to give an influence to the others if it is needed. To achieve the mission that has certain meaning is a person cannot force another people to follow their needs but must use the influences. Even this way can be accepted, it must be careful when want to use it because people can use the influence like money, property etc to have a support.










THE NECESSITY IN DEMOCRACY
When Rousseau introduced slogan “justice, freedom, and impartiality” means spirit trustable cultivations to each other because there is no differentiate between them. The good democracy is dependant to the power which is comes from the voice of the people and the opinion from people that be performed because the importance of the people.
Therefore, the participations from the people are very important. The people cannot be quite if the way the government governs is not same with the importance of the people such as the unfair of the decision, careless in administration and the honesty that cannot be trustable. If the people are passive and not care so much, the people will lose because the government takes an advantage from them. Besides when the people always conscious and active, the administration will be going with the way that can give the people advantage.
To make successful democracy governance, tolerance between the individual, or between one group and the other group must be plan. Understanding about the problem that effect the daily life must be a foundation to the unity, because a country cannot achieve any development if there still have a misunderstanding to each other.
Impartiality in democracy cannot be achieved if there still have a different descent or the color of the skin. The history already approved that many political problem in a good country that have been develop or still be developing exists because of the color of the skin, descent and religion. In South Africa, black skin people that get title “fakir” in the white people will not lose to the governance system of white people that using “apartheid” base. United States of America that shout about democracy but use the color of the skin as a foundations of the politics was already make the whole world shock when the black skin people rebelled in year 60’s. Indians also cannot escape from this problem when the Indian’s Muslims always argue with the Hindu. In Malaysia, the tragedy 13 May already happened because of the different nations between the Malay people and the Chinese people.
Therefore, tolerance is also not needed in individual but it also involved all the nations and descents. The very suitable democracy is when it is truly give a guarantee to the people rights such as the rights to be protected, right to give an opinion and the right to choose. Besides, the people must be given responsibilities to guarantee the stable democracy with not using the freedom that had been given in a wrong way that can makes the democracy system weak.













DIRECT AND INDIRECT DEMOCRACY PERFORMING
Like what that already explained, to make a successful democracy in a state, it needs people participations whether direct or indirect. People power becomes the one criterion in to succeed the pattern of the governance in that state.
In Greek and Rom governance particular period, the men people that already growing up will make an assembly to talk or debate about managed and their government administration. The people come and give their opinion about the law, taxes that already permanent and the choosing of the state administrators. Hence, when the people direct participate in any government affair, this system calls with the name of direct democracy or original democracy. In Switzerland, this system calls with the name of landsgemeinde or people legislature. In this system, the people make an assembly on Sunday in April or May to discuss about the new law, government budget and the choosing of the leader. This system is not always be using in this century because it is impossible for the state to assembly all their people in one conversation and to discuss about the government affair.
It is cannot be accused that direct democracy is a good way because direct participation of the people in determine government base. Therefore, this direct democracy become difficult to be performing, hence, indirect democracy is the way that always be used in many country that still use the democracy system. In this system, the people will choose their representative to do the duty for the people. Voice and needs of the people will through the representative in discuss with the base making. Therefore, the people rights are to choose who really can represent them.
The representative will be choosing with follow dismember and every dismember are between one until five years. At the end of the dismember, every representative will be assess and be justice by the people whether the representative must be chosen again or not.
This system is suitable and good because it guarantees the political freedoms and determines a good relationship between the leader and the people who are lead by the leader. Nevertheless, the representative always faced the problems because of the forcing from the people, sometimes it was a very hard case to settle especially when it touches about the rules and government law. In other words, the freedom of the politics that always be used in the wrong way will damaged the democracy system that had been fight by the people.

asmawatiidris said...

INTRODUCTION
Democracy is from Latin words “Demos” that is mean “citizens” that’s mean the power in the citizen hands. Like what Aristotle said that the democracy governance is, one of the governing that already damaged, because the good governing is politics. In the phrase of Political Knowledge now, democracy is a politics in Aristotle particular period that is “every people have their right” is a foundation principles.
Many people already had given their own opinion about the concept of democracy. Mc. Iver admits that democracy is in the citizen hands, but the truth is the people selects about who must govern a state. Duguit also said that democracy is one of the governance where the majority voice will be given a right to govern. Nevertheless, democracy is too hard to be achieved if there have violence to the majority voice, because the spirit of democracy is to give a chance to all the people to make their own opinion about how the political governance governs a state. The citizens must be given a chance to make an opinion and decision because whatever the decision is making and the action that had been done will give an effect to the people live.
When the Abraham Lincoln introduced the slogan of “A government of the people, by the people and for the people” was means to gave a chance to every people to gave an advised, make a conversations and achieved an agreement between the party in an environment that can bring to the unity. When the decision had been achieved, it was a collective decision and the minority party will be given a chance with according to the spirit of freedom and impartiality. In this case, the minority party will respect the decisions of the majority party.
The decision that had been achieved was a decision for benefits to all the people. Because the function of a state is to take care the needs of the people, hence the people must make a decision on what the commander do. Because of that, the decision that must be taken must use the intelligence and justification that determine the motive and the missions of the state. The intelligence can be plan through the participation, the knowledge and the excellent educations. Therefore, to achieve the democracy spirit, the people must be given a good education and knowledge. The development of the democracy country cannot be achieved if the people not educated.
One more assesses that have in the democracy besides the freedom to give an opinion is the freedom to give an influence to the others if it is needed. To achieve the mission that has certain meaning is a person cannot force another people to follow their needs but must use the influences. Even this way can be accepted, it must be careful when want to use it because people can use the influence like money, property etc to have a support.










THE NECESSITY IN DEMOCRACY
When Rousseau introduced slogan “justice, freedom, and impartiality” means spirit trustable cultivations to each other because there is no differentiate between them. The good democracy is dependant to the power which is comes from the voice of the people and the opinion from people that be performed because the importance of the people.
Therefore, the participations from the people are very important. The people cannot be quite if the way the government governs is not same with the importance of the people such as the unfair of the decision, careless in administration and the honesty that cannot be trustable. If the people are passive and not care so much, the people will lose because the government takes an advantage from them. Besides when the people always conscious and active, the administration will be going with the way that can give the people advantage.
To make successful democracy governance, tolerance between the individual, or between one group and the other group must be plan. Understanding about the problem that effect the daily life must be a foundation to the unity, because a country cannot achieve any development if there still have a misunderstanding to each other.
Impartiality in democracy cannot be achieved if there still have a different descent or the color of the skin. The history already approved that many political problem in a good country that have been develop or still be developing exists because of the color of the skin, descent and religion. In South Africa, black skin people that get title “fakir” in the white people will not lose to the governance system of white people that using “apartheid” base. United States of America that shout about democracy but use the color of the skin as a foundations of the politics was already make the whole world shock when the black skin people rebelled in year 60’s. Indians also cannot escape from this problem when the Indian’s Muslims always argue with the Hindu. In Malaysia, the tragedy 13 May already happened because of the different nations between the Malay people and the Chinese people.
Therefore, tolerance is also not needed in individual but it also involved all the nations and descents. The very suitable democracy is when it is truly give a guarantee to the people rights such as the rights to be protected, right to give an opinion and the right to choose. Besides, the people must be given responsibilities to guarantee the stable democracy with not using the freedom that had been given in a wrong way that can makes the democracy system weak.













DIRECT AND INDIRECT DEMOCRACY PERFORMING
Like what that already explained, to make a successful democracy in a state, it needs people participations whether direct or indirect. People power becomes the one criterion in to succeed the pattern of the governance in that state.
In Greek and Rom governance particular period, the men people that already growing up will make an assembly to talk or debate about managed and their government administration. The people come and give their opinion about the law, taxes that already permanent and the choosing of the state administrators. Hence, when the people direct participate in any government affair, this system calls with the name of direct democracy or original democracy. In Switzerland, this system calls with the name of landsgemeinde or people legislature. In this system, the people make an assembly on Sunday in April or May to discuss about the new law, government budget and the choosing of the leader. This system is not always be using in this century because it is impossible for the state to assembly all their people in one conversation and to discuss about the government affair.
It is cannot be accused that direct democracy is a good way because direct participation of the people in determine government base. Therefore, this direct democracy become difficult to be performing, hence, indirect democracy is the way that always be used in many country that still use the democracy system. In this system, the people will choose their representative to do the duty for the people. Voice and needs of the people will through the representative in discuss with the base making. Therefore, the people rights are to choose who really can represent them.
The representative will be choosing with follow dismember and every dismember are between one until five years. At the end of the dismember, every representative will be assess and be justice by the people whether the representative must be chosen again or not.
This system is suitable and good because it guarantees the political freedoms and determines a good relationship between the leader and the people who are lead by the leader. Nevertheless, the representative always faced the problems because of the forcing from the people, sometimes it was a very hard case to settle especially when it touches about the rules and government law. In other words, the freedom of the politics that always be used in the wrong way will damaged the democracy system that had been fight by the people.

mohd haziq and rozainah said...

Term ‘Democracy’ originated from the word Greek. It means ‘people power’. People choose their leader to become their representative, hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in office. The people decide who will represent them in parliament, and who will head the government at the national and local levels. They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular, free and fair elections. Democracy are more to tolerant, peace, and harmonies. Democracy types from of government that more from the people and to the people.

Democracy is a government from the people. Where people have power to choose what government their want. Either form oppositions party or government party. People is the important element in the state. People are exist the state and build the state. Without people the state cannot exist. That’s why in democracy, people are so important and give opportunity to invite in government. people can give their own opinion to voice out what government their want. That’s are one of characteristic democracy where people are not only practice the democracy but they should realize their political rights and be active in the nation’s political matters. In sovereignty, there are 2 types of sovereignty where their give power to people in the state. First is politic sovereignty and second is people sovereignty. For our information, the characteristic of sovereignty is exclusiveness and absolute power. No one can question the power. This is because sovereignty is the supreme power in the state. Even the power of Head of State also are limited under sovereignty, example in Malaysia and Thailand. That’s why people giving their power under sovereignty to protect people rights. There have different between people sovereignty and politic sovereignty, First is politic sovereignty. Politic sovereignty is the highest in the politic. People have their own rights for choose what government that their want. People have their power to vote and give their mandate to choose the government. People exercise this political by vote and active in politic. This is for their own good and for their own country. This types of sovereignty just only for people that already registered for election. For example in Malaysia, people that already 21 years old, already can involve in election. What ever result from the election, no one can question that result. This is because, their power already under sovereignty. For people sovereignty, there always same like politic sovereignty. There also question about people power. In this types of sovereignty, there give definition that people have power same as the people powerful in country. Even person that powerful like president also choose for the people. For example like Barrack Obama the new President of United State. People choose he become new president because people trust him to give new commitment to their own country. But not only their country, it also in whole country. People also can check and balance in government. People can check how the government do their work and balance it if the government doing something wrong in context govern the state. Not only that, people also can take back their mandate if the government doing something good in the state, example not give the development in that area or state.

In order to make one democracy country, the separation of power in government are important to avoid abuse of power. Either than that there are many advantages types separation of power. Separation of power are clearly can make country in peace and make people live in harmonies. Government is the social organization that has authority to rule the state. Government also the only one have legal authority. After people choose and give mandate to the government, the power from the people will flow into the government. Government are also types of organization. In government also have branches. This branches is easy for govern the state. Every branches have their own responsibility and their own job. In government, there have three branches. In every this three branches have their supreme power in their own body. Any this three branches cannot interfere or influence on each others. This because, the power in this three branches already under the constitution. For example, executives body cannot disturb the decision make from judicial body. The three branches of government are Executive, Legislative and last is Judicial. This three body have their own responsible. For executive, their responsible to govern the state and make the policies. Legislative body responsible on making law and bill. Judicial body is responsible own judicial maker. In this three body, have their own members. In our country Malaysia not really apply the separation of power this because Malaysia apply fusion of power. This is because, in Malaysia the members of executives and legislative are come from same person. The country that clearly apply separation of power is United State.

Democracy governments are more focus to the people. After the governments are exist and implemented, the governments will make the separation of power in their government. All the body have their own responsible. Executive body make policies and govern the state, legislative make law and judicial implemented the law. After that implemented, people must accept what the government do. This is because, government already have authority to govern the state. people should question the decisions of government but not reject the government’s authority. Government make this, because for people good also. Either government make the law and policies, people must respect the law and reject the violence. The people must also observe certain principles and rules of democratic conduct. In either give the people opportunity to voice out, in the democracy country also give people freedom in politician. We can choose what party that we want to vote and what party can we involve. Politician in democracy are also more to universal and freedom. We can see in democracy have the opposition party to challenge the government party. Compare with communist country, their just only have one party that can govern the state. For example likes Germany, after Hitler become the leader, he change the country from democracy to communist country. All the opposition party are disbanded and exist only one party. There we can see, no healthy politician in the country, no one can voice out. In Malaysia are one country have healthy politician. We can see the opposition part likes “Parti Keadilan Rakyat” are give challenge to government party “ Barisan Nasional” in order how the government govern the state. Mass media also give their freedom to give their article and news about the politician in the country. This can give information to the people how the government govern the state. Now, we can also give our opinion and can voice out in the blog and internet. For examples like ‘chatz.com’.

There are two types of democracy that is direct democracy and indirect democracy. First is direct democracy. Direct democracy are refers to every citizen plays an active role in the governance of the nation. In order for a direct democracy to be successful, it must be in a relatively small, localized region. This is because large numbers of eligible citizens would quickly clog the workings of the government, sparking endless debates and votes but never actually achieving anything. Citizens must also have an active interest in the success of their governments. This includes legislation, decision making and monitoring the executive and judicial mechanisms. All are handle by citizens, by one large group of people. If their have any problems, they will have the meeting to discuss and try to solve the problems by them self. This types of democracy are suitable use in the small town and small palace where the palace have not many citizens. With the small group of people, it’s easy to handle the community. A nationwide direct democracy would be difficult to manage in the modern era. However, many small towns within representative democracies use a form of direct democracy at their town meetings. Allowing each citizen on the town level a vote and a role in the government is believed to lead to a more active, caring, and interconnected community. The direct democracy model also allows citizens to prioritize what is important to them as a group, rather than relying on a team of representatives to address their issues. For example, a small town which uses a direct democracy model may have better funding for schools and libraries than a neighboring town with better roads, because the citizens have decided as a group that education should be a priority for the town, even at the cost of transportation. A classic example of a direct democracy is the Town Meeting. Many cities around New England continue to hold town meetings, annual events where all citizens who want to can attend to vote on issues of importance to the community. At a town meeting, citizens might decide how to allocate funds in the community, or they may propose new laws to make the community run more smoothly.

Indirect Democracy refers to people choose their own representatives to perform the national task. These task include regulating laws, improve people safety and security, increase citizens standard living, preserve peaceful and harmony environment within the country. People opinion and demand will be voice up to the government through these representatives. These representatives are elected for a certain period of time. On the other hand, uses a small group of officials to make decisions of importance on behalf of their constituents. In both cases, the input of the people is the cornerstone of the government, but the government is run in different ways. Just like parliament democracy in Malaysia, people choose their representatives in the parliament. After that, representatives will represent their society problems in the parliament. This representatives just like in middle between people and the government. What ever problems in the society will go to representatives. For example likes in Permatang Pauh, if the society in that place have problems, the representatives in that palace will go see and solve the problems. If the representatives are not doing their job, people can take back the mandate giving to him and during the election people can choose other representatives to be their represent in the parliament. In Malaysia, just only one general election either than that, the election will exist if the representatives in that palace are died and give the position to other people. That’s why if one person become the representatives, they will still hold they position until the citizens still trust and give mandate to them. In house of legislature in United State, the members of a legislature are typically elected by constituents, although they may also be appointed, depending on how their government is run. These individuals are expected to make decisions on behalf of all citizens, but the voices of individual citizens are not part of the voting process, although citizens may testify at hearings on laws of interest, and they are encouraged to contact their representatives about issues of concern.

fahmi said...

Democracy is a form of government its poer to people . LIKE U.S President Abraham Lincoln who give a definition about democracy .In his statement he says that democracy is a form of government from the people to the people by the people . From his statement , we can consider that the process of democracy is a form of people based on people sovereignity not monarcy dictator aristocracy and so on which can be more based on ruler soverigity which give ruler freedom to make a law and implement their policies based on their interest.

In political theory, democracy can be describes a small number of government in a atate. Democracy also can be divided into two principles of democracy . The first priciple of democracy is that all members of society or organization have equal or same power to acess the power . The second principles of democracy is all member in society or organization in a state will enjoy universally recognise freedom justice and liberty . From this two priciples i can make a coclusion that democracy will give a chance and oppurtinity for people to choose best people among them as a leader and determine their life and future.

On the other hand , democracy also has been divided into two part basic categories of democracy thtas called direct democracy and indirect democracy(also called representattive democracy) . For direct democracy , all citizens in a state will participate directly through in public decision like making a law implement policies and so aon .This type of democracy are the earliest and regularly exercise in ancient Greek a long time ago .When time change and a number of people increase direct democracy become not relevant and it is very imposible to collect sum of people int one place when discuss about some bills , issue and administration . From this hasty situation , that is introduced to representative democracy . In representative democracy , citizent elect obviosly models of direct democracy are only official to make political decision formulates law impelement policies for public interest and advantage For example like general election in malaysia which the people will choose their representative to bring people proble at house of chamber like dewan rakyat . In modern time most of countries in the world such as Malaysia, India , Britain and many more are regularly exercise representative democracy because the factor of people and an area of the country . Although many country are practice representative democracy Aristotle has make the statement that direct democracy is the best democracy in government becaus it keeping people will and less corruption in an administration.

there are several varieties some of provide better representation and more freedom for their citizens and the others . However is not carefully legislated , to avoid uneven distribution of political power with balace such as separation of poer in an administration than the branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that will case dengerous for democracy itself. The majority rule often will describe a characteristic feature of democracy but without good and responsible government , it is possible for right of minority to be denied by the ruler an it can cause thyranny by the majority which act as the ruler in the country. For exampele when party A have the power to rule the country the party B which act as opposition party B just can condemn the policy the pary A policy in administration . The opposition party not have chace to to rule as long as it cannot defeat party A in election . An essential process in representative democracy are competative election. Furthermore, freedom of political expression , freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens will informed and able
to vote for their personal interst . By this system it easy for citizens to make a decision to choose the best among the best people to be their leader and make people satisfy with their decision.

Democracy has given many advantage for people and policy administration . It keeping human right privilage freedom liberty justice . One of the advantage of democracy is democracy provides for changes of government without any violance . For example in general election democracy will give a chance and oppurtunity for citizens to choose who will ruler . They can remain or change the government or ruler accordinf to their interest without interfere by other people like situatin occured in Malaysia on eigt march last year during general election in Malaysia . There are some state such as Kedah Selangor and Penang which falls by opposition party because the decision which make by the people in those state . From this situation people can determine the government by theirself and they have freedom and liberty based their advantage . So majoority of people living under democracy elected government are happy and satisfy with that government or at least participated in its rise to power and therefore they must shoulder part of bleme of falling . The next advantage by democracy is that typically there is an election in term which means that the government can do so much before opposition can get chance to undo it . Moreover any government is bound by an election term after which which it has to compete each other aganst other party to regain authority and power . This system prevent monopoly of the rulling authority . The party whos rulling the country has to make sure it works for its people for it cannot remain being the authority after completing its term unless re-elected by the people . I can said that this systemm will make sure government or ruler will make their duty for people interest and can avoid misused of power by the ruler.

This bring in a feeling of obligation towards the citizen . the rulling authorities owe their sucess in the citizens and nation . Its can make feeling of gratefulness towards the people .

Althoug democracy has give many advantage for people and an administration , its also has bring many disadvantage which can be bad cause for people , governmen and administration . There are some disadvantage of democracy . For example not all the citizens are fully aware of the political scenario in their country . The common masses may not be aware of the political issue in society . This may result in people making wronf decision during election . As goverment is subject to change after wvery election term the authority will work with short term focus . As they have to face an election after completion of each term they may lost focus on working but more focus for an election to remain their authority . It will cause the development of the contry will move slowly and make policy which make by ruler are not uniform and consistent . The other disadvantages cause by democracy is that mobs can influence the people . Citizens may vote in favour of the party under the influence by majority . As the easy sentence people may vote base on the party that they are supportng but not fot the candidate . It will make harmful if the candidate by a party who has win the electin are unable to do their duty because of wrong decision make by people . Citizens may vote under influence and propaganda by majority side . Compelled or influence by the philosophies of those around a person may not voice his true opinion .

From the article that i have written , i want to make a conclusion about democracy . Actually democracy also not a perfect element in administration like we expect before . Democracy has their own positive and negative for people admisrtration and government . As a human that is our responsibility to maximixin positive effect and at the same time minimixing negative effect by the democracy for our advantage.

MoHd.Erna SyuQma said...

The word democracy is derived from Latin words “demos” and “kratos”. The Word “demos” refers to “the peoples or citizens” and the word “kratos” means ‘the power or strength’. There are many opinions about democracy from famous philosopher. For example, from like what Aristotle said that the democracy government is one of the governments that already damaged, because the good governing is politics. In the phrase of Political Knowledge now, democracy is a politics in Aristotle particular period that is “every people have their right” is a foundation principles. Mc. Iver admits that democracy is in the citizen hands, but the truth is the people selects about who must govern a state. Some scholar also said that democracy is one of the governments where the majority voice will be given a right to govern.

Democracy is government from people, to people, and for people. Democracy is government by the people, to people, and from people because a form of government in which the sovereign power resides in the people as a whole, and is exercised either directly by them (as in the small republics of antiquity) or by officers elected by them. In modern use it vaguely denotes a social state in which all have equal rights, without hereditary or arbitrary differences of rank or privilege. Democracy is like only compatible with a free economy. It can only exist in substance, in an economy of ideas. Like a fish to water, democracy can only exist in a total atmosphere of freedom of action; it is completely incompatible with a system that provides for a governing authority with coercive power. If one accepts (anarchists, for example, do not) that a government, to some extent or other, is necessary for a civilized society, than it is to be recognized that the business of governing (as apart from the business of electing representatives) cannot be conducted in democratic matter. Democracy is said so because its provides opportunity for the people to involves in making decision and formulates general policies. The democracy government is said so also because the government is chosen by the people and every individual has equal right. The important aspects in democracy are freedom, minority rights, and property right.

Democracy on the other hand, is a form of government in which the policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections. An important aspect of the democratic system is elections. Elections in the practice of democracy constitute a social contract between the people and the candidate or party (that succeeds to form a government). When the majority of the people choose a party from among the contesting parties in an election (and the party then forms the government) it means the voters have certain expectations that the candidate will carry out. The party that wins the election and forms the government should fulfill the party’s promises and manifesto proclaimed in the election campaign.

At the state level, elected representatives of the people sit in the State Legislative Assembly of each state. At the federal or national level, elected Members of Parliament sit in the Dewan Rakyat or House of Representatives. There are two types of general election. First, the general election for the whole country, held once in every five years. The next is the by-elections, also considered a general election because the concept of the election itself constitutes the choosing of representative by the public citizens for the Parliament and the State Legislative Assembly.

There are also two types of democracy that is direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy is a political system in which people or citizens are allowed to influence in making policy decision. The people or citizen can formulate and express their thoughts and will by voicing out their opinion and demand on what they want and also what their need by direct or also indirectly on public matters. For example they can voice out their opinion or dissatisfied on public matter by collect people voice or votes as prove of majority decisions. Indirect democracy then is the form of government where the people or citizen choose their representatives to voice out their will and fight for their rights. Usually the chosen representative is asked to fulfill citizens needs including regulating laws, improve people facilities and security, increase citizens standard of living, and also preserve peaceful and harmony environment within the representative’s territory. People’s opinion will be voice up to the government through these representatives during parliament assembly. These representatives are elected for only a certain period time through election.

Democracy on the other hand, is a form of government in which the policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections. Democracy as a form of government always has the following characteristics like have a group which makes political decisions by some form of collective procedure. In modern democracies the member of the group is the nation, and citizenship is usually equivalent to membership.
Other characteristic of democracy government democracy is it gives freedom and chance to individual in order to develop their society and themselves. The other characteristic of democracy government is it gives its people a freedom of speech. People who were in country that practice democracy has right to voice out their opinion and fight for their right freely without being interrupts from others.

There are advantages when practising democracy in government. One of the advantages is democracy ensure liberty and equality. No one possessed special privileges. All are equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law. Democracy also implies recognition of the duties of the government and the rights of the people. Thus popular action, popular responsibilities are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than any other system of government. Besides that, democracy also ensures self-government. A government is welfare; and thus, it stimulates people to self-education. In democracy also people believes in methods of peaceful persuasion and rational argument. A democratic society is not liable to revolution.

The defect of the democracy is it’s inefficient as a form of government because it is based on assumption that all men are equal and than one man is as good as another. However, men are not equal as they might be different in term of physical and mental ability. The representative chosen also may not be suitable but they still rule because of majority. In party system, the election propaganda also will misguides and miseducate the people. Then, people will vote for the party and not for the candidate. So, representatives will follows what the party wants, instead of what people wants. Other defect of democracy is will be expansive form of government; there will be complex machinery and its functions involve much waste of time and money.

Democracy also has weakness. The one of the weaknesses of democracy is government will may be unwilling to carry out promises made on election day and will try to select another election day most suitable to themselves. Other weakness of democracy is the minorities may attempt to assert right out of all proportion to their minority status with the object of challenging the majority. Some voluntary associations may try to harass and obstruct the proper operations of government. At the same time freedom of assembly, discussion and expression may lead to freakishness and eccentricity being tolerated even where there are dangerous for public safety.

In conclusion, democracy is type of government that gives rights to the people to rule for their own goods and fight for their right without any interruptions. The people should responsible to choose their own government to rules them based on good leadership and the ability to protect and fights for people’s rights. The representatives also should rules and protect the right of the people within their territory and implement policy and law of the government carefully. If all this is complete, then there will be a government from the people, to the people and for the people exists.

BoNnyFacE said...

The word democracy is derived from Latin words “demos” and “kratos”. The Word “demos” refers to “the peoples or citizens” and the word “kratos” means ‘the power or strength’. There are many opinions about democracy from famous philosopher. For example, from like what Aristotle said that the democracy government is one of the governments that already damaged, because the good governing is politics. In the phrase of Political Knowledge now, democracy is a politics in Aristotle particular period that is “every people have their right” is a foundation principles. Mc. Iver admits that democracy is in the citizen hands, but the truth is the people selects about who must govern a state. Some scholar also said that democracy is one of the governments where the majority voice will be given a right to govern.

Democracy is government from people, to people, and for people. Democracy is government by the people, to people, and from people because a form of government in which the sovereign power resides in the people as a whole, and is exercised either directly by them (as in the small republics of antiquity) or by officers elected by them. In modern use it vaguely denotes a social state in which all have equal rights, without hereditary or arbitrary differences of rank or privilege. Democracy is like only compatible with a free economy. It can only exist in substance, in an economy of ideas. Like a fish to water, democracy can only exist in a total atmosphere of freedom of action; it is completely incompatible with a system that provides for a governing authority with coercive power. If one accepts (anarchists, for example, do not) that a government, to some extent or other, is necessary for a civilized society, than it is to be recognized that the business of governing (as apart from the business of electing representatives) cannot be conducted in democratic matter. Democracy is said so because its provides opportunity for the people to involves in making decision and formulates general policies. The democracy government is said so also because the government is chosen by the people and every individual has equal right. The important aspects in democracy are freedom, minority rights, and property right.

Democracy on the other hand, is a form of government in which the policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections. An important aspect of the democratic system is elections. Elections in the practice of democracy constitute a social contract between the people and the candidate or party (that succeeds to form a government). When the majority of the people choose a party from among the contesting parties in an election (and the party then forms the government) it means the voters have certain expectations that the candidate will carry out. The party that wins the election and forms the government should fulfill the party’s promises and manifesto proclaimed in the election campaign.

At the state level, elected representatives of the people sit in the State Legislative Assembly of each state. At the federal or national level, elected Members of Parliament sit in the Dewan Rakyat or House of Representatives. There are two types of general election. First, the general election for the whole country, held once in every five years. The next is the by-elections, also considered a general election because the concept of the election itself constitutes the choosing of representative by the public citizens for the Parliament and the State Legislative Assembly.

There are also two types of democracy that is direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy is a political system in which people or citizens are allowed to influence in making policy decision. The people or citizen can formulate and express their thoughts and will by voicing out their opinion and demand on what they want and also what their need by direct or also indirectly on public matters. For example they can voice out their opinion or dissatisfied on public matter by collect people voice or votes as prove of majority decisions. Indirect democracy then is the form of government where the people or citizen choose their representatives to voice out their will and fight for their rights. Usually the chosen representative is asked to fulfill citizens needs including regulating laws, improve people facilities and security, increase citizens standard of living, and also preserve peaceful and harmony environment within the representative’s territory. People’s opinion will be voice up to the government through these representatives during parliament assembly. These representatives are elected for only a certain period time through election.

Democracy on the other hand, is a form of government in which the policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections. Democracy as a form of government always has the following characteristics like have a group which makes political decisions by some form of collective procedure. In modern democracies the member of the group is the nation, and citizenship is usually equivalent to membership.
Other characteristic of democracy government democracy is it gives freedom and chance to individual in order to develop their society and themselves. The other characteristic of democracy government is it gives its people a freedom of speech. People who were in country that practice democracy has right to voice out their opinion and fight for their right freely without being interrupts from others.

There are advantages when practising democracy in government. One of the advantages is democracy ensure liberty and equality. No one possessed special privileges. All are equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law. Democracy also implies recognition of the duties of the government and the rights of the people. Thus popular action, popular responsibilities are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than any other system of government. Besides that, democracy also ensures self-government. A government is welfare; and thus, it stimulates people to self-education. In democracy also people believes in methods of peaceful persuasion and rational argument. A democratic society is not liable to revolution.

The defect of the democracy is it’s inefficient as a form of government because it is based on assumption that all men are equal and than one man is as good as another. However, men are not equal as they might be different in term of physical and mental ability. The representative chosen also may not be suitable but they still rule because of majority. In party system, the election propaganda also will misguides and miseducate the people. Then, people will vote for the party and not for the candidate. So, representatives will follows what the party wants, instead of what people wants. Other defect of democracy is will be expansive form of government; there will be complex machinery and its functions involve much waste of time and money.

Democracy also has weakness. The one of the weaknesses of democracy is government will may be unwilling to carry out promises made on election day and will try to select another election day most suitable to themselves. Other weakness of democracy is the minorities may attempt to assert right out of all proportion to their minority status with the object of challenging the majority. Some voluntary associations may try to harass and obstruct the proper operations of government. At the same time freedom of assembly, discussion and expression may lead to freakishness and eccentricity being tolerated even where there are dangerous for public safety.

In conclusion, democracy is type of government that gives rights to the people to rule for their own goods and fight for their right without any interruptions. The people should responsible to choose their own government to rules them based on good leadership and the ability to protect and fights for people’s rights. The representatives also should rules and protect the right of the people within their territory and implement policy and law of the government carefully. If all this is complete, then there will be a government from the people, to the people and for the people exists.

rOssyaNa & syahzUriaNa said...

What is democracy? There are many definition of democracy. Democracy can be defined as government in which people is held by the people under a free electoral system. Universally, democracy also can be understood as a form of government involving “rule by the people”. In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of govenment and also a political philosphy. There are two principles that any definition of democracy. First, principles is that all members of the society have equal access the power and the second that all members enjoy univesally recognized freedoms and liberties. In addtion , in democracy everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representative. Besides that, everyone in democracy state has the right of equal access to publics service in his country and will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government. There are many others meaning of democracy given by scholars.
“Democracy of the people by the people and for the people”. This idea of democracy is often attributed to Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln is the 16th US president. He is the hero in this form of government. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy is government that controlled by the people itself. Freedom and democracy are often used interchangeably, but the two are not synonymous. Democracy is indeed a set of ideas and principles about freedom, but it also consists of practices and procedures that have been moulded through a long, often tortuous history. Democracy is the instulionalism of freedom. Democracy is the power of the people, a type of political system or a way of governing in which decisions are based on the wishes of the people, or their representatives. There are two type of democracy. First, direct democracy. Direct democracy means a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of a direct vote, or referendum, on any particular issues. So when the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs, pure or direct democracy. The people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. For example, small city-state of ancient Greece and Rome. Pure or direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet. Second type of democracy is indirect democracy. Indirect democracy means a broad term describing a means of governance by the people through elected representative. One critique of indirect democracy is that it centralizes power into the hands of a few, thereby increasing the like hood of corruption in government. A form of indirect democracy is delegative democracy whereby delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. The constituency may recall the delegate any time and the representative are expected only to transmit the decisions of electors. Another more familiar type of indirect democracy is representative democracy in which the people elect government official who then make decisions on their behalf. The representatives are democratically selected, and usually harder to recall. Most of the countries in the world, including Malaysia, practiced representative democracy. A modern democracy implies certain rights for citizens. There are right to elect government through free and fair elections, participation, the rules of law and human rights, such as freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom from discrimination.
In the simplest sense, democracy is rule by the ruled. In a democratic political system, government power is legitimized by the consent of the governed. Consent is expressed in a variety of forms, including annual election of government leaders and citizen participation in governing processes. The roots of American democratic culture can be traced to the direct election of many colonial legislatures, as well as the practice of democratic governance in many localities. The American Revolution was animated by the idea that the colonists were defending the principle of democratic self-rule and that the American struggle was analogous to the English Parliament's struggle against the monarchy. The formal mechanisms of democracy can vary, however, with direct democracy at one pole and representative democracy at the other. Direct democracy allows for unmediated citizen deliberation and decision making on public matters; representative democracy permits citizens to elect representatives who act on their behalf. American democracy is representative in design and function, yet it is clearly influenced by the ideology of direct democracy. The simplest form of democratic participation is voting. Voting is the most formal act of political participation, but not the exclusive form of citizen involvement in the political system.
Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests. Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberalities, human right, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of power is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independent is generally maintained). Such people should be set free by being told that socialism can have a moral democratic perspective, and that the political concept of socialism embraces and values the idea of liberal democracy, and therefore people who were told they were communists, if they want to be socialists, upon having political ideology clarified for them and the true nature of political reality revealed to them, can also value and believe in liberal democracy. And wouldn't it be good to set such a person or persons free, a person or persons who were told they communists, who were deceived by God, and to see that such a person has been set free from phoney socialism, from the ideological deceit of marxism which was invented by God, so that such a person has the inspiration to be a liberal democrat, and if such a person, having had political ideology clarified , having had the true nature of political reality revealed, wants to be a socialist, that such a person is a socialist as a liberal democratic, that such a person is a socialist and a liberal democratic, that such a person is a democratic socialist in being a socialist and a liberal democrat.
In the other hand, there are three basic for establishing a democracy. First, If the people want to establish a real democracy, they shall have to see that every man is properly educated, properly trained and then properly adjusted at work from where he must be drawing proper income with which he should be able to run his family administration. Properly educated people and properly adjusted people are necessary for proper growth and till people are illiterate, they would never understand the true meaning of democracy and they would never be able to elect and appoint right type of people to serve them. Secondly, time has come when the people themselves must start working on these projects because the people in command have got no interest in us and they never want that we should be properly educated. Thirdly,if the people of India are properly educated, then these people shall not be able to come in power and now they are not willing to give power to the people. So this,task shall have to be undertaken by the people themselves. All the governments on this earth had been working on the same pattern and in spite of all these freedoms and establishment of democracies, the relations between the governing classes and the people remained the same. All the people in Government have got the same psychology and that psychology is that the people should be kept in control and should not be allowed any freedom. The people are never given chance to participate in government. If some countries have established democracy, the people are just voters who are called once at a given time to participate in elections i.e. to cast their votes and once their votes are taken, they are pushed back to suffer for another tenure. The people who are standing as candidates are not the people from common people. They are nominees of political parties and the political parties are like cooperative societies formed by some persons who are rich and powerful and who keep the power with them on all the grounds which are available in a country.
Besides that, there are many benefits of democracy. First benefit of democracy is democracy can provide for changes in government without violence. In a democracy, power can be transferred from one party to another by means of elections. The jurisdiction of the citizens of a nation determines its ruling authority. Futhermore, any government is bound by an election term after which it has to compete against other parties to regain authority. Besides that,the ruling party has to make sure it works for its people for it cannot remain being the authority after completing its term unless re-elected by the people. The ruling authorities owe their success in the elections to the citizens of the nation. This results in a feeling of gratefulness towards the people. It can serve as their motivation to work for the people for it is the common masses that have complete power over choosing their government. Second benefits of democracy is democracy is that the people gain a sense of participation in the process of choosing their government. They get the opportunity to voice their opinions by means of electoral votes. This gives rise to a feeling of belongingness in the minds of the people towards their society.
Even thought democracy have its own benefits,this form of government also have its own badness. Firstly, citizen are the only one that hold the right elect theirs representative and theirs governing authorities. But, not all the citizens are fully aware in theirs country politics scenario in their country. This may results in people making the wrong choices during election. As the government is subject to change after every election term, the authorities may work with a short-term focus. As they have to face an election after the completion of each term, they may lose focus on working for the people and rather focus on winning elections. Secondly,democracy is thats mobs can influence people. Citizens may vote in favor of a party under the influence of the majority. Influenced by any representatives, a person may not voice he or her true opinion.
As a conclusion,even democracy have its own advantages and disadvantages. This form of government was a very popular in many countries in the world. Every form of government is bound to have some shortfalls. Different people have different views about the various political systems. The advantages and disadvantages of any political system have to be weighed carefully in order to arrive at any conclusion.

sabtulizah said...

DEMOCRACY IS A GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE BY THE PEOPLE FOR THE PEOPLE.

Democracy is a system of government that allows all citizens to have a say about who they want to be the government. This is usually done by voting for representatives called Members of Parliament during an election.All free citizens were entitled to vote on decisions made by the government. This only worked while the population was small. It was called direct democracy. when the population was small, it was possible for all free citizens to have a direct say in decision-making.Governments today make decisions for millions of people. It is not practical to have all these people helping to make decisions directly.With larger populations it is impossible to allow everyone to have a direct say, so we now have representatives to speak on behalf of a large number of people.

People often say that democracy is government of the people, by the people, for the people. This means decisions of the people because the people voted for their representatives because they agreed with the policies and ideas that this person's political party presented during the election. Government is by the people. That is, all people have a say in their government by electing representatives to parliament. Democracy is for the people because governments are meant to make decisions for the benefit of all citizens. This does not mean you will agree with every decision the government makes but it will make decisions that it believes are right at that time for the benefit of the country and its citizens.




In other words, the government is the people, and people is the government.In addition meaning of government is people living together need to be properly organized and accept certain rules of conduct.The agency created to enforce such rule of conduct and to ensure obedience is called ‘government’.The form of government depends greatly on the ideology of the governing group.Therefore, if a particular government ceases to work for the good of the people, the people may and ought to change that government or replace it. Governments are established to protect the people's rights using the power they get from the people.
Good government should not be a conflict between sovereign and subject, but a compact between man and man. The ultimate supreme power should not be vested in the scepter of the king, it should remain in the hands of the people. The Community at large has the right to cancel the compact if the government has violated its conditions.
In short,a government by the people ,meaning that,people either directly or indirectly through their representatives govern themselves and their will remains supreme on all question of social direction and policy of the government.For example,In a responsible government each minister is responsible for one or more government departments which must produce an annual report about their activities and programs. Each department must explain how it spent the money given to it for the benefit of citizens. They must explain how they spent that money according to the way the government wanted that money spent. If a minister does not perform her or his duties responsibly,
that minister can be removed from that position.If Parliament is not happy with the way the government is working it can vote the government out of office. The citizens will then have the chance to vote for a new government.

Beside that,a modern democracy implies certain right for citizen.people have right to elect government through free and fair elections with have “Human right” such as : freedom of speech,freedom of assembly and freedom from discrimination.
An ‘action of will’ ,people should have the will to have democracy and the power to retain it too.They should be conscious of their political right and duties.And in Sense of fellowship,no limits created by religion caste,birth or wealth.Harmony can only exist in a society of equals.This will ensure social justice.Through a spirit of tolerance,the rule of majority and submission of the minority to the majority.There should be a sense of give and take.
That else,in adequate provision of opportunities for the individual to develop his personality,everyone has free access to knowledge,security agains unemployment,a minimum wage ,fair condition of work and leisure and provisions agains sickness and old age.In other words,a democratic society means a partnership among equal in a government of the people ,by the people and for the people.Without its,on participation doing things in common with others and taking your share of the responsibilities involved.A citizen should be thinking human with independent opinion with interest in public affairs.In education, must active and intelligent participation of citizens in public affair can be assured if all are educated.Government must provide a system or free and compulsory education for all.A citizens does not only obey,but also ensure that his obedience is rational.



Why is this by-election so important?
Firstly, this by-election will clearly decide on the future course of democracy in this country. It is going to decide if the people of this country,who should decide on how the government machinery should benefit them.Will make a hallmark in history by saying it is 'democracy of the people, for the people and by the people'.The party in power form the government after being chosen by electorate,according to the wishes of the majority as expressed on Election Day.That also,political authority derives only from the mandate or prior agreement of the electorate,and will be offered for approval or sisapproval to the electorate on Election Day.And then,this election is going to determine once more the relevance of our constitution based on the separation of powers of the judiciary, the legislature the executive and also the distinct role of the Rulers.Beside that,the impact of globalisation has become felt by almost everyone in this country. More and more manufacturing firms are leaving Malaysia for cheaper destinations like China and Thailand. Our wage rates are said to be high even without having a minimum wage rate.We need to revive research and development in many areas to find exactly where we stand in competition with other nations like China and India.
Lastly,people who have enjoyed the benefits of power for far too long are now looking in askance about their own fate. This nation is not going to feed these ‘free-beneficiaries’ any more than they have benefitted from the hard work of thousands of Malaysians.



The government will act as the agent of the community as a whole,and will quarantee the proper right of voluntary association,and freedom of discussion in all possible ares,particularly religion,philosophy,art and scince in democracy is government of the people, by the people, for the people.
In conclusion,democracy is as a form government of the people,by the people and for the people ensures both liberty and equality.No one possessed special privileges.All are equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law.And that,Implies recognition of the duties of the government and the right of the people.Thus popular election,popular control and popular responsibility are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than any other system of government.Ensure self-government a government by the people for their welfare and thus,it stimulates them to self-education.All citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of a direct vote,or referendum,on any particular issue on public affairs and governance by the people through elected representatives.

trifizialy and cybill natalie said...

What is democracy? The word democracy comes from the Greek word “demos” which means “the people” and “kratein” which means “to rule” or “the people to rule” that means literally: “Rule by the People” or “power of the people”. In short, democracy is ‘the rule by people, to the people and for the people”. This is stated by Abraham Lincoln.

Important aspects in democratic state are freedom, minority right and property right.
There are two ways in order to ensure the participation of people in democratic rule which is Direct democracy and Representative democracy.


DIRECT DEMOCRACY
This is a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of a direct vote, or referendum, on any particular issue. So when the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs; pure or direct democracy. In a mass meeting, the people formulate and express their will and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. For example, small city-state of ancient Greece and Rome. Pure or direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet. Some adherents want legislative, judicial, and executive powers to be handled by the people, but most extant systems only allow legislative decisions.
A large number of citizens places greater difficulties on the implementation of a direct democracy, where representation is not practiced and thus all citizens must be actively involved on all issues all of the time. This increases the need for representative democracy, as the number of citizens grows. Historically, the most direct democracies would include the New England town meeting, the political system of the ancient Greek city states and oligarchy of Venice. There are concerns about how such systems would scale to larger populations; in this regard there are a number of experiments being conducted all over the world to increase the direct participation of citizens in what is now a representative system.

INDIRECT DEMOCRACY
This is the broad term describing a means of governance by the people through elected representatives. One critique of indirect democracy is that it centralizes power into the hand of a few, thereby increasing the likelihood of corruption in government.
A form of indirect democracy is delegative democracy whereby delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. The constituency may recall the delegate at any time and the representative are expected only to transmit (pass on) the decisions of electors.
Another more familiar type of indirect democracy is representative democracy in which the people elect government officials who then make decisions on their behalf. The representative are democratically selected, and usually harder to recall. Most of the countries in the world, including Malaysia, practiced representative democracy.

Differences
The difference between direct and indirect democracy is fairly simple. In a direct democracy, citizens make decisions directly by proposing laws or referendums on laws which are disliked, voting to determine who enters public office, and recalling public officials who are not doing their jobs. An indirect democracy, on the other hand, uses a small group of officials to make decisions of importance on behalf of their constituents. In both cases, the input of the people is the cornerstone of the government, but the government is run in different ways.
A classic example of a direct democracy is the Town Meeting. Many cities around New England continue to hold town meetings, annual events where all citizens who want to can attend to vote on issues of importance to the community. At a town meeting, citizens might decide how to allocate funds in the community, or they may propose new laws to make the community run more smoothly.
A well known example of indirect democracy is a house of legislature such as the United States Senate. Members of a legislature are typically elected by constituents, although they may also be appointed, depending on how their government is run. These individuals are expected to make decisions on behalf of all citizens, but the voices of individual citizens are not part of the voting process, although citizens may testify at hearings on laws of interest, and they are encouraged to contact their representatives about issues of concern.
Direct and indirect democracy both have their place. A direct democracy works best in a small community with actively involved citizens, making it ideal for something like a small town in New England, but less suited to a major city. Indirect democracy creates a more streamlined and manageable process through experienced elected officials. However, it also relies on active and engaged citizens: in order for a direct democracy to work well, citizens need to be educated and interested, actively participating in votes and other events where their opinion is solicited.
Many nations try to create a blend of direct and indirect democracy. For example, many states in the United States have an initiative and referendum system, which is a form of direct democracy. These systems allow individual voters to get issues on the ballot with the support of signatures from other voters, creating a forum where people can speak up about issues of concern to them and actively shape their governments.
Essentially, the difference between direct and indirect democracy can be highlighted in the names of these two different systems of democracy. Direct democracies demand direct participation from members of society, while indirect democracies rely on indirect participation. Direct and indirect democracy both also must rely on checks and balances which are designed to ensure that no officials overstep their bounds.



Conclusion
Democracy is established by a common but not universal motivating philosophy called, Popular sovereignty. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human rights, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained). In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.

annurhidayah said...

“DEMOCRACY IS A GOVERNMENT FROM THE PEOPLE, TO THE PEOPLE AND FOR THE PEOPLE”


Democracy system is practiced in most of the countries in the world nowadays due to its effectiveness in giving the countries stable and fair administration. This system also protects people’s rights in voicing out their opinions and necessities towards the government. The term democracy is derived from the Greek word where ‘demos’ means people and ‘kratos’ means power. Political philosopher, Seeley defined democracy as ‘a government in which everyone has a share’. Meanwhile, Dicey said that democracy is ‘form of government in which the governing body is comparatively large fraction of the entire nation’. Another philosopher, MacIver stated this form of government ‘is a way of determining who shall govern and to what ends’. However, the most popular definition of democracy was given by Abraham Lincoln which he stated that democracy is ‘a government of the people, by the people and for the people’. Therefore democracy can be concluded as the power of the people. In other words, democracy is the administrative system which is managed by the people and will remain supreme in all social direction and the policy of the government.
Democracy is introduced during ancient century in Greek especially in Athens. However, democracy is not fully accepted by the society at that time because the system is said by political philosophers as causing unstable condition to the country who practice it. This is because, by having the opinions of people with different ideologies, mentalities and thinking, the conflicts of opinions may occur and it may end with the war. In addition, the people are from the various backgrounds of culture and religion. However, after the Cross War, the concept of democracy was become popular again. European militaries which involved in the war were exposed with the democratic administration in Middle East which was practiced by the Muslims.
Democracy concept is very different with the countries that practice monarchy or autocratic where the monarch used their absolute power to oppressed the people. When democracy was voiced out, the monarch felt their position was being threaten because they believe they were appointed by God and all their actions were right and cannot be questioned even though their actions may unfair to the people.
Revolutionary in Europe and America had given the chance to hold the democracy once again. In fact, democracy is compulsory before the country is officially the country. Then factors why people were so eager to accept democracy system is the technology where it change the economy and social life, the awareness of community about their rights and privileges to voice out their opinions and to prevent the abusing of power by the govern.
Democracy can be divided into two: direct democracy and indirect democracy. Direct democracy refers to the policies and laws are made by the people themselves. Every citizen can voice out their ideas or solutions to the problems that arise or give criticisms towards what they are not happy with. There is no ‘middle man’ for them to express their feeling. It’s all voice out by themselves during the meeting or gathering. However, this kind of democracy is not suitable to be implemented in high population place but it was implemented only during ancient Greek century in Athens.
Another type of democracy is indirect democracy which is also known as representative democracy. This type of democracy is practiced by most of the democratic countries nowadays. The laws and policies of indirect democracy are made by the representatives. These representatives are being elected during the election. As they are being elected, most of their ideas and necessities voiced out are based or influenced by the people. They are responsible to give the best to their people such as the facilities, privileges, security and the environment of the place that they are present. The condition or the development of the territory is based on the representatives. If the representative is clever and responsible enough to his people, then he can make the changes in his place.
Democracy, according to Raymond Gettel, need to fulfilled the conditions such as the form of government should be supported with the public agreement. For example, United States of America is practicing parliamentary system and it is formed based on people agreement as they are comfortable with the system. The second characteristic is the laws and policies are made by the representatives which are elected through the election. The representative is given the mandate by the people to represent their voice in the government. If the representative is not doing his job, they can be overthrown by his people himself. The third characteristic of democratic country is the Head of State and the Head of Government are being elected through public election. For example, in Malaysia, Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi , which is our Head of Government was elected as prime minister after his party that he led, Barisan Nasional won the majority of the seats in parliament. He is responsible in executive body and to make sure the representatives from his party to do their job wisely and not betraying the mandate that has been given. The fourth characteristic is the officers who are appointed to run the government departments and administration tasks are among the people based on their qualifications. For example, public administration graduates can request for Diplomatic Administration Officer position in government agency. They also have to go through every level of interview before they are officially the qualified civil servant. Another characteristic of democracy is the action taken is based on demands. The people needs and wants at that time must be taken into consideration and action. For example, if the citizens are not satisfied with the punishment towards the criminal who is cruel to the children, the punishment has to be study again and changed it with the best way until the people satisfy with the changes.
From the above characteristics of democracy that have been discussed, the people decide most of the governmental system. From the level of appointing the representatives until the legislation process, it all depends on the people. How the representatives do is elected? The representatives are elected from the process called General Election. The election is one of the important elements in democracy. This General Election is held in every common several years. The right to vote is for the citizens only with other condition such as qualified age to vote. The people have to choose only one candidate among other candidates. These candidates are actually representing their party and the one who get the highest votes is officially the representative of the people at that place. The party that won the majority of the seats in legislative or executive branch will eventually become the government. After several years, each branch is dispersed and the General Election is held once again to choose the new representatives. The former candidate can compete again to maintain their position or being replace by other candidate if they are no longer want to be the representatives. The scenario of election can be seen from the election in our country, Malaysia itself. In Malaysia, the government party is Barisan Nasional and in an election, they have to compete with the opposition party in order to place themselves in the House of Representatives or known as parliament in Malaysia. As Barisan Nasional won majority of the seats in parliament during the recent General Election, they are maintaining their position as the government party and holds every position in executive body too.
The most important aspect of democracy is freedom. Even though the majority is usually more powerful than the minority, it doesn’t mean they are totally not having any right anymore to voice out their opinion. It is very unfair for the minority if the majority obstructing the minority’s right because they are still the citizens of the country and as the democratic country, the freedom is always there. For example, the Constitution of United States of America is emphasizing that the Congress cannot form the laws that are related to the religion or forbidding the formation of any organization, or obstructing the rights to voice out., or the right to established, or right to do the assembly in other to voice out their critics and complaints towards the government. Compare to autocratic states, this freedom may not exist at all and the minority is totally following the majority without any compromise from them. If not, they will be punished or eliminated from enjoying the government facilities.
The aspect of democracy is equality. Every citizen is responsible with his or her action and no one is excluded from the laws even though he is the head of the State. There are no privileges for certain social class. For example, if the Prime Minister has been proved involving in the criminal, he will have to go through the punishment, as common criminal have to go through. Every citizen also has the right to enjoy all the privileges that are provided by the government such as education, business or any other facilities. The multi racial society also can practice their custom and religion without any obstacles.
Democracy has its own unique advantages. The advantage of democracy is the right of the citizen is preserved. The right to voice out and electing the government protect the people from being oppressed by the government. The abusing of power by the leader also can be prevented as the people also having the full right to overthrown the irresponsible leader. Besides that, the democratic government is more systematic and organized. This is because; every complaints and criticisms from the people can be voice out by their representatives. By knowing their weaknesses in governing, the civil servants can correct and improving the weaknesses. The country also will always be in harmony and stable. The people will be satisfied if what they want is being heard and taken into consideration or action and there are no obstacles to it.
Democracy also has its own disadvantages. The conflicts of opinions may happen due to various ideas especially the issues that are related to religion and culture as every community of races want the best for them. This sensitive issues if not solve in effective way may cause chaos in the country. Another disadvantage is there is the tendency for the representatives to betray the mandate that is given to them. This kind of representative may promise everything to the people during campaign to gain votes. However, they are not fully using their right to voice out in the House of Representatives. As a result, the territory that they are representing for example is not developing. There is also the representative which using the low mentality of people for his own good. For example, if the place is not so exposed to other develop place, there thinking may be different with others and they are using this opportunity to fool them in many ways. For example, they took the land of the villagers using uncertain procedures without they realized. Democracy also causes instability in political system. This is because, both government and opposition party are competing with each other to govern the states. Sometimes, the tactics that they use may influence the people. For example, the opposition may misunderstand the statement that is said by one party and they may use it to incite the people to hate the party. This will eventually influenced the people and it may end up with fighting due to misunderstanding.
The explanation about democracy above is very true and consistent with what Abraham Lincoln had said about democracy, which is “the government from the people, to the people and for the people”. All the system and steps taken in democratic country are based on the people. In my opinion, so far, democracy is the best form of government because the stability of the country is depends on the people. If the people are happy with the administration, then, the productive and successful country will exist.






Written by,
Dayang Annur Hidayah binti Abang Ismawi




Reference:
1. Ramanathan, K. (1988). Konsep Asas Politik. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
2. Haron, Shireen. (2004). Principles of Political Science. Institut Perkembangan Pendidikan.
3. Profesor Dr. Shireen Haron & Fazimah Hayati Hassan Basri. (2005). Government and Politics. Institut Perkembangan Pendidikan.


All Rights Reserved / 2009

aishah said...

‘Democracy is a government from the people, to the people and for the people’


Democracy is a form of government held by the people under the free electoral system. This system is very effective because it stable and the administration towards this government system are fair. The people rights are prosecutable. They can voice up their opinion anytime if they are not satisfied with the ruler’s actions. People also can vote whoever they want from a few candidates that are listed during election. The powers of the people hold the government to account, when the government isn’t doing too well, they are booted out as determined by the people.

Democracy is first appeared in ancient Greek especially in Athens. However, this system was not fully accepted by the philosopher at that time due to some reason where they said that, by having the opinion of people with different ideologies, the conflict of ideas will occur and it may end up with chaos or war. In addition, the people are from the different backgrounds of culture and religion. Certainly, each race wanted the best for their society. But, a democracy is popular again after Cross War occurs where the militaries brought the democracy ideologies into their country because they were influenced by the system that was practiced by Islam government in Middle East. It is proved that democracy is effective as the Muslim world was peaceful and harmony.

The term democracy is derived from the Greek word where demos mean people and kratos means power. According to Seeley, democracy is ‘a government in which everyone has a share’. Meanwhile, Mac Iver stated that democracy is ‘a way of determining who shall governed and to what ends’.another philosopher, Dicey define democracy as ‘form of government in which the governing body is comparatively large fraction of the entire nation’. The definition given by Abraham Lincoln is the most familiar which he said that democracy is ‘a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Therefore, democracy can be concluding as the power of people. In general term, a democracy is a form of government in which the people have rights to control their destiny in the country where their rights are actually preserved under the democracy system. In a democracy, people have their total authority and they have the rights to make or at least influence decisions that affect their everyday lives.

Unlike other form of government such as monarchy, aristocracy or Unitarian, democracy form of government is different where democracy is emphasizes on people rights. For example, the monarchy system is entirely controlled by the monarch as its highest position in government. The monarch power is absolute and supreme. No one can question it as they will get the punishment. This type of government system oppressed the people and their rights are limited due to the limitation to voice out their opinion. Monarchy is absolutely opposite to democracy because the purpose of democracy is to prevent the accumulation of too much authority in the hands of one or few. In the other words, tyranny.

Democracy can be divided into two types, direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy is a political system in which all the citizen directly expressed their will on the public. In direct democracy, people will assemble and every person was free to say whatever they want. They will also together find the solution if the conflict occur among them. However, direct democracy can only practice in small states with a limited population and that is why it is only function during ancient Greek especially in Greece and Rome. The other type of democracy is indirect democracy. This kind of democracy is mostly used in all the countries nowadays. Another term of indirect democracy is delegate democracy because people are actually giving the mandate to the representative to voice out their opinion in the government. The representatives are elected during the election. Usually, people have to select only one representative from other representative that are compete in the election. Each representative is presenting their party. Therefore people have to select the best one which can be trusted to represent them in the government.

What is the characteristic of the democracy? The first characteristic is that democracy is a government in which power and civic responsibility are exercises by the adult citizen either directly or through the representative. This is because the adult is more mature and has more experience in their life. Therefore, they can give their opinion or idea to the government in order to function well. The second characteristic is the action taken is based on demand. If the majority of the voice asking for the same requirement, then it need to be fulfill. For example, if the people is not satisfied with the law of traffic, the new law need to be implemented according to what they want. The third characteristic is democracy needs tolerance. Even though the decision made is based on the majority, it doesn’t mean the minority voice and thinking are limited. They can still enjoyed the government facilities , expressed their critics towards government and also compete in the election. The fourth characteristic is democracy protects humans rights. This is because people can make the decision in government and can control the power of the government from being abused.
Merits of democracy are democracy ensures liberty and equality. No one is excluded from law or possessed special privileges in the country for example in Malaysia, the YDPA also not excluded from law even though he is the head of the state. All possess the equal chance to voice out their will. Democracy can provide for changes in government without violence. In a democracy, power can be transferred from one party to another by means of elections. The jurisdiction of the citizens of a nation determines its ruling authority. Moreover, any government is bound by an election term after which it has to compete against other parties to regain authority. This system prevents monopoly of the ruling authority. The ruling party has to make sure it works for its people for it cannot remain being the authority after completing its term unless re-elected by the people. This brings in a feeling of obligation towards the citizens. The ruling authorities owe their success in the elections to the citizens of the nation. This results in a feeling of gratefulness towards the people. It can serve as their motivation to work for the people for it is the common masses that have complete power over choosing their government. Another important advantage of democracy is that the people gain a sense of participation in the process of choosing their government. They get the opportunity to voice their opinions by means of electoral votes. This gives rise to a feeling of belongingness in the minds of the people towards their society.

The demerits of democracy is in a democratic nation, it is the citizens who hold the right to elect their representatives and their governing authorities. According to a common observation, not all the citizens are fully aware of the political scenario in their country. The common masses may not be aware of the political issues in society. This may result in people making the wrong choices during election. As the government is subject to change after every election term, the authorities may work with a short-term focus. As they have to face an election after the completion of each term, they may lose focus on working for the people and rather focus on winning elections. Another disadvantage of democracy is that mobs can influence people. Citizens may vote in favor of a party under the influence of the majority. Compelled or influenced by the philosophies of those around, a person may not voice his/her true opinion. Every form of government is bound to have some shortfalls. Different people have different views about the various political systems. The advantages and disadvantages of any political system have to be weighed carefully in order to arrive at any conclusion.

As a conclusion, a democracy is about the freedom to choose, and the freedom to change. That the change and choice, the exercise of these freedoms, is an act of the majority already goes unsaid. Idolizing elections as the symbol of democracy makes a fundamental mistake about the nature of democracy, because democracy is not about the majority alone; it is about the majority choosing how the country should be changed.


Written by: NUR AISHAH HANIM BINTI KIPRAWI




Reference :
1. Ramanathan, K. (1988). Konsep Asas Politik. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
2. Haron, Shireen. (2004). Principles of Political Science. Institut Perkembangan Pendidikan.
3. Profesor Dr. Shireen Haron & Fazimah Hayati Hassan Basri. (2005). Government and Politics. Institut Perkembangan Pendidikan.
4. Demokratia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ‘ A Greek- English Lexicon’, at Perseus.
5. “The Global Trend" chart on Freedom in the World 2007: Freedom Stagnation Amid Pushback Against Democracy published by Freedom House
6. Political Analysis in Plato's Republic at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


All Rights Reserved / 2009

Harwinda & Yunizar said...

1.0 DEFINITON:
The word democracy originates from Greek word “demos” meaning “the people” and “kratein” meaning to rule” which meant literally “Rule by the people or ”power the people”. This is the form of government where the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their representatives. Democracy provides opportunity for the people to involve in making decision and formulates general policies. The government is chosen by the people and every people have equal rights in government. Freedom, minority rights and property rights is the important aspects in democratic state.

1.1 EXPLANATION
1.1.1 Government from the people.
From our opinion, governments from the people mean that peoples either directly or indirectly through their representatives govern themselves and their will remains supreme on all questions of social direction and policy of the government. Malaysia as an example country was practice democracy as a form of government. The citizen who’s already 21 years old can involve and also has rights to vote in election. Government party and opposition party will deliver their own person as a representative of their party. Then, the people will choose the representatives that their trust to develop the country well. Like our own country, Malaysia. We as a citizen, has a right and authority to choose the representative. This is one of the advantages as a Malaysian citizen.
There are two ways in order to ensure the participation of people in democratic rule. There are direct and indirect democracies. Direct democracy is a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of a direct vote, or referendum on any particular issue. So, when the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs, pure or direct democracy. The people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. For example, small city-state of ancient Greece and Rome. Pure or direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet. Indirect democracy is, where the people sovereignty in democracy ruling is a represented by certain organization chosen by the people. The general result is determined by the people. The result is made on the basic of the majority. This periodic choosing is based on the equal politics principles and manages in an environment that ensures the freedom of politics.

1.1.2 Government to the people.
Discuss about government to the people, means government must do their promises to the people. The party who’s won the election will govern the government and the representative will become a leader in that state. After government was governing, there will make separation of power as a function of government such as executive body, legislative body and judicial body. Executive body has power to make policies to govern the state. Legislative bodies have authority to make law. Judicial body practice and implemented the law. Every function in separation of power of the government cannot interfere and disturbs other function power because their already have their own responsibilities and duties in government. After that implemented law, the citizens must accept and follow the rule. The citizens can question and give opinion but cannot reject and objection the rule that was implemented by government because the government have authority were given by citizens. There have two types of power. For example is fusion of power and separation of power. Malaysia and England practice the fusion of power in their government and the United States was practice separation of power. The government who was practice the separation of power is to protect and their power were control in government from misuse of power by people. Then, they can avoid absolute power to ensure freedom, justice and check on power.
Back to democracy, the country that practice the separation of power will get many advantages such as, they can stabilize the democratic country through the system of ‘check and balance’. Besides that, easier to the people to pinpoint any weaknesses and pressure other branches in government to the check the power. It also allows external check on government by the people as the people choose the government. At last but not least, democracy also ensures the interest of the people is protected, as power are not channel to one person only.


1.2 CONCLUSION


As a conclusion, the government from people, to the people and for the people is mean that, the government put more the importance on citizen in choosing a representative to govern the government in well and peace. Without the people, there is no government. The people are importance to government. People play a role in governing and developing the country. That’s why the government should take care their citizen right to they maintain their power in government.
Democracy by the people and to the people means the government and citizen must co-operate each other to govern and develop their country without being selfish. The government should take cares the citizen right, while the citizen should be more give and take so the country become peace and save without any problems and bad influence from the outside country which can destroy our internal and external sovereignty.
As a Malaysian citizen, both of us proud with our country that practice democracy system. We will use our right as a Malaysian citizen such as, voting the right representative that we trust that can develop our country during the Election Day. Even though we stay in overseas, we must care about our nationality so this way we will not forget about the importance of our country and the other country will not look down to our country because only our behavior.

asmawatiidris said...

BY: MEM HAZLIZA
AMD2P3

Democracy is a form of government in which power is held by the people under a free electoral system.In political theory,democracry describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy.Even though there is no universally accepted definition of democracry,there are two principles that any definition of democracry includes.The first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and the second that all members enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.There are several varieties of democracry some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens other.However,if any democracry is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers,then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracry itself.Furthermore,freedom of political expression,freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
According to the topic,we can explain and expend it into many ways and opinion.Right from ancient times,philosophers have based the foundations of government and the state on the social contract.Under this contract or compact,man in the pro-social era agreed to surrender his natural liberty in return for the protection of the state and for just treatment.That to secure these rights,government are instituted among men,deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;that whenever any form of government destructive of these ends,it is right of the people to alter or to abolish it,and to institute a new government,laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such from as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
It is easy to identify the terms of the social contract here,namely,in exchange for our state of natural freedom,the state or government is bound to protect our inalienable rights,among which are life,liberty and the pursuit of happiness.Whilst life and liberty represent what we now refer to as civil and political rights,the pursuit of happiness must,surely,represent the totality of rights now known as social,economic and cultural rights.
These are not empty concepts or more emotional cry for attention.They are the very foundation on which the modern democratic,civilized and humane state has been built.The United Nations Charter(1945),the Human Declaration of Human Rights(1948),Social and Cultural Rights(1967) and etc.,have all drawn their inspiration and, indeed,justification and validity from these ancient sources.The power and influence of these great philosophical thoughts and movements are evident in our constitution.
In addition,there is also a form of duties of government to the people.The civil and political of the people are well known by virtually all adult Nigerians and are continually being enforced.These include the right to life and prohibition of degrading and inhuman treatment; the right to hearing; the right to family life; the right to freedom to expression,freedom of association,freedom of conscience and religion and the right to own property amongst others; but not the right to own property in the petroleum in your backyard if you happen to come from the Niger Delta.
Apart from the periods of military dictatorship and despotism when these rights are greatly resisted,we have never had any serious problem of their enforcement during civilian rule.Note however that these are rights which merely restrain the government from taking negative and deleterious actions against the citizens.They do not entail government,in taking positive steps,to promote the welfare of the citizens.
The area in which we have experienced great difficulty in realization of our collective rights and national goals has always been with regard to the enforcement of our economic,social and cultural rights.This is the area popularly referred to as ‘democracry dividends,’,the rights to education,good health,employment,protection in the place of work,shelter,food,social security,pension etc.
However,in view of the unreliability and general lack of credibility in the electoral process in this country,we must surely devise a way to compel our governments to fulfill our economic,social and cultural rights.We must establish culture and convention,which will create feeling of obligation in our governments to deliver these rights,these democracry dividends.
Contrary to the views of the learned writer,it has been empirically established that economic and social rights are more basic and fundamental than civil and political rights.Indeed,civil and political rights are meaningless and hollow in the absence of economic and social rights.Education,health,food,mss transit,employment,social security,are the very fundamental basis on which personal liberty,human dignity,freedom of expression,fair hearing,freedom of worship,association,etc.are built.A man without job,without shelter,who has no access to medical attention during illness,who cannot pay his children’s school fees,cannot afford one good meal a day,is completely illiterate,etc.will have no interest whatsoever in the right to vote for a constitution or party or person, to express himself,to move freely,assemble,etc.Indeed,such a man may even be anxious to give up hissacred rights of personal liberty if he could be guaranteed the right to adequate food in prison or some other form of detention.
Sovereignty belongs to the people and all the powers and authority of government and its agencies come from the people.It is thus clear that government,its personnel and all its agencies are servents of the people.Indeed that word ‘minister’ means servant.It is the people who are the masters;who are the sovereign.Sovereignty remains unqualified at all times.It is never transferred or temporarily on loan to anyone because he is elected president or governor.This constitutinol fact should guide all those power to always conduct themselves with humility and respect towards the people,who put them in power and authority for the singular purpose of serving them.
The other duties of government can be summarized as follows,first,equality of rights,obiligations and opportunities before the law,second is control of the economy in such a manner as to secure maximum welfare,freedom and the basis of social justice,and equality of status and opportunity,third is,adequate medical and health facilities,fourth is encouragement of family life,fifth is equal pay for equal work without discrimination on account of sex,religion or any other grounds whatsoever.etc.
Otherwise,duties of the people also can be explain and elaborate.So far,all our concentration has been on the duties of government to the people.The sovereigns,the masters,that is,the people also owe duties to the state which they are obliged to perform.It is a trite fact that no government can succed in performing its duties towards the people if the latter does not perform its own duties to ths state.The difference between a failed state and a successful one could very well depend on the amount of cooperation between the people and the government,with each side religiously and rigorously committed to fulfilling its duties and obligation to the state.
This symbiotic relationship between government and the people is given clear recognition in both national and international instruments.It can thus be seen that the achievement of good governance in a democracry is not a one-way affair.It is the joint project of the government and the people,although the government has the more and onerous responsibility as the servant of the people,who have been put in government to serve them.
To conclude that,after all has been said and done,the government,including the legislative and judicial arms,but especially the executive must play their role,honour their constitutional obligations and deliver our democracry dividends,in order to provide an incentive to the populace to complement government’sefforts and achievements.

asmawatiidris said...

MEM HAZLIZA..

Democracy is a form of government in which power is held by the people under a free electoral system.In political theory,democracry describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy.Even though there is no universally accepted definition of democracry,there are two principles that any definition of democracry includes.The first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and the second that all members enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.There are several varieties of democracry some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens other.However,if any democracry is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers,then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracry itself.Furthermore,freedom of political expression,freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
According to the topic,we can explain and expend it into many ways and opinion.Right from ancient times,philosophers have based the foundations of government and the state on the social contract.Under this contract or compact,man in the pro-social era agreed to surrender his natural liberty in return for the protection of the state and for just treatment.That to secure these rights,government are instituted among men,deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;that whenever any form of government destructive of these ends,it is right of the people to alter or to abolish it,and to institute a new government,laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such from as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.
It is easy to identify the terms of the social contract here,namely,in exchange for our state of natural freedom,the state or government is bound to protect our inalienable rights,among which are life,liberty and the pursuit of happiness.Whilst life and liberty represent what we now refer to as civil and political rights,the pursuit of happiness must,surely,represent the totality of rights now known as social,economic and cultural rights.
These are not empty concepts or more emotional cry for attention.They are the very foundation on which the modern democratic,civilized and humane state has been built.The United Nations Charter(1945),the Human Declaration of Human Rights(1948),Social and Cultural Rights(1967) and etc.,have all drawn their inspiration and, indeed,justification and validity from these ancient sources.The power and influence of these great philosophical thoughts and movements are evident in our constitution.
In addition,there is also a form of duties of government to the people.The civil and political of the people are well known by virtually all adult Nigerians and are continually being enforced.These include the right to life and prohibition of degrading and inhuman treatment; the right to hearing; the right to family life; the right to freedom to expression,freedom of association,freedom of conscience and religion and the right to own property amongst others; but not the right to own property in the petroleum in your backyard if you happen to come from the Niger Delta.
Apart from the periods of military dictatorship and despotism when these rights are greatly resisted,we have never had any serious problem of their enforcement during civilian rule.Note however that these are rights which merely restrain the government from taking negative and deleterious actions against the citizens.They do not entail government,in taking positive steps,to promote the welfare of the citizens.
The area in which we have experienced great difficulty in realization of our collective rights and national goals has always been with regard to the enforcement of our economic,social and cultural rights.This is the area popularly referred to as ‘democracry dividends,’,the rights to education,good health,employment,protection in the place of work,shelter,food,social security,pension etc.
However,in view of the unreliability and general lack of credibility in the electoral process in this country,we must surely devise a way to compel our governments to fulfill our economic,social and cultural rights.We must establish culture and convention,which will create feeling of obligation in our governments to deliver these rights,these democracry dividends.
Contrary to the views of the learned writer,it has been empirically established that economic and social rights are more basic and fundamental than civil and political rights.Indeed,civil and political rights are meaningless and hollow in the absence of economic and social rights.Education,health,food,mss transit,employment,social security,are the very fundamental basis on which personal liberty,human dignity,freedom of expression,fair hearing,freedom of worship,association,etc.are built.A man without job,without shelter,who has no access to medical attention during illness,who cannot pay his children’s school fees,cannot afford one good meal a day,is completely illiterate,etc.will have no interest whatsoever in the right to vote for a constitution or party or person, to express himself,to move freely,assemble,etc.Indeed,such a man may even be anxious to give up hissacred rights of personal liberty if he could be guaranteed the right to adequate food in prison or some other form of detention.
Sovereignty belongs to the people and all the powers and authority of government and its agencies come from the people.It is thus clear that government,its personnel and all its agencies are servents of the people.Indeed that word ‘minister’ means servant.It is the people who are the masters;who are the sovereign.Sovereignty remains unqualified at all times.It is never transferred or temporarily on loan to anyone because he is elected president or governor.This constitutinol fact should guide all those power to always conduct themselves with humility and respect towards the people,who put them in power and authority for the singular purpose of serving them.
The other duties of government can be summarized as follows,first,equality of rights,obiligations and opportunities before the law,second is control of the economy in such a manner as to secure maximum welfare,freedom and the basis of social justice,and equality of status and opportunity,third is,adequate medical and health facilities,fourth is encouragement of family life,fifth is equal pay for equal work without discrimination on account of sex,religion or any other grounds whatsoever.etc.
Otherwise,duties of the people also can be explain and elaborate.So far,all our concentration has been on the duties of government to the people.The sovereigns,the masters,that is,the people also owe duties to the state which they are obliged to perform.It is a trite fact that no government can succed in performing its duties towards the people if the latter does not perform its own duties to ths state.The difference between a failed state and a successful one could very well depend on the amount of cooperation between the people and the government,with each side religiously and rigorously committed to fulfilling its duties and obligation to the state.
This symbiotic relationship between government and the people is given clear recognition in both national and international instruments.It can thus be seen that the achievement of good governance in a democracry is not a one-way affair.It is the joint project of the government and the people,although the government has the more and onerous responsibility as the servant of the people,who have been put in government to serve them.
To conclude that,after all has been said and done,the government,including the legislative and judicial arms,but especially the executive must play their role,honour their constitutional obligations and deliver our democracry dividends,in order to provide an incentive to the populace to complement government’sefforts and achievements.

ayu n ainul said...

Democracy originates from the Greek words "demos" means "the people" and "kratein" means "to rule".Which means rule by the people or power of the people.This is means government where the people rule themselve directly or indirectly through their representatives before they form the government or govern themselve and their will remain supreme on all question of social direction and policy of the government.In the words of President Abraham Lincoln,he say that democracy is a form of goverment from the people to the people and for the people.Accordingly means government by discussion of competing idea "leading to a compromise in which all the ideas are reconciled and which can be accept by all because it bears the imprint of all.

The democracy that tugs at the people heartstring the one worth fighting for,the one that is associated with liberty and rights is the Philosophy of democracy.This is called democracy which is a government where people vote for things.This type of government is not all that worth getting excited about unless it is built on a foundation of the philosophy or democracy.We can't give someone a government that is built on that philosophy,because by nature democracy must be "of the people".So if America gives any other country a government,no matter how much it looks like a democratic government ,it will never truly be a democracy.

In short,a government by the people meaning that people either directly or indirectly through their representatives govern themselves and their will remain supreme on all question of social direction and policy of the government.

There have two type of democracy it is direct democracy and indirect democracy.Direct democracy is political system in which all citizen are allowed to influence policy by means of direct vote, or referendum on any particular issue.So when the people themselves directly express their will on public affair; pure or direct democracy.Indirect democracy is a broad term describing a means of governance by the people through elected representatives.One critique of indirect democracy is that it centralizes power into the hands of few,thereby increasing the likelihood of corruption in government.

Unfortunately,government from the people means without the people will not have government in the state because the government was choosing from the people either in direct democracy or indirect democracy.Government is create to the people to make law for the people and to make the state more harmonies.With that we will know how to do that in our constitution.

In the context of a sovereign country such as Malaysia the practice of parliamentary democracy is no longer strange to the people.The general election is the official and legal channel for all Malaysian citizen who fulfill the condition to vote and determine their leader or representatives in Parliament and the State Legislative Assembly.To ensure democracy run smoothly,without ging rise to any suspicion of the general election process,it is administrate by an independent body,The General Election Commision.The role played by the Commision is not restrictedto the balloting day only but at all times
especially for the registration of voters and updating the electoral roll. The transperancy of the body in supervising and handling the general election should be protected so as to obtain the people's confidence. The general election is held once every five years at least. it is the important
responsibility of every person who qualifies to vote and this task does end with the choosing of the leader. This is because the extent to which the leader chosen wants and succeeds to fight for the voters will affect the voting process in the long run. Having won the election, the voters who supported him will,of course, hope that their suggestions to improve their conditions will get conveyed to the higher. As caring rational and prudent citizens, they should realize that the general election is not"a battle field" between the government with its components and other parties. Instead, it should be looked upon as a conventional mechanism for carrying out charges if the voters feel it is necessary to do so at the State Legislative Assembly level or the Parliamentary level. Here lies the people's power in a country that practises parliamentary democracy. In conclusion is, the purpose of democracy is to prevent the accumulation of to much authority in the hand of one or a few. Democracy is not intended to give us "good" government, but to put some limits to the abuse of power.

Andrew&Alfred said...

Democracy

Definitions

The word “democracy” is derived from two greek roots, which is “demos” means the people and “kratein” meaning “to rule” or “the people to rule” which literally, democracy means rule by the people or power of the people. This is the based where the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their representatives. In addition for a society to be democratic there have a large number of its people must enjoy the right to have some say over important decisions that affect their lives. In other word, democratic government is based on the consent of the governed. The popular person, Abraham Lincoln define democracy is “the government of the people, by the people, and for the people”. It also can be defined as the government by the majority with the consent of the minority. In short, a government by the people, meaning that people either directly or indirectly through their representatives govern themselves but their will remains supreme on all questions of social direction and policy of the government. In traditionally the purpose of democracy is to prevent tyranny or in other word the accumulation of too much authority in hands of one or a few. That is, democracy is not intended to give us “good” government but sometimes to put some limits to the abuse of power. In addition to periodic elections based on a wide franchise there is widespread opportunity to seek political office in competition with others and with freedom to associate with political friend in the hope of winning political control and forming the government.


Types of democracy.

Democratic polities are those where politics is competitive and free and where government is responsible and participation widespread. However there is one general theory of democracy but there are associated with a democratic society. There have two general types of democracy that have prevail in certain countries in different historical eras. These are the direct democracy of the Athenian model and the representatives (indirect) democracy of the Anglo-American type. In a direct democracy is the perfect expression of popular sovereignty. It can also be define as a system where the people rule themselves directly without intermediaries. In addition also, a direct democracy is a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of the direct vote, or referendum on any particular issues. Meaning to say, when the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs either pure or direct democracy. In other word, the people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. For the example, small city-states of ancient Greece and Rome. Pure or direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform populations where people can conveniently meet. However, there are unusual circumstances essential to realizing direct democracy including the number of citizens must be small, property and wealth must be distributed equally or almost equally, the society must be culturally homogeneous and also those who administer the laws must not be allowed to function independently. Indirectly, democracy is a broad term describing a means of government by the people through elected representatives. In this case, one critique of indirect democracy is that it centralizes power into the hand in government. Indirect democracy a form of indirect democracy also is “delegative democracy” whereby delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. This constituency may recall the delegate at any time and representative are expected only to transmit the decisions of electors. For another more familiar type of indirect democracy also is “representative democracy” in which the people elect government official who them make decisions on their behalf. In this case, the representatives are democratically selected and usually harder to recall. Most of the countries in the world, including Malaysia is practiced representative democracy. Representative democracy is a system of government in which citizens elect their representatives to run the government on their behalf. In this system, ordinary citizens do not make governmental decisions themselves but, instead choose public officials, in open elections contested by political parties and by individuals of differences shades of opinion, to make decisions for them. A representative democracy possesses some of the features of direct democracy like popular participation, political equality, and majority rule but is different in the scope and form of implementing these principles. Indirect democracy have a number of things in common is including the citizens are at least one place removed from actual-decision making, elected representative stand in place of voters and elections as an efficient and effective way of organizing political successions. The case for and against indirect democracy is it has been pointed out by many that representatives democracy does not reflect popular opinion. This is why their action to accord with the wishes of the voters manipulate the attitudes of the popular by clever public. Besides that, the system is not equally open or responsive to all kinds of individuals and group.


The conditions of democracy

Democracy also have the conditions of democracy. A modern democracy implies certain rights to elect government through free and fair elections, participations, the rule of law and also human right, such as freedom to speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from discrimination. According the scholars, Ivor Brown, the basic of democracy includes the an “action of will”. For example, people should have the will to have democracy and the power to retain it too. This will be conscious of their political rights and duties. Besides that, the basic of a spirit to tolerance also includes in democracy. This is means no limits created by religion caste, birth or wealth. Harmony in country can only exists in a society of equals. Another basic is participation such as doing things in common with others and taking your share of the responsibilities involved. In this case, a citizens should be thinking human with independent. For the education, active and intelligent participation of citizens in public affair can be assured if all are educated.


Advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages and strength of democracy according to A.C Kapur is democracy ensures both liberty and equality. In this case is no one possessed special privileges and all are equals in term equality before the law. Next advantages is to ensure self-government by the people for their welfare and thus, it stimulates them to self-education. According a scholar,, Harris(1997), strength of democracy is as the party in power forms the government after being chosen by the electorate, to the wishes of the majority as expressed on election day. Harris also define strength of democracy is the assembly or parliament makes the law and is supreme in the administration of government. The next strength, he also define that the government of the day will safeguard the rights of the minority group. In addition, the government will also act the agent of the community as a whole and will guarantee the proper right of voluntary association, and freedom of discussion in all possibles areas.

Disadvantages or defects of democracy according A.C Kapur is as men may be “lazy” in politics. In this case, men might not be intelligent or is not sufficiently educated. Thus, this problem is to find among them the best men to lead them. Democracy is inefficient as a form of government also defects of democracy. In this case, it is based on assumption that all men are equal and than one man is as another. However, men are not all equal as they might be different in term of physical and mental ability. Next, defects is the party system. This party election propaganda misguides and miseducate the people. Whose people who vote for the party wants and not for the candidate, so representatives follows what the party wants, instead of what the people wants. Besides that, the defect of expensive form of government. Based in this form, governmental machinery is complex and its functions involve much waste of time and money. According to a scholar, Harris(1997), the weaknesses of democracy is as no important minority, particularly if it is a large minority, it will ever be content with a subordinates role in the body politic. He also say governments may be unwilling or unable to carry out promises made on election day and will try to select election day most suitable to themselves, if the system allow this. The another weakness also he say the government of the day may try to manipulate the constitution in its own interests or even to rewrite it if possible. Besides that, another weakness is minorities may attempt to assert rights out all proportion to their minority status, with the object of challenging the majority. In this weakness also some voluntary associations may try to obstruct the proper operations of government. At the same time freedom of assembly, discussion and expression may lead to freakishness being tolerated even where there are dangerous for public safety. In addition for democracy, the form of governments is based on consent and wishes of the people. Political parties is allowed to exist, compete and expand. Besides that, power of ruler or government is collective power such as the power does not belong to one individual or group only. For the election, held election for the people to choose their representative. Democracy in ideology also the various political parties. For the law-making is done collectively to ensure the law protects the interests of the people. Lastly, in social freedom and the media that the law protects individuals rights.


Conclusion

As a conclusion, we concluded that democracy have it advantages and disadvantages. The responsibilities of the leader that have been choose by the people is important so that their people can put trust on them because democracy is from the people, to the people and for the people. Besides that, democracy is a form of government which its power belong to the people.

willie @ lee said...

Responsibilities of government in all nations in the world are becoming more complex and challenging.” Explain.

The term government in Latin and Greek means ‘to show or to direct or to guide’. This statement shown that the people living together in one state need to be properly organized and accept certain rule of conduct. The agency created to enforce such rule of conduct and to ensure obedient is called ‘government’, without government the people will have no cohesion and mean of collective action. The other explanation about government has stated that government refers to social organization that has authority to rule the state. Government is however, different from other social organization, such as family or group. It makes laws that affect all the people within its territory. Its rules are binding upon the people whether they wish to be bound by such rule or not. One of the most important features of government is that it is the only social organization to use force. Governments employ their coercive power (or threaten to employ it) to ensure domestic order, maintain external security, and promote the collective welfare of the population.
According to Hobbes, ‘the life of the society will be in complete confusion without a definite body to administer them’. According to Aristotle, ‘government will ensure that the life of the society is systematic and harmony.’ After we have discuss briefly about the meaning and the definition of the government, we are actually already have a basic picture and the general view bout the function of government, the above explanation also make us understand why this body or this institution must be exist to create the state and we will started to argue that what is the responsibility of government? And why the responsibilities of government in all nations in the world, especially in the twenty-first century are becoming more complex and challenging? What are the challenges that every government has to be faced and what make it become more complex? There are many aspects to be mentioned and a lot of cases and situations that enter related to answer all the argument.
The world political leaders are facing enormous challenges and consequently, they are seeking the advice of political scientists to meet the challenges. Government institutions have to come up with practical strategies for meeting those challenges. There are three aspect that we can really relate about how government use their authorize authority to meet the challenge that can give benefit to their citizen. The three aspect that be mentioned will explain the responsibility of government to their state. The three aspects are in term of responsible to social aspect, economic and politics.

Government responsibility is huge and complex. If we talk about government responsibility especially in term of their social aspects, it actually may include a few things that we have to relate together, so that we will be able to distinguish any matters that include in social aspect with other aspect because as we know that when the government responsibility is becoming more specialized so that we have to identified and classified their responsibility based on the different matters. We will be able to differentiate either that matter is under which aspect. In social aspect there is few situation and cases that can shown that is actually under the social aspect, an example government responsibility is to have an efforts to increase the citizens standard of living, when we talk about citizen standard of living, we will thinks about what government should do to make sure that we as their people will not left behind because as we know that day-by-day our demand of necessity items are increase because we have to fulfill our basic needs. An example in term of facilities, how government going to provide the enough facility to the huge population such like India and China.
Here we can notice that as a government they have to find the good solution and effective ways to meet this problem. The government will come out with practical way such as they delegate and give instruction to the local authority to ensure the facilities that have been provided is always in the good conditions. Besides, the other criteria that government should know is that their responsibility in term of social aspect is that the government must know to administer the society in the country, especially to the country that have a vary of races, religion, language and ethnic composition, such as Malaysia. This responsibility is becoming more complex for Malaysia government because they must have an intelligence action to make sure that their citizen that come from difference group be able to live together and maintain their obedient toward the government. Government needs the holistic cooperation and strong commitment from their citizen to maintain the safety and harmony of the society. That why Malaysia has one body call ISA (internal security act) where this body will supervise on how every race in this country should behave, an example one race can’t rise up the sensitive issues that can condemn other group or races but this situation is becoming more complex and challenging because the development of science and technology especially to irresponsible person they create the blog and they use the blog in the internet to rise up the sensitive issue that can lead to the races sentiment. The governments have to control any unwanted activities that can affect the safety and harmonies of the people that live in that state.


As the society continues to develop, the function of politic institution (government) is becoming more specialized. One of the important aspects that government must look at is that the aspect of economy, because the stability of each country will be determined based on their economic growth. If the economy inside that country is not stable or not strong enough, it’s hard or difficult to that country to compete with other country especially in term of their social development, economic growth, education, facilities, and the stability of economy also can affect national security.
Why that I said that the unstable of our economy will affect our social development because if our government unable to distribute or manage the national resource very well, so we as a citizen will suffer of poverty, an example our government must have a responsibility to make sure that there a incentives that must be given by the government to our local entrepreneurs to support their business, and strong financial support from the government can help them to run their business smoothly. This action will give an job opportunities to the citizen.
Besides, government must know how manage our budget for the beneficial and proper use, the way how the government manage the budget is depends on our economic growth. Government has to decide on any development project that they need to do and sometime there are project that they should postponed, this is happened because of the concept of scarcity. An example the governments have decide either want to use the budget for facilities project to buy new military weapon. This situation will only can be solve after the government itself can indentified which project that need the first priority.
An example in Sarawak, The Corridor of Renewable Energy or simply known as SCORE, is one of the five regional development corridors being developed throughout the country. It aims to achieve the goals of accelerating the State's economic growth and development, as well as improving the quality of life for the people of Sarawak. Ten Priority Industries will be promoted and developed extensively through greater private sector participation such as oil-based industry, aluminum industry and steel industry, glass industry, tourism industry, palm oil industry, timber-based industry, livestock industry aquaculture industry and marine engineering industry. Here we will have a clear picture on how government plays an important role to distribute the national recourses, where this kind of project can give an job opportunities to our local worker, so that we don’t need the foreign workers to work in our industries, so that the value of our currencies will increase because we don’t have to make any transaction with the other country.


A nation’s faith depends on the stability of the political conditions. The most obvious function of government in every state is that, government is the body that who make a policy and law making. Government has their supreme authority to ensure obedient from the people in the state to follow the rule and regulation that already implemented by the government in that state. The responsibility of every government in any nation is to make sure that any local and international political relations is stable. A modern state can’t avoid the international relations especially with the political relation with other country. This political relationship is usually exist when both of that two country have a economy co-operations. An example like Malaysia co-operate with China, in term of economy product and expertise. The government has to maintain the good relationship with others our economy growth will not affected. Besides, if we have a good relationship with other country, so that we can maintain the global harmony and we can avoid the world war. Every government in every nation try to protect their country from be attacked by other counter by maintain the good relationship with other country and those small country will join the global organization such as Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN).
This association is established to accelerate the economic growth, social progress and culture development in the region through join endeavors in the spirit of equality and partnership and the purposes of the association are to promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principle of the United Nation Charter. This association will lead to the effective cooperation among the countries where all this country will have right to lead a national existence free from external interference, subversion and coercion. This responsibility will becoming more complex and challenging when every government in that state have to protect their own mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identify of all nation. Malaysia is a parliamentary democracy country, where the people in this state have a right to select their own government during the general election. Here we can notice that the people sovereignty is mentioned and after the governments that they elect are selected to become a government, this government will have a legal sovereignty where the people must obey their legal command and this process is called ‘give and take’. Without the political stability inside and outside the country, it’s hard and difficult to the government to ensure harmony and peace in the state because political stability will affect everything.


In conclusion the government has to preserve and hold the responsibility to take care of our country name, images, and everything to maintain the sovereignty of the state. People and the government body itself have to maintain their sovereign power, actually every state or the government body has a fully right and authority or has a command power to order the people in the state. For example, during the emergency, the monarch has a right and authority to force his or her citizen to go for a war in order to protect their country from has been attacked by the other military power from the other country. The ruling body in one’s state must have sovereignty itself to make sure that institutions in the state be able to govern and manage effectively.
Sovereignty is the one importance characteristic of one’s state to ensure the unity among the citizen and over the state is protected, and this responsibility to maintain it is not only for the government body only but we as a citizen have to maintain our peace to preserved our peace and harmony from be taken by outsiders control.
There are two conditions that how that one’s state can lose its sovereignty. First when one’s state is under the control by another more powerful country. Second is when the territory at the one’s state taken by the other state. So that the laws of state and the pattern of well organized of govern the state that already written in the constitution always encourage the monarch or the ruling power who govern the state must always be careful in every subject of matter. The positions of the sovereignty in one’s country is depends the conditions of the country in term of how is it control by the ruling body and depend on the way how they implement the function their governing process.

allykays said...

1.0- INTRODUCTION OF DEMOCRACY
We live in a time when the call for freedom and democracy echoes across the globe. Eastern Europe has cast off the totalitarian governments of almost half a century, and the republics of the former Soviet Union are struggling to replace the Communist regime of almost many years with a new democratic order, something they could never before experience.
Democracy may be a word familiar to most, but it is a concept still misunderstood and misused in a time when totalitarian regimes and military dictatorships alike have attempted to claim popular support by pinning democratic labels upon themselves. Yet the power of the democratic idea has also evoked some of history's most profound and moving expressions of human will and intellect: from Pericles in ancient Athens to Vaclav Havel in the modern Czech Republic, from Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence in 1776 to Andrei Sakharov's last speeches in 1989.
In the dictionary definition, democracy "is government by the people in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system." In the phrase of Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people."
The word democracy actually originates from the Greek “demos” meaning “the people ” and “kratein” meaning “to rule” or “the people to rule” which meant literally. Rule by the people or “power of the people”. Democracy is a form of government in which power is held by “the people" under a free electoral system. This is the form of government where the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their representatives.
In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.
There are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself.
The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority. An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Therefore democracy as a system of government which include four key elements:
1. A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections.
2. The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life.
3. Protection of the human rights of all citizens.
4. A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.



2.0- DEMOCRACY AS POLITICAL SYSTEM OF COMPETITION FOR POWER

For authoritarians and other critics, a common misapprehension is that democracies, lacking the power to oppress, also lack the authority to govern. This view is fundamentally wrong: Democracies require that their governments be limited, not that they be weak. Viewed over the long course of history, democracies do indeed appear fragile and few, even from the vantage point of a decade of democratic resurgence. Democracies have by no means been immune to the tides of history; they have collapsed from political failure, succumbed to internal division, or been destroyed by foreign invasion. But democracies have also demonstrated remarkable resiliency over time and have shown that, with the commitment and informed dedication of their citizens, they can overcome severe economic hardship, reconcile social and ethnic division, and, when necessary, prevail in time of war.
Democracy is a means for the people to choose their leaders and to hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in office. The people decide who will represent them in parliament, and who will head the government at the national and local levels. They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular, free and fair elections. Government is based on the consent of the governed.
In a democracy, the people are sovereign—they are the highest form of political authority. Power flows from the people to the leaders of government, who hold power only temporarily. Laws and policies require majority support in parliament, but the rights of minorities are protected in various ways. The people are free to criticize their elected leaders and representatives, and to observe how they conduct the business of government.

Elected representatives at the national and local levels should listen to the people and respond to their needs and suggestions. Elections have to occur at regular intervals, as prescribed by law. Those in power cannot extend their terms in office without asking for the consent of the people again in an election. For elections to be free and fair, they have to be administered by a neutral, fair, and professional body that treats all political parties and candidates equally. All parties and candidates must have the right to campaign freely, to present their proposals to the voters both directly and through the mass media. Voters must be able to vote in secret, free of intimidation and violence.
Independent observers must be able to observe the voting and the vote counting to ensure that the process is free of corruption, intimidation, and fraud. There needs to be some impartial and independent tribunal to resolve any disputes about the election results. This is why it takes a lot of time to organize a good, democratic election. Any country can hold an
election, but for an election to be free and fair requires a lot of organization, preparation, and training of political parties, electoral officials, and civil society organizations who monitor the process. As conclusion, the pillars of democracy can be seen below:

THE PILLARS OF DEMOCRACY:
•Sovereignty of the people.
•Government based upon consent of the governed.
•Majority rule.
•Minority rights.
•Guarantee of basic human rights.
•Free and fair elections.
•Equality before the law.
•Due process of law.
•Constitutional limits on government.
•Social, economic, and political pluralism.
•Values of tolerance, pragmatism, cooperation, and compromise.


3.0- PARTICIPATION: THE ROLE OF CITIZENS IN GOVERNMENT

The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life. Citizens have an obligation to become informed about public issues, to watch carefully how their political leaders and representatives use their powers, and to express their own opinions and interests. Voting in elections is another important civic duty of all citizens. But to vote wisely, each citizen should listen to the views of the different parties and candidates, and then make his or her own decision on whom to support.
Participation can also involve campaigning for a political party or candidate, standing as a candidate for political office, debating public issues, attending community meetings, petitioning the government, and even protesting. A vital form of participation comes through active membership in independent, non-governmental organizations, what we call “civil society.”
These organizations represent a variety of interests and beliefs: farmers, workers, doctors, teachers, business owners, religious believers, women, students, human rights activists. It is important that women participate fully both in politics and in civil society. This requires efforts by civil society organizations to educate women about their democratic rights and responsibilities, improve their political skills, represent their common interests, and involve them in political life.
In a democracy, participation in civic groups should be voluntary. No one should be forced to join an organization against their will. Political parties are vital organizations in a democracy, and democracy is stronger when citizens become active members of political parties. However, no one should support a political party because he is pressured or threatened by others. In a democracy, citizens are free to choose which party to support.
Democracy depends on citizen participation in all these ways. But participation must be peaceful, respectful of the law, and tolerant of the different views of other groups and individuals.



4.0- THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS IN A DEMOCRACY

In a democracy, every citizen has certain basic rights that the state cannot take away from them. These rights are guaranteed under international law. You have the right to have your own beliefs, and to say and write what you think. No one can tell you what you must think, believe, and say or not say. There is freedom of religion. Everyone is free to choose their own religion and to worship and practice their religion as they see fit.
Every individual has the right to enjoy their own culture, along with other members of their group, even if their group is a minority. There is freedom and pluralism in the mass media. You can choose between different sources of news and opinion to read in the newspapers, to hear on the radio, and to watch on television.
You have the right to associate with other people, and to form and join organizations of your own choice, including trade unions. You are free to move about the country, and if you wish, to leave the country. You have the right to assemble freely, and to protest government actions.
However, everyone has an obligation to exercise these rights peacefully, with respect for the law and for the rights of others.

BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS
•Freedom of speech, expression, and the press.
•Freedom of religion.
•Freedom of assembly and association.
•Right to equal protection of the law.
•Right to due process and fair trial.


5.0- THE RULE OF LAW

Democracy is a system of rule by laws, not by individuals. In a democracy, the rule of law protects the rights of citizens, maintains order, and limits the power of government.
All citizens are equal under the law. No one may be discriminated against on the basis of their race, religion, ethnic group, or gender. No one may be arrested, imprisoned, or exiled arbitrarily.
If you are detained, you have the right to know the charges against you, and to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to the law. Anyone charged with a crime has the right to a fair, speedy, and public trial by an impartial court. No one may be taxed or prosecuted except by a law established in advance. No one is above the law, not even a king or an elected president.
The law is fairly, impartially, and consistently enforced, by courts that are independent of the other branches of government. Torture and cruel and inhumane treatment are absolutely forbidden. The rule of law places limits on the power of government. No government official may violate these limits. No ruler, minister, or political party can tell a judge how to decide a case. Office holders cannot use their power to enrich themselves. Independent courts and commissions punish corruption, no matter who is guilty.


6.0- THE LIMITS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DEMOCRACY

If democracy is to work, citizens must not only participate and exercise their rights. They must also observe certain principles and rules of democratic conduct. People must respect the law and reject violence. Nothing ever justifies using violence against your political opponents, just because you disagree with them. Every citizen must respect the rights of his or her fellow citizens, and their dignity as human beings.
No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate, just because they have different views. People should question the decisions of the government, but not reject the government’s authority. Every group has the right to practice its culture and to have some control over its own affairs, but each group should accept that it is a part of a democratic state.
When you express your opinions, you should also listen to the views of other people, even people you disagree with. Everyone has a right to be heard. Don’t be so convinced of the rightness of your views that you refuse to see any merit in another position. Consider different interests and points of view. When you make demands, you should understand that in a democracy, it is impossible for everyone to achieve everything they want.
Democracy requires compromise. Groups with different interests and opinions must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate. In a democracy, one group does not always win everything it wants. Different combinations of groups win on different issues. Over time, everyone wins something. If one group is always excluded and fails to be heard, it may turn against democracy in anger and frustration. Everyone who is willing to participate peacefully and respect the rights of others should have some say in the way the country is governed.


7.0 - CONCLUSION
Government of and by the people means that the citizens of a democratic society share in its benefits and in its burdens. Democratic society is the sine qua non for a democratic government. The aims will consist of justice and happiness. Democratic society is a “society of free, equal, active and intelligent citizens, each man able to choose his own way of life”. As said by Abraham Lincoln “You can fool part of the people all the time, and all the people part of the time, but you cannot fool people all the time.
By accepting the task of self-government, one generation seeks to preserve the hard-won legacy of individual freedom, human rights, and the rule of law for the next. In each society and each generation, the people must perform the work of democracy anew--taking the principles of the past and applying them to the practices of a new age and a changing society. Democracy itself guarantees nothing. It offers instead the opportunity to succeed as well as the risk of failure. In Thomas Jefferson's ringing but shrewd phrase, the promise of democracy is "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
Democracy is then both a promise and a challenge. It is a promise that free human beings, working together, can govern themselves in a manner that will serve their aspirations for personal freedom, economic opportunity, and social justice. It is a challenge because the success of the democratic enterprise rests upon the shoulders of its citizens and no one else.
The late Josef Brodsky, Russian-born poet and Nobel Prize winner, once wrote, "A free man, when he fails, blames nobody." It is true as well for the citizens of democracy who, finally, must take responsibility for the fate of the society in which they themselves have chosen to live.
In the end, we get the government we deserve as we are the one who choose it.


8.0 REFERENCES

Haron, Shireen (2004) Principles of Political Science : Democracy and Autocratic State. Institut Perkembanagn Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam

Kapur, A.C (1950) Principles of Political Science: New Delhi: S.CHAND & COMPANY LTD.

Lipson, Leslie (1985) The Great Issues of Politics : An Introduction to Political Science : The State and Society. PRENTICE-HALL, INC.

Moten, Abdul Rahid and Islam, Syed Serajul (2005) Introduction to Political Science Thomson Asia Pte. Ltd.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/democracy



all rights reserved-allykays 2009

DaNiya AtHrisYa said...

Democracy is a form of government in which power is held by " the people" under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek "popular government" which was coined from (dēmos), "people" and (kratos), "rule, strength" in the middle of the 5th-4th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC. In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties. There are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority". A process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair and procedurally.  Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests. Democracy can be divided into two types which is direct democracy and representation democracy. When talking about direct democracy its always related to popular participation, majority rule and political equality. Direct democracy started in the area of Yunani’s cities such as Athens. Athens, a city state in ancient Greece with some 300,000 inhabitants, is known as the cradle of democracy. There, in between the fifth century, a society developed with beliefs that were clearly democratic. The Athenian system is referred to as direct democracy because all adult were permitted to play an important role in the government sector.   In direct democracy rule, the people involved directly in the ruling, in term or regulation of law and rule, implementation of law and judgment.  As an expression of popular sovereignty, direct democracy was form of government favored by Jean Jacques Rousseau. However, there are unusual circumstances essential to realizing direct democracy including the number of citizen must be small, property and wealth must be distributed equally, the society must be culturally homogeneous and the ruler  must not allowed  to function independently of the popular will that made the laws in the first place. All the conditions describe before are hard to be realized in reality but still can be use as a guide line in ruling a state or government.  Meanwhile representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. It is more properly called a democratic republic. The most common mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a plurality of the votes.Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (or constituency), or represent the entire electorate proportionally proportional systems, with some using a combination of the two. Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct democracy, such as referendums. A characteristic of representative democracy is that while the representatives are elected by the people to act in their interest, they retain the freedom to exercise their own judgment as how best to do so.When talking about application of democracy, its always about government and one of it is Parliamentary systems. Parliamentary systems are characterized by no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to a different set of checks and balances compared to those found in presidential systems. Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being a figure head, often either a president (elected either popularly or by the parliament) or by a hereditary monarch (often in a constitutional monarchy).The term parliamentary system does not mean that a country is ruled by different parties in coalition with each other. Such multi-party arrangements are usually the product of an electoral system known as proportional representation. Many parliamentary countries, especially those that use "first past the post" voting, have governments composed of one party. However, parliamentary systems in continental Europe do use proportional representation, and tend to produce election results in which no single party has a majority of seats. Proportional representation in a non-parliamentary system does not have this result. Some believe that it is easier to pass legislation within a parliamentary system. This is because the executive branch is dependent upon the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature. Thus, this would amount to the executive (as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) possessing more votes in order to pass legislation. In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature. If the executive and legislature in such a system include members entirely or predominantly from different political parties, then stalemate can occur.In many other systems parliamentary systems also have criticism by others. One main criticism of many parliamentary systems is that the head of government is in almost all cases not directly elected. In a presidential system, the president is usually chosen directly by the electorate, or by a set of electors directly chosen by the people, separate from the legislature. However, in a parliamentary system the prime minister is elected by the legislature, often under the strong influence of the party leadership. Thus, a party's candidate for the head of government is usually known before the election, possibly making the election as much about the person as the party behind him or her.Another major criticism of the parliamentary system lies precisely in its purported advantage: that there is no truly independent body to oppose and veto legislation passed by the parliament, and therefore no substantial check on legislative power. Conversely, because of the lack of inherent separation of powers, some believe that a parliamentary system can place too much power in the executive entity, leading to the feeling that the legislature or judiciary have little scope to administer checks or balances on the executive. However, most parliamentary systems are bicameral, with an upper house designed to check the power of the lower (from which the executive comes).Although democracy comes and explained in many terms by many philosopher but its still comes with one objective which is the freedom and peaceful environment. No matter what or how the people voices are the most important issue that should be taking not with. Because without people there are no government and without government there are no country or state. That’s why democracy is important and needed by all.

yong said...

Democracy is form of government in which power is held by the people under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek. In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of democracy, there are two principle that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and second that all citizens enjoy universally recognized freedom and liberties.
The are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of power, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The majority rule is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the right of a minority to be abused by the tyranny of the majority. An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term “democracy” as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human right, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of power is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained. In other cases, democracy is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.
Democracy has its origin in Ancient Greece. However other cultures have signicantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient India, Ancient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. Democracy has been called the last form of government and has spread considerably across the globe. Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group, but still remains a controversial issue with regard to disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups.
Aristotle contrasted rule by the many democracy, with rule by the few oligarchy or aristocracy, and with rule by a single person tyranny or today autocracy and monarchy. He also thought that there was a good and a bad variant of each system (he considered democracy to be the degenerate counterpart to polity). For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy the citizens can have a share in freedom. In essence, he argues that this is what every democracy should make its aim. There are two main aspects of freedom: being ruled and ruling in turn, since everyone is equal according to number, not merit, and to be able to live as one please. But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn; for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number, not worth, and if this is the principle of justice prevailing, the multitude must of necessity be sovereign and the decision of the majority must be final and must constitute justice, for they say that each of the citizens ought to have an equal share; so that it results that in democracies the poor are more powerful than the rich, because there are more of them and whatever is decided by majority is sovereign. This then is one mark of liberty which all democrats set down as a principle of the constitution. And one is for a man to live as he likes; for they say that this is the function of liberty, inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a salve. This is the second principle of democracy, and from it has come the claim not to be governed, preferably not by anybody, or failing that, to govern and be governed in turn; and this is the way in which the second principle contributes to equalitarian liberty.
Democracy has given many benefit for people and policy administration. It keeping human right prvilege freedom liberty justice. One of the advantage of democracy is democracy provides for changes of government without any violence. For example in general election democracy will give a chance and opportunity for citizens to choose who will ruler. .They can remain or change the government or ruler according to their interest without interfere by other people like situation occur in Malaysia on eight march last year during general election in Malaysia . There are some state such as Kedah Selangor and Penang which falls by opposition party because the decision which make by the people in those state. From this situation people can determine the government by theirself and they have freedom and liberty based their advantage. So majority of people living under democracy elected government are happy and satisfy with that government or at least participated in its rise to power and therefore they must shoulder part of blame of falling. The next advantage by democracy is that typically there is an election in term which means that the government can do so much before opposition can get chance to undo it. Moreover any government is bound by an election term after which it has to compete each other against other party to regain authority and power. This system prevent monopoly of the ruling authority. The party who rule the country has to make sure it works for its people for it cannot remain being the authority after completing its term unless re-elected by the people. I can said that this system will make sure government or ruler will make their duty for people interest and can avoid misused of power by the ruler.

This bring in a feeling of obligation towards the citizen. The ruling authorities owe their success in the citizens and nation . Its can make feeling of gratefulness towards the people. On the other hand the advantage that has bring by democracy that show by democracy government that act as an agent between ruler and citizens in the country .The agent of the community in overall and they will ensure the proper right of voluntary associations and also freedom of discussion in all possible area bill and issue including religion philosophy administration and many more that have relationship between citizen and ruler in a state . The next positive effect by democracy can be seen from the aspect on political party .Usually country that has practice democracy in the administration have many political parties that establish with deferent ideology and objective .For example like Malaysia that has many political parties like UMNO,PAS DAP,MCA,MIC and many more . Some these political parties are combine each other to increase their strength like Barisan Nasional which consist between thirteen political parties such as MCA ,MIC,GERAKAN , and so on .For opposition party in Malaysia , they are called Pakatan Rakyat which consist between PAS,PKR and DAP .

The last benefit by democracy process can be seen from the aspect of ruler power .In the state which practice democracy system the power of the ruler is well known as collective power .Collective power mean the ruler of the state (prime minister, president etc) cannot make his policy lonely and based on his interest because the power is not existed only at one individual only .The power of ruling is hold by a group of representative that were chosen by the people during election . So any bills, law and policies must get an agreement by the people before it can be implement as policy or law . From this aspect we can see that in presidential system in U.S.A In U.S.A before a policy can be implement by the president, the president must influencing congress to accept the policy .But in Malaysia before a law and policy can be implemented , the legislative body should bring the policy at Dewan Rakyat and get agreement between other member in legislative body and then passed to Dewan Negara and then get sign by head of state before it can become a law .All the process before become law should taking public agreement or opinion in the process . From these aspect democracy has preserve human right because all the aspect and policy will giving first for citizen will.

Although democracy has give many benefit for people and an administration, its also has bring many disadvantage which can be bad cause for people , government and administration . There are some disadvantage of democracy. For example not all the citizens are fully aware of the political scenario in their country. The common masses may not be aware of the political issue in society. This may result in people making wrong decision during election. As government is subject to change after every election term the authority will work with short term focus . As they have to face an election after completion of each term they may lost focus on working but more focus for an election to remain their authority. It will cause the development of the country will move slowly and make policy which make by ruler are not uniform and consistent. The other disadvantages cause by democracy is that mobs can influence the people. Citizens may vote in favour of the party under the influence by majority. As the easy sentence people may vote base on the party that they are supporting but not for the candidate. It will make harmful if the candidate by a party who has win the election are unable to do their duty because of wrong decision make by people. Citizens may vote under influence and propaganda by majority side. Compelled or influence by the philosophies of those around a person may not voice his true opinion .The next disadvantage that cause by process of democracy from the aspect of cost to form the government. Usually form of government by democracy are too costly and will be for negative impact for government which have financial problem in administration .It occurs because government machinery is too complex and its function involve much waste of time and money.

The last bad influence that cause by democracy can be seen from the aspect ruler who gain support from citizen .The government will use all their abilities as long as they can to manipulate the constitution in its own interest or even to rewrite if it possible . This is because they want to remain their power to rule the country.
As a conclusion, the democracy has its own benefit and bad influence. In process form of government its depend on the situation on administration in some state, its also depend with the development of the state. For example, democracy give freedom for people to choose their leader to develop the state for their advantage and their will. For example, the state that not exercise the democracy process like Swaziland that locate at South Africa. The citizen live in bad condition. Meanwhile, their ruler not has the charismatic leadership because of the monarchy system that not give people the freedom of speech. In addition their ruler has make the policy according to his own interest without taking people opinion. This will give bad cause to the people and the country development. In my opinion, this democracy should be stayed and exercise regularly because its bring a lot of benefit for people and the state. Beside that it also keeping people right, freedom, liberty, and justice. For example, in our country where democracy process are exercise by general election, where the people have right to voting their leader to rule their state. By process of democracy, people have chance to valued candidate qualification to choose the best representative by using people power. People can change the government if the government that their choose in previous election has not show good performance for their state, like what they hope. Easy as to say, the democracy system that from the people, by the people, for the people has a lot of advantages in keeping and protecting the human right.

yong said...

Democracy is form of government in which power is held by the people under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek. In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of democracy, there are two principle that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society have equal access to power and second that all citizens enjoy universally recognized freedom and liberties.
The are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of power, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The majority rule is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the right of a minority to be abused by the tyranny of the majority. An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term “democracy” as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human right, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of power is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained. In other cases, democracy is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.
Democracy has its origin in Ancient Greece. However other cultures have signicantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient India, Ancient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. Democracy has been called the last form of government and has spread considerably across the globe. Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group, but still remains a controversial issue with regard to disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups.
Aristotle contrasted rule by the many democracy, with rule by the few oligarchy or aristocracy, and with rule by a single person tyranny or today autocracy and monarchy. He also thought that there was a good and a bad variant of each system (he considered democracy to be the degenerate counterpart to polity). For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy the citizens can have a share in freedom. In essence, he argues that this is what every democracy should make its aim. There are two main aspects of freedom: being ruled and ruling in turn, since everyone is equal according to number, not merit, and to be able to live as one please. But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn; for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number, not worth, and if this is the principle of justice prevailing, the multitude must of necessity be sovereign and the decision of the majority must be final and must constitute justice, for they say that each of the citizens ought to have an equal share; so that it results that in democracies the poor are more powerful than the rich, because there are more of them and whatever is decided by majority is sovereign. This then is one mark of liberty which all democrats set down as a principle of the constitution. And one is for a man to live as he likes; for they say that this is the function of liberty, inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a salve. This is the second principle of democracy, and from it has come the claim not to be governed, preferably not by anybody, or failing that, to govern and be governed in turn; and this is the way in which the second principle contributes to equalitarian liberty.
Democracy has given many benefit for people and policy administration. It keeping human right prvilege freedom liberty justice. One of the advantage of democracy is democracy provides for changes of government without any violence. For example in general election democracy will give a chance and opportunity for citizens to choose who will ruler. .They can remain or change the government or ruler according to their interest without interfere by other people like situation occur in Malaysia on eight march last year during general election in Malaysia . There are some state such as Kedah Selangor and Penang which falls by opposition party because the decision which make by the people in those state. From this situation people can determine the government by theirself and they have freedom and liberty based their advantage. So majority of people living under democracy elected government are happy and satisfy with that government or at least participated in its rise to power and therefore they must shoulder part of blame of falling. The next advantage by democracy is that typically there is an election in term which means that the government can do so much before opposition can get chance to undo it. Moreover any government is bound by an election term after which it has to compete each other against other party to regain authority and power. This system prevent monopoly of the ruling authority. The party who rule the country has to make sure it works for its people for it cannot remain being the authority after completing its term unless re-elected by the people. I can said that this system will make sure government or ruler will make their duty for people interest and can avoid misused of power by the ruler.

This bring in a feeling of obligation towards the citizen. The ruling authorities owe their success in the citizens and nation . Its can make feeling of gratefulness towards the people. On the other hand the advantage that has bring by democracy that show by democracy government that act as an agent between ruler and citizens in the country .The agent of the community in overall and they will ensure the proper right of voluntary associations and also freedom of discussion in all possible area bill and issue including religion philosophy administration and many more that have relationship between citizen and ruler in a state . The next positive effect by democracy can be seen from the aspect on political party .Usually country that has practice democracy in the administration have many political parties that establish with deferent ideology and objective .For example like Malaysia that has many political parties like UMNO,PAS DAP,MCA,MIC and many more . Some these political parties are combine each other to increase their strength like Barisan Nasional which consist between thirteen political parties such as MCA ,MIC,GERAKAN , and so on .For opposition party in Malaysia , they are called Pakatan Rakyat which consist between PAS,PKR and DAP .

The last benefit by democracy process can be seen from the aspect of ruler power .In the state which practice democracy system the power of the ruler is well known as collective power .Collective power mean the ruler of the state (prime minister, president etc) cannot make his policy lonely and based on his interest because the power is not existed only at one individual only .The power of ruling is hold by a group of representative that were chosen by the people during election . So any bills, law and policies must get an agreement by the people before it can be implement as policy or law . From this aspect we can see that in presidential system in U.S.A In U.S.A before a policy can be implement by the president, the president must influencing congress to accept the policy .But in Malaysia before a law and policy can be implemented , the legislative body should bring the policy at Dewan Rakyat and get agreement between other member in legislative body and then passed to Dewan Negara and then get sign by head of state before it can become a law .All the process before become law should taking public agreement or opinion in the process . From these aspect democracy has preserve human right because all the aspect and policy will giving first for citizen will.

Although democracy has give many benefit for people and an administration, its also has bring many disadvantage which can be bad cause for people , government and administration . There are some disadvantage of democracy. For example not all the citizens are fully aware of the political scenario in their country. The common masses may not be aware of the political issue in society. This may result in people making wrong decision during election. As government is subject to change after every election term the authority will work with short term focus . As they have to face an election after completion of each term they may lost focus on working but more focus for an election to remain their authority. It will cause the development of the country will move slowly and make policy which make by ruler are not uniform and consistent. The other disadvantages cause by democracy is that mobs can influence the people. Citizens may vote in favour of the party under the influence by majority. As the easy sentence people may vote base on the party that they are supporting but not for the candidate. It will make harmful if the candidate by a party who has win the election are unable to do their duty because of wrong decision make by people. Citizens may vote under influence and propaganda by majority side. Compelled or influence by the philosophies of those around a person may not voice his true opinion .The next disadvantage that cause by process of democracy from the aspect of cost to form the government. Usually form of government by democracy are too costly and will be for negative impact for government which have financial problem in administration .It occurs because government machinery is too complex and its function involve much waste of time and money.

The last bad influence that cause by democracy can be seen from the aspect ruler who gain support from citizen .The government will use all their abilities as long as they can to manipulate the constitution in its own interest or even to rewrite if it possible . This is because they want to remain their power to rule the country.
As a conclusion, the democracy has its own benefit and bad influence. In process form of government its depend on the situation on administration in some state, its also depend with the development of the state. For example, democracy give freedom for people to choose their leader to develop the state for their advantage and their will. For example, the state that not exercise the democracy process like Swaziland that locate at South Africa. The citizen live in bad condition. Meanwhile, their ruler not has the charismatic leadership because of the monarchy system that not give people the freedom of speech. In addition their ruler has make the policy according to his own interest without taking people opinion. This will give bad cause to the people and the country development. In my opinion, this democracy should be stayed and exercise regularly because its bring a lot of benefit for people and the state. Beside that it also keeping people right, freedom, liberty, and justice. For example, in our country where democracy process are exercise by general election, where the people have right to voting their leader to rule their state. By process of democracy, people have chance to valued candidate qualification to choose the best representative by using people power. People can change the government if the government that their choose in previous election has not show good performance for their state, like what they hope. Easy as to say, the democracy system that from the people, by the people, for the people has a lot of advantages in keeping and protecting the human right.

EL NINO said...

Definition of Democracy

Democracy is a form of government in which power is held under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek means "popular government" which was coined from dēmos, "people" and kratos, "rule, strength" in the middle of the 5th-4th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.
In political theory of Ryan Rodriguez, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.
There are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority". An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human rights, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained). In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.
Democracy has its origins in Ancient Greece. However other cultures have significantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient India, Ancient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. Democracy has been called the "last form of government" and has spread considerably across the globe. Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), but still remains a controversial issue with regard to disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups.
History
The term democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought. The philosopher Plato contrasted democracy, the system of "rule by the governed", with the alternative systems of monarchy (rule by one individual), oligarchy (rule by a small élite class) and timocracy. Although Athenian democracy is today considered by many to have been a form of direct democracy, originally it had two distinguishing features: firstly the allotment (selection by lot) of ordinary citizens to government offices and courts, and secondarily the assembly of all the citizens. All the male Athenian citizens were eligible to speak and vote in the Assembly, which set the laws of the city-state; citizenship was not granted to women, or slaves. Of the 250,000 inhabitants only some 30,000 on average were citizens. Of those 30,000 perhaps 5,000 might regularly attend one or more meetings of the popular Assembly. Most of the officers and magistrates of Athenian government were allotted; only the generals and a few other officers were elected.
The island of Arwad, settled in the early 2nd millennium BC by the Phoenicians, has been cited as one of the first known examples of a democracy in the world. In Arwad, the people, rather than a monarch, are described as sovereign. In Greek, Arwad was known as Arado or Arados. Another possible example of primitive democracy may have been the early Sumerian city-states. Vaishali in what is now Bihar, India is also one of the first governments in the world to have elements of what we would today consider democracy, similar to those found in ancient Greece (although it was not a monarchy, ancient Vaishali is perhaps better described as an oligarchy). A similar proto-democracy or oligarchy existed temporarily among the Medes in the 6th century BC, but which came to an end after the Achaemenid Emperor Darius the Great declared that the best monarchy was better than the best oligarchy or best democracy.
Even though the Roman Republic contributed significantly into certain aspects of democracy, such as Laws, it never became a democracy. The Romans had elections for choosing representatives, but again women, slaves, and the large foreign population were excluded. Also the votes of the wealthy were given more weight and almost all high officials, such as being member of Senate, come from a few wealthy and noble families.
A serious claim for early democratic institutions comes from the independent "republics" of India, sanghas and ganas, which existed as early as the sixth century BCE and persisted in some areas until the fourth century CE. The evidence is scattered and no pure historical source exists for that period. In addition, Diodorus (a Greek historian at the time of Alexander the Great's excursion of India), without offering any detail, mentions that independent and democratic states existed in India. However, modern scholars note that the word democracy at the third century BC had been degraded and could mean any autonomous state no matter how oligarchic it was.




Democracy Is A Government From The People, To The People And For The People.
Democracy is come from Greek word that means ‘people power’. There are two types of democracy which are direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy refers to a system which all citizens are taking part and make the policy and law. People have right and power to voice out what they think, opinions and demand, directly or in directly on public matters.
Indirect democracy or representative democracy is a form of government which the citizen chooses their representative to form a national task a behalf. The task includes regulating laws; improve people security and safety, increase citizen standard and livings, preserve peaceful and harmony environment.
In my opinion, democracy is making by people. People who decide want is the best for the future. And they also decide who will lead them and be their representative. They will choose the best leader who can voice out want people wants. People want safety, facilities in their area and improvement. People want to have a better life until the next generation the leader who are been chosen will represent people and lead them.
I am strongly believed that democracy is all about what people want for their life and future. People have rights to voice out what they want. Democracy is from people, to people and for people.

kaisYa said...

DEMOCRACY!~
Democracy is a form of government in which power is held directly or indirectly by citizens under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek 'dimokratia' or "popular government” which was coined from 'dēmos', "people" and `κratos` is "rule, strength".

In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.

There are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others, However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority".

In historical times, most countries of the world had hereditary rulers. These kings made laws and ruled according to their whims and fancies. The people had no say in the affairs of the government. The quality of governance depended on the personality of the king. However, things have now changed. In India, we have a democratic form of government.

Democracy is a government, of the people, by the people and for the people. The government depends on the consent of the governed, that is, of the people. It is a government in which the people reign supreme. Here, sovereignty means the supreme power to take decisions, the power above which there could be no higher authority.

In a democracy, the people or the citizens as a whole exercise this supreme power. However, practically speaking, this means that there must be some mechanism available to the people to participate in the decision-making process and they must exercise control over the government. The government remains in power only as long as the people wish it to be in power.

An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human rights, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained).

In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.
Democracy has its origins in Ancient Greece. However other cultures have significantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient India, Ancient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. Democracy has been called the "last form of government" and has spread considerably across the globe. Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), but still remains a controversial issue with regard to disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups.

kaisYa said...

DEMOCRACY!~
Democracy is a form of government in which power is held directly or indirectly by citizens under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek 'dimokratia' or "popular government” which was coined from 'dēmos', "people" and `κratos` is "rule, strength".

In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.

There are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others, However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority".

In historical times, most countries of the world had hereditary rulers. These kings made laws and ruled according to their whims and fancies. The people had no say in the affairs of the government. The quality of governance depended on the personality of the king. However, things have now changed. In India, we have a democratic form of government.

Democracy is a government, of the people, by the people and for the people. The government depends on the consent of the governed, that is, of the people. It is a government in which the people reign supreme. Here, sovereignty means the supreme power to take decisions, the power above which there could be no higher authority.

In a democracy, the people or the citizens as a whole exercise this supreme power. However, practically speaking, this means that there must be some mechanism available to the people to participate in the decision-making process and they must exercise control over the government. The government remains in power only as long as the people wish it to be in power.

An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human rights, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained).

In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.
Democracy has its origins in Ancient Greece. However other cultures have significantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient India, Ancient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. Democracy has been called the "last form of government" and has spread considerably across the globe. Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), but still remains a controversial issue with regard to disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups.

atiqahfuzi said...

Democracy is government for the people, to the people, by the people.


Democracy comes from Greek word, ‘Demos’ means the people and ‘Kratein’ means to rule or the people to rule. According to Seeley, democracy means government in which everyone have share. Mc Iver said that democracy means a way of determining who shall govern and to what ends. According to Abraham Lincoln, democracy means a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is government by the people, meaning to say people directly or indirectly trough their representatives govern themselves and their will remains supreme on all questions and policy of the government. Traditionally, democracy is to prevent tyranny and despoting ruling which mean the accumulating of too much authority in the hand of one person or a few, democracy is not intended to give us “good” government, but to put some limits from the abuse of power. It provides opportunity for the people to involve in making decision and formulates general policies. In this form of government, government is chosen by the people and every individual have the right to voice out.
There are 2 types of democracy that is direct democracy and indirect democracy. Direct democracy started in the period of Yunani cities especially Athens. All citizens are allowed to influence the policies by means of a direct vote, referendum or any particular issue. So, when the people themselves directly expressed their will on public affairs, it is called pure or direct democracy. Law and rules are discussed and determined in the people assembly. The people formulate and expressed their will in “Mass Meeting” and they assembled for their purpose as often as required. For example, small city state of ancient Greece and Rome. This is
because, direct democracy can only exist in a small states with a limited and uniform population where people can conveniently meeting. The execution of governing and judgement is carried by the people together with the judge elected by the people. Famous scholar, Rousseau, believe that direct democracy is the pure and true democracy.
Indirect democracy refers to the form of government in which the citizens choose the representative to perform the national task on their behalf. Malaysia and United Kingdom are some countries that apply indirect democracy. This type of democracy exists due to the inefficient of direct democracy. It is impossible to implement direct democracy system of governing because people in modern era are expending enormously and it is impossible to gather all the people for such discussion. But, one critic of indirect democracy is that it is centralizes power into the hand of a few and increasing the likelihood of corruption in government. They can voice out and make policies on behalf of the people. But, indirect democracy has the tendency to be “Autocracy”.
Indirect democracy can be divided into two, which is Delegative democracy and Representive democracy. Delegative democracy are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. Constituency may recall the delegate at any time and the representative are expected only to pass on the decision of electors. Meaning to say, they have to come when the people call up. But, they cannot make decision on behalf of the people. They must meet the electors first. The delegate is given the power to act according to the area of jurisdiction that is decided in the election. Representative democracy means the representative can make decision on behalf of the people. The people elect the government official who then can make decision on their behalf. But in the other hand, they are democratically selected, so it is hard to recall them.
There are some conditions for a democracy state. One of the conditions is right for the people to elect the government through free and fair elections. Participation from the people must exist in the government’s ruling. They have to give response for the policy making. For example, they can talk about their problems to the representative and they have the right to criticises the government so that the government apply check and balance. The rule of law also should be obeyed by the people and so with the government. In addition, there should have human right where the people have the freedom of speech, assembly and freedom from discrimination. For example, if they want to make a campaign, they have to ask permission from the police first so that the police can be there to maintain the campaign to be under control.
One of the basic for democracy is an action of will. The people should have the will to have democracy and the power to retain it too. They should be conscious of their political right and duties. Furthermore, there should have the sense of fellowship. There should be no limit created by religion caste, birth and wealth. This is because harmony can only exist in a society of equals which then can ensure justice. The third basic of democracy is spirit of tolerance where there should be give and take. Everyone have free access to knowledge, security against unemployment and fair condition of working which is called partnership among equals. The next basic is education. The active and intelligent participation of citizen in public affair can be ensuring if all are educated. So, government must provide a system of free and compulsory education for all. For example, the citizen must be intelligent because if you do not about your right, then how can you participate in government?
One of the merits of democracy is ensuring liberty and equality. Meaning to say, everyone are treated the same. No one possesses special privileges because all are equal in term of opportunity before the law. Moreover, it implies the recognition of the duties of the right of the people. Popular election control and responsibility are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency of welfares than any other system in the world. Plus, it can avoid tyranny and abuse of power by having separation of power and apply check and balance. In addition, the government of the day will safeguard the right of the minority group. Last but not least, the party in power forms the government after being chosen by the electorate according to the wishes of the majority on the Election Day.
One of the demerits of democracy is that men will be lazy in politics. They might not be intelligent and do not have sufficient education. So, there will be problems to find the best men to be in the politics. Second demerit is about party system. Their propaganda misguides the people. Meaning to say, the people vote for the party, but not the candidate. Then, the candidates will follow the party wants but not the people wants. Next, the government may be unwilling to carry out promises on the Election Day. Government of the day also may try to manipulate the Constitution in its own interest.
Democracy is based on consent, wishes, agreement and desirable of the people. People participation in political process is high and limitless. They have the right to voice out, meaning to say they have power called ‘People Sovereignty’. They are free to support any party they want. In democracy form of government, political parties are allowed to exist and expand. People can completely compete openly in political parties to fight for the desire position. People can voice out their ideas and suggestion, argument and protest and give support to the ruler.
The power of the ruler in democracy form of government is called ‘Collective Power’. Meaning to say the power does not belong to only 1 individual or group only. Democratic state has election which means they have separation of power and apply check and balance. Separation of power means the government is divided into 3 branches which is called ‘Trias Politica’ or ‘Tripartite System’. Any bills or public policies must get the agreement from the people before they were approved and implemented.
Democratic state held election for the people to choose representative. It allows citizen participation in the government. This shows the right of the people. In addition, there are various ideology exist due to various political parties. Law making is done collectively to ensure the law protects the interest of the people. Law changes depending on the needs of time which is done by congress. Law protects individual right. Press also free to exist and they have freedom from discrimination meaning to say no one can restrain others.

Jacya LiYa said...

DEFINITION
Democracy from the Greek “demos” meaning “the people” and “kratein” meaning “to rule” or “the people to rule”. It’s meant literally. “Rule by the people” or “power of the people”. This is the form of government where the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their representatives.

According to Abraham Lincoln President of American from (1861-1865) say, democracy is ‘the rule by the people, to people and for people’. A government by the people, meaning that, peoples either directly or indirectly through their representatives govern themselves and their will remains supreme on all questions of social direction and policy of the government.

Direct democracy is a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of a direct vote, or referendum, on any particular issue. The people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. This system is started in the period of the Yunani cities especially at Athens. Beside, that the direct democracy rule is all the people involve directly in the ruling, in the term of regulation of law and rule, implementation of law and judgment. So the execution of governing and adjustment is carried out by the people together with the judges elected by the people. For example, at small city of ancient Greece and Rome. However pure on direct democracy is can exist and function only in small states with are limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet.
Indirect democracy is broad term describing a means of government by the people through elected representatives .So all the citizen can choose their representative to perform national task on their behalf .Furthermore, indirect democracy which all the power only on the hand of are few people. That why, the representative are elected for a certain period of time. There are two several form of this system that is delegative democracy and representative democracy. Delegative democracy means the delegated are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. The constituency may recall the delegate at any time and the representative are expected only to transmit the decision of electors.

However, representative democracy means the people elect government official who then make decision on their behalf. In addition, the representatives are democratically selected and usually harder to recall. That why, people’s opinions and demand will be voice up to the government through these representatives. So, most of the country in the world, including Malaysian practice representative democracy.“Democracy is a government from the people to the people and for the people”. This mean that democracy apply peoples choices or makes their people satisfy with what their want. In other words, give their people’s to make their own choices. Democracy also apply majority vote. This mean, when there is an election time all the citizen that has register (21 years old) should go for voting. In other word, people or citizen give them mandate to govern them. At this time, citizen will vote representative that they believe and trust to govern their state. The candidate must have ability to influence others to vote or choose them. So that, before the election the candidate always make campaign or go to some places to get influence from people to vote them.

Beside that’s, government also want to make their people satisfy and heard to majority voice. This will make people more trust and believes them because people think that they have right to make their own choices. People will satisfy in what government have do to them such as give them what things that their need in their life, in other words necessary things such as water, electric and others necessary thing. For example, Malaysia applies democracy. People or citizens have their right to make their choices.

However, according to A.C Kapur, there is many the strength of the democracy system in the government. That is, democracy ensures both liberty and equality for the citizen to choose the representative in their country or the state. So, no one of citizen possessed special privileges. All equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law. Democracy can also ensure self government. That’s mean; a government by the people for their welfare and thus, it stimulate them to self-education. Therefore, our government are free govern from others country.

Furthermore according to Harris, democracy strength when the party in power forms of government after being chosen by the electorate, wishes of the majority as expressed on Election Day. The government will act as the agent of the community as a whole and will guarantee the proper right of voluntary associations, and freedom of discussion in all possible areas, particularly religion, philosophy, art and science. By the way, democracy also has disadvantages in the democracy system. On the other hand, Kapur stated the disadvantages of democracy as men maybe lazy in politic. It means that, he might not be intelligent or is not sufficiently educated. In other word, education is important when we want to elect the person who’s become the representative. For example, the people who has a power usually selfish and become arrogant with others or citizen. This because, they think they have power and do not want to communicate with others.

Beside that, democracy is inefficient as a form of government. It is based on assumption that all men are equal and than one man is as good as another. However, men a not be equals as they might be different in term of physical and mental ability. The representative chosen may not be suitable but they still rule because of majority. Harris also says, the government may be unwilling or unable to carry out promise made on Election Day. They will try to select another election day most suitable to themselves. They may be pressure group or interest which stand in the way of simple straight forward law-making, or good reason why administration acquire considerable power.

That’s why some of voluntary associations may try to harass and obstruct the proper operations of government. At the same time freedom of assembly, discussion and expression may lead to freakishness being tolerated even where they are dangerous of public safety. Minorities also may attempt to assert rights out of all proportion to their minorities’ status with the object challenging the majority. The government of the day also may try to manipulate the constitution in its own interests or even to rewrite it if possible. In law making, democracy government done collectively to ensure the law protects the interest of the people. Law changes depending on the needs of the time. However, in social freedom and the media aspect law protect individual right. That is free presses are allowed.
As the conclusion, the citizen must know their responsibility in the state. In other words, they have right to choose or vote the representative to govern them. In order to choose the candidate, they must know the characteristic of the candidate. They give them mandate to govern their country. That’s mean that, they trust and belief the representative that they will choose. So, the candidate must have ability to influence others to follow and vote them during the election.

sain tawang said...

Democracy From The People To The People By The People
INTRODUCTION

The word of democracy originates from the Greek “demos” meaning “the people” and “kratein” meaning “to rule” or “the people to rule” which meant literally: “Rule by the people” or “power of the people”. This is the form of government where the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their representatives. Following to Dicey, “form of government in which the governing body is comparatively large fraction of the entire nation”.
In short, a government by the people, meaning that, people either directly or indirectly through their representative govern themselves and their will remains supreme on all questions of social direction and policy of the government.
Traditionally the purpose of Democracy is prevent tyranny ( the accumulation of too much authority in the hands of one or few). That is, democracy is not intended to give us “good” government. But to put some limits to the abuse of power.

Types Of Democracy

1. Direct Democracy
Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. The supporters of direct democracy argue that democracy is more than merely a procedural issue (i.e., voting). Most direct democracies to date have been weak forms, relatively small communities, usually city-states. However, some see the extensive use of referendums, as in California, as akin to direct democracy in a very large polity with more than 20 million in California, 1898-1998 (2000) (ISBN 0-8047-3821-1). In Switzerland, five million voters decide on national referendums and initiatives two to four times a year; direct democratic instruments are also well established at the cantonal and communal level. Vermont towns have been known for their yearly town meetings, held every March to decide on local issues.

2. Indirect Democracy
Indirect democracy is a broad term describing a mean of government by the people through elected representative. One critique of indirect democracy is that it centralizes power into the hands of a few, thereby increasing the likelihood of corruption in government.
A form of indirect democracy is delegative democracy whereby delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. The constituency may recall the delegated at any time and the representative are expected only to transmit (pass on) the decisions of electors.
Another more familiar type of indirect democracy is representative democracy in which the people elect government officials who then make decisions on their behalf. The representative are democratically selected, and usually harder to recall. Most of countries in the word, including Malaysian, practiced representative democracy.



Merit Of Democracy
1.Democracy ensures both liberty and equity. No one possessed special privileges.
All are equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law.
2.Implies recognition of duties of the government and the rights of the people. Thus
popular election, popular control and popular responsibility are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than any other system of government.
3.ensure self-government. A government by the people for their welfare and thus, it stimulates them to self-education.
4.believes in method of peaceful persuasion and rational argument. A democratic society is not liable to revolution.

Democracy From People
Democracy is a form of government in which power is held by " the people" under a free electoral system. It is derived from the Greek ( dimokratia), "popular government" which was coined from (dēmos), "people" and (kratos), "rule, strength" in the middle of the 5th-4th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in .
In political theory, democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. Even though there is no universally accepted definition of 'democracy', there are two principles that any definition of democracy includes. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.
There are several varieties of democracy some of which provide better representation and more freedoms for their citizens than others. However, if any democracy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political power with balances such as the separation of powers, then a branch of the system of rule is able to accumulate power in a way that is harmful to democracy itself. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy, but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to be abused by the "tyranny of the majority". An essential process in representative democracies are competitive elections, that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression,

and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.
Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating philosophy for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism, equality before the law, the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances, due process, civil liberties, human rights, and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained). In other cases, "democracy" is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to private organizations and other groups.
Democracy has its origins in Ancient Greece. However other cultures have significantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ancient India, Ancient Rome Europe, and North and South America. Democracy has been called the "last form of government" and has spread considerably across the globe. Suffrage has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), but still remains a controversial issue with regard to disputed territories, areas with significant immigration, and countries that exclude certain demographic groups.

(TakenFromWikipedia)

Democracy to People
Under minimalism, democracy is a system of government in which citizens give teams of political leaders the right to rule in periodic elections. According to this minimalist conception, citizens cannot and should not “rule” because, for example, on most issues, most of the time, they have no clear views or their views are not well-founded. Joseph Schumpeter articulated this view most famously in his book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy.[61] Contemporary proponents of minimalism include William H. Riker, Adam Przeworski, Richard Posner.
Direct democracy, on the other hand, holds that citizens should participate directly, not through their representatives, in making laws and policies. Proponents of direct democracy offer varied reasons to support this view. Political activity can be valuable in itself, it socializes and educates citizens, and popular participation can check powerful elites. Most importantly, citizens do not really rule themselves unless they directly decide laws and policies.
Governments will tend to produce laws and policies that are close to the views of the median voter – with half to his left and the other half to his right. This is not actually a desirable outcome as it represents the action of self-interested and somewhat unaccountable political elites competing for votes. Downs suggests that ideological political parties are necessary to act as a mediating broker between individual and governments. Anthony Downs laid out this view in his 1957 book An Economic Theory of Democracy.

Deliberative democracy is based on the notion that democracy is government by discussion. Deliberative democrats contend that laws and policies should be based upon reasons that all citizens can accept. The political arena should be one in which leaders and citizens make arguments, listen, and change their minds.
Radical democracy is based on the idea that there are hierarchical and oppressive power relations that exist in society. Democracy's role is to make visible and challenge those relations by allowing for difference, dissent and antagonisms in decision making processes.

Representative
Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. The most common mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a plurality of the votes.
Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (or constituency), or represent the entire electorate proportionally proportional systems, with some using a combination of the two. Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct democracy, such as referendums. A characteristic of representative democracy is that while the representatives are elected by the people to act in their interest, they retain the freedom to exercise their own judgment as how best to do so.


Parliamentary democracy
Parliamentary democracy where government is appointed by parliamentary representatives as opposed to a 'presidential rule' by decree dictatorship. Under a parliamentary democracy, government is exercised by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review, checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the people.
Liberal democracy
A Liberal democracy is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law, and usually moderated by a constitution that emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the leaders and on the extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised against the rights of minorities (see civil liberties).


Legislative of Democracy
To make it easier “how bill become law?” process must more clearer and easy to understand, we decided to take our country Malaysia as an example to explain furthermore how the law-making take place. To make the law really the mirror of public opinion, it is necessary that it should not be made hurriedly. It needs proper thrashing so that its contents and ends may be considered from all point of view. For discussion two heads are better than one, and two hundred are better than two.
The Bill must go through four stages in both houses of Parliament. There are First Reading, Second Reading, Committee Level, and Third Reading. In the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara, the First Reading and the Second Reading may be done within the same session of Parliament and in the same day, except for the Supply Bill.

How Bill Become law

The process of “how bill become law?” is the functions of the legislature by the legislative body who is responsible in the making of law. Law is regarded as the expression of the will of the people. The will of the people is expressed through representative assemblies an all other means of making laws have been swallowed up by legislation. Legislation is the most prolific and direct source of law compare to the other factors. Laws must be consistent with the changing conditions of society and in harmony with the new social environment. Old laws which have become absolute, are repealed and new ones substituted in their place, that is why law must be monitor time to time by the people representative to meet the demand of the people.


MALAYSIAN DEMOCRACY

Malaysian one of country that implement the System of Democracy (indirect democracy).
Malaysian popular which of parliamentary system. Parliamentary in Malaysian consist of Dewan Negara (House of Senate) and Dewan Rakyat ( House of representative). Dewan Rakyat have 222 elected members with the role of passing of bill. The Dewan Negara has two categories members, those who are indirectly elected and those who appointed by YDPA. Each state assembly elected two person to represent the state. The remaining 40 members (senators) of the Dewan Negara are to be appointed by YDPA, two appointed for the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, one member for Labuan and one for Putrajaya. The term of office of a member shall be three years and shall not be affected by dissolution of parliament.


Election Commission (Malaysian)

The main criterion for a state with a democracy system is the general election. The general election is held to enable the people to use their right to choose the government they trust to administrative or govern well and also at the same time, to fulfill the need of the people. Through election, the party with the most votes has the right to use that mandate for 5 years, until the next general election.

To ensure that election is conducted fairly, Article 113 of the federal constitution have set up an independent body known as the Election Commission (EC). The EC shall be appointed by the YDPA after consultation with the conference of rules, and it shall consist of a chairman, a deputy chairman and five other members (Article 114). The commission has been given the authority to appoint or employ any persons to carry out the various duties (Article 115).

To ensure that, this body is not influence by others, the Federal Constitution has stated that a chairman and members of the EC cannot be removed from his position without advice from the Council of judges. So, a members of EC may hold office until he reach the age of 65 or he may resign at any time by writing to the YDPA.
(Taken From Government and Politics (PAD 170) Guideline

CONCLUSION
Modern democracy is indirect and representative. The voters elect their representative and they become members of legislative assemble charge with duty of making laws and bringing harmony of purpose between the government and the governed.

An election can be defined as a process through which the people in the certain area choose their representative who fulfill their wants and needs.

Voters refer to citizen of the state enjoying the right of electing their representatives.
Electorate means the entire body of such voters or electors.

cik ayu rahayu said...

Democracy word comes from the Greek word ‘demos’ and ‘kratos’ which means the people and the latter power. So logically, democracy means power of the people. The most popular definition of democracy has been given by Abraham Lincoln as “The government of the people, by the people and for the people.” In other words, the decision is given by citizen with the consent of the rules’ permission. This is regarded as a form of government where the people rule themselves directly or indirectly through their representatives. Democracy can be successful only when minorities feel that they are not subjected to oppression by majority and that their case has been properly heard.
Traditionally the purpose of democracy is to prevent tyranny. Democracy important aspects are freedom, minority right and property right. This form of government provides opportunities for the people to involve in making decision and formulates general policies. For example, the citizens of the state can choose their leader through election and if the leader does not carry out his task as he supposedly to do, then in the next election the people can chose another leader to replace him. This give chances for the citizens to choose the best leader. In the democratic ruling, there always changes of government. These changes sometimes cause the alternation of government policies and also amendment the laws and constitution. Power disputes occur in election time when there are political parties with their own agenda and propaganda. This may lead to the leader being elected is not expert in certain fields as they don’t have knowledge on the government policies. The people chose them maybe because they were being influenced by the parties’ propaganda and the issues being raised at the election period. So, the citizen must think who the best leader to lead the country and even the most ardent democrat will not vote for the lunatics, criminals or infant. Sir Stafford Cripps writes that, democracy is a system of government in which every adult’s citizen is equally free to express his views and desires upon all subjects in whatever way he wishes, and to influence the majority of his fellow-citizens to decide according to those views and to influence those desires.
Democratic politician are those where politics are competitive and free and where the government is responsible and participation widespread. As a form of government, there are two types of democracy that is the direct and the indirect democracy. This can ensure the participation of the people in democratic rule. These are the direct democracy of the Athenian model and the representative democracy of the Anglo-American type.
Pure democracy, also known as direct democracy started in the period of the Yunani’s cities especially Athens. The people involves in the direct ruling, in terms of regulation of law and rule, implementation of law and judgment. In other words, it is a system where the people rule themselves directly without intermediaries. The execution of governing and judgment is carried out by the people together with the judges elected by the people. This emphasizes three features such as popular participation, majority rule and political equity. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believes that direct democracy is the pure and true democracy.
However, the direct democracy is difficult and impossible to implement at the present time. It is because the direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet. For example, those small city-states of ancient Greece and Rome. The people in the modern era are increasing and it is impossible to gather all the peoples in one place for such discussion. Therefore, representative democracy is put into practice in order to replace direct democracy.
Indirect democracy or known as representative democracy. It is a broad term describing a means of governance by the people through elected representatives. The people elect government officials who then make decisions on their behalf. In other words, its describe that the ordinary citizens do not make governmental decisions themselves but, instead, choose the public officials, in open elections contested by several political parties, and by individuals of different shades of opinion, to make decisions for them. For example, members of the Malaysian house of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) represent up to a quarter of a million people. These members represent their own ethnic in their own district.
In a representative democracy the ultimate source of authority remains with the people. But it draws a distinction between the possession of authority which resides in the electorate and its exercise, which is by the elected representatives. The voters elect the representatives for a number of years and after the expiry of their term, they report back to their masters, the electors. The electors will determine whether they are continue being the representative or not for the next term. If the electors prefer to discontinue with them, they would do so by electing new representatives. Representative democracy guarantees, in other terms, a general harmony of purpose between government and the governed by reconciling effective authority and political freedom.
There are few characteristics of democracy. Firstly is from the aspect of the form of ruling, whereas it is based on the agreement and desirable of the people. The people involvement in the political process is high and limitless. The people can choose their representatives through election. Next is from the aspect of the political party. The political parties are permitted to compete and grow in democratic state. Citizen can compete openly in political parties to fight for the desire position. Citizens can voice their views, ideas and suggestions, can voice with argument and protest and also can give support to the ruler. The third one is from the aspect of ruler power. In a democratic state, the power of ruler is known as collective power which means the power existed only at one individual or body. The representatives that had been chosen by
the people held the power of ruling. Any bills or publics policies must get the agreement from the people before they were approved and implemented. From the aspect of election, the people had their opportunity to involve in politics and choose their own representatives but this carries out in a definite period of time. The other aspect is the ideology. There is many ideology exist in the democratic state because there is a freedom to establish political parties and ideology. In this democratic state, the formation of law is done collectively. It is done openly to ensure that those laws would protect the citizens’ basis right. The laws also change according to the world development and transmission of time.
The proponents of democracy, however, argue that it is the only system that ensures accountability of the rulers to the ruled. The principles of competitive election, popular participation and majority rule ensure a greater degree of efficiency than any other system of government. Advocates of representative democracy argue that people are, for the most part, rational and capable of deciding what is good for them personally. The only way to ensure that the interests of everyone will be taken into account is to give the bulk of the population the right to influence the basics decisions that affect their lives. The big influenced to make the voter done their job is when there is an issues becomes important enough. So, the democrats also counter the argument about neglecting the minorities. In a representative democracy, minority are right respected. The democratic direction, inter alia, depends upon at least a nominal measure of international order and security. And the international situation today leaves an ominous question mark over the future democracy – as it does over the future of the world.

Nadia & Nazarul said...

“Democracy is a government of the people, for the people, and by the people”, this definition state by Abraham Lincoln. By this definition a government by the people, meaning that, peoples either directly or indirectly through their representatives govern themselves and their will remains supreme on all questions of social direction and policy of the government. Traditionally the purpose of democracy is to prevent tyranny. That is democracy is not intended to give us “good” government, but to put some limits to the abuse of power. Democracy can be divided into two types; there are direct democracy and indirect democracy.

In general, the term "direct democracy" usually refers to citizens making policy and law decisions in person, without going through representatives and legislatures. It is a political system in which all citizens are allowed to influence policy by means of a direct vote, or referendum, on any particular issue. So when the people themselves directly express their will on public affairs this is pure or direct democracy. More recent direct democracy proposals tend to focus on voting schemes (usually high tech) that would allow widespread, virtually continual voting by millions of citizens on whatever proposals surfaced. The people formulate and express their will in a mass meeting and they assemble for this purpose as often as required. For example, small city-state of ancient Greece and Rome. Pure or direct democracy can exist and function only in small states with a limited, uniform population where people can conveniently meet.

An indirect democracy can best be described as a form of democracy in which the citizens elect government officials but following this election have little or no input as to governmental decisions made by those officials. A form of indirect democracy is delegate democracy whereby delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. The constituency may recall the delegate at any time and the representative are expected only to transmit the decision of electors. The representatives are democratically selected, and usually harder to recall. Most of the countries in the world, including Malaysia, practiced representative democracy.

To archive an excellent democracy system there must have conditions to make it successful. A modern democracy implies certain right for citizen, this to make sure the people obey all law that the government had create. The condition for a democracy; firstly are right to elect government trough free and fair election, second is participation, third is the rule of law, and lastly human rights, such as; freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom from discrimination. Trough this law people can organize well, so there will be no argument. For example like Malaysia, when there were had a Malaysian general election, 2008, the result of this election was shocked because the opposition had won 82 seats meanwhile BN only managing to secure the remaining 140 seats. Trough this election we can see that Malaysia still using free and fair election, the proof is when the citizen had giving right to elect their own representative.

According to Ivor Brown, the requisites of democracy includes; an “action of will”: people should have the will to have democracy and the power to retain it too. They should be conscious of their political rights and duties. Sense of fellowship: no limits created by religion caste, birth of wealth. Harmony can only exist in a society of equals. This will ensure social justice. A spirit of tolerance: the rule of majority, and submission of the minority to the majority. There should be a sense to give and take. Adequate provision of opportunities for the individual to develop his personality: everyone has free access to knowledge, security against unemployment, a minimum wages, fair condition of work and leisure, and provision against sickness and old age. In others words, a democratic society means a partnership among equals. Participation: doing things in common with others and taking your shares of the responsibilities involved. A citizen should be thinking human with independent opinion with interest in public affairs. Education: active and intelligent participation of citizens in public affairs can be assured if all are educated. Government must provide a system of free and compulsory education for all. A citizen does not only obey, but also ensure that his obedience is rational. Though Ivor Brown, government can refer the requisites to govern their countries.

In every democracy there will have merits and demerits, to compare it to other system. The merits or strength of democracy according to A.C Kapur are democracy ensure both liberty and equality. No one possessed special privileges. All are equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law. By this means all citizen have the same rights in the countries, they will be treat like other and there will be no unsatisfied between other people. Other advantages are implies recognition of the duties of the government and the right of the people. Thus popular election, popular control and popular responsibility are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than other system of government. Ensure self-government. A government by the people for their welfare and thus, it stimulates them to self-education. It also believes in methods of peaceful persuasion and rational argument. A democratic society is not liable to revolution. The other strength of democracy as, the party in the power forms the government after being chosen by the electorate, according to the wishes of the majority as expressed on Election Day. In democracy political authority derives only from the mandate or prior agreement of the electorate, and will be offered for approval or disproval to the electorate on Election Day. The assembly or parliament make the law and is supreme in the administration of government. The government of the day will safeguard the right of minority groups. Democracy merits also the government will act as the agent of the community as a whole, and will guarantee the proper rights of voluntary associations, and freedom of discussion in all possible areas, particularly religion, philosophy, art and science.

On the other hand, democracy also had it own weakness. The demerit that had listed by Harris (1997) is no important minority, particularly if it is a large minority, will ever be content with a suborlinaise role in the body politics. Government may be unwilling or unable to carry out promises made on Election Day and will try to select another election day most suitable to them selves, if the system allows this. There may be many pressure groups or interest which stand in the way of simple straight forward law-making, or good reason why administrator acquire considerable power. The government of the day may try to manipulate the constitution in its own interest or even to rewrite it if possible. Minorities may attempt to assert rights out of all proportion to their minority status, with the object of challenging the majority. Some voluntary associations may try to harass and obstruct the proper operations of government. At the same time freedom of assembly, discussion and expression may lead to freakishness and eccentricity being tolerated even where there are dangerous for public safety.

Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people. To have an effectiveness government is not based on the system that we used but it based on how we used the system efficiency. As long as the government hear the people voice, there only can achieved a better development. Democracy system also can organize the countries well without any conflict. It also helps people to fulfill their needs trough the representative that they had elect.