Thursday, February 19, 2009

PAD 260 Task 1

Explain how ergonomics work in office management.

9 comments:

adib said...

hello

megart said...

yo, wassup

annurhidayah said...
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hadijah maghfirah said...

Democracy is a form of government where the people themselves choose their representatives in the government. The selected representatives will become a media where people can voice out their opinion or dissatisfaction over the government or the state condition to the ruler of the state. In a democracy state, it is the people who hold the most important role. Because they are the one who select the ruler of the government. That is why democracy defined as by people to people.

In a democracy form of government, there are two important principles that have been used. First, all members of the society have equal access to power and the second one is all citizens enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties. Democracy gives opportunity to the citizens to stand their rights and make sure the government is administer by one of them who is really qualified and may help them in order to keep the state peace and maintain it. Those people in democracy state should realize and know about their political rights, be cautious, be rational and always up to date to what is happening in their state. So that their rights and position in their state can be use to the fullest because the state’s progress and development are depend most on the people themselves. They should know who to choose and how to act towards the government so that their rights as a citizen will be preserves.

As we know, democracy can be divided into two types which are direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy means a system which all citizens make policy and laws. They have the ability to voice out their wants, directly and indirectly in public matters. This type of democracy implemented in ancient century in Greek. In the other side, indirect democracy represents the citizens choose their representatives to perform the national task on their behalf. People’s opinion will be voice out through those chosen representatives. Those representatives also elected for a certain term or period. This type of democracy being use in Malaysia. These two democracy have their own pros and contrast compare to each other.

In our opinion, democracy is the best form of government since the person in the government agencies cannot do something beyond the boundaries because all their activities and decisions being evaluate and observe by the citizens. It is quite impossible for abuse of power to occur in democracy form of government because the citizens have the right to take the ruler down if there is something not right happen in the flow of work or task in the state. Compare to other form of government such as monarchy, there is a high possibilities of abuse of power to occur especially in absolute monarchy because the monarch have unquestionable power and the citizens must follow and obey all the ruler’s wills. Again, the concept of democracy which is by people for people bring so many advantages because the people will always make sure their representatives will not doing something or make decisions without their approval. Because if that happen, the citizens dissatisfaction may cause the representatives to be replace with another person who is better and can protect all the citizens right and fulfill what they want as long as it gives benefits for all the people in the state and also for the state itself.



MERITS OF DEMOCRACY.
There are many merits that we can get when we using this form of, government which is democracy. One of the merits is ensured both liberty and equality, no one possessed special privileges. All are equal among equals in term of opportunity and equality before the law. This is mean by all citizen in the country have their own priority and when they doing something against the law, the punishment will be given. Same as the minister and other cabinet government, there is no different when it comes on against the law.
Second merits of the democracy is implies recognition of the duties of the government and the rights of the people. Thus popular election, popular control and popular responsibility are more likely to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and welfare than any other system of government. When the election has started the citizen will vote their own representative and the best man will won the vote.
In addition, the government will acts as the agent of the community as a whole, and will guarantee the proper rights of voluntary associations, and freedom of discussion in all possible areas, particular region, philosophy, art and design. The society will be manageable and the government will help the citizen that has difficulty in their community life such as free education, and so on.
The next merits are the assembly or parliament makes the laws and is supreme in the administration. As there is, the discussion among the representatives, a lot of ideas can be exchange. When a problem arise, the solution will be more effective because everyone has giving their opinion. This will leading the state more efficient and the administration of government become stronger when in charge of the state. When the government is strong enough, the citizen will believes in methods of peaceful, persuasion and rational argument.
Last but not least is the government of the day will safeguard the right of minority groups. As example, the smaller group of the race in the state of Malaysia such as penan,kayan and other race that live in country side and have a small amount of number. This group has it’s own special right and the right will be manage by the government so this people will not live in hardness when the state is advance of the technology.

DEMERITS OF DEMOCRACY
The first demerits of democracy are the selection of governing authorities is made by the citizen. However, not all the citizen are aware or alert with the political issues around them. Therefore, during the election they sometime will just elect the representative based on their popularity. The representative that they elect may not qualify enough to be their leader. As a result, their right in the state may not fully fulfill their voice
The second demerits of democracy is may unwilling or not able to carry out the promises that theyhave made during the campaign. This is because, they will do anything to attrack the people even though their promises are not possible to be done. The people especially those who are not alert with the political scenario may just believe their words.
Thirdly, many pressure groups or interest which always looking for the chance to take over the government authority. For example, the opposition party. Many arguments will happen between both parties and the government administration will be affected. The corruption or abuse of power also will be happen as a result of the parties to gain votes from the other people.
The next demerits is, as democracy is based on principle that all man are equal and no one is better than another. However, man are not equal in term of physical and mental ability. The representative that are choose may not suitable but they still rule because it is majority decision.
The fifth demerit of democracy is election propaganda will misguide and miss educate the people. As propaganda of the party is decided by the whole members it is actually show that the party is good. People will vote for the party and not because of the candidates. The representatives will just follow what the party wants instead of what the people wants.
As a conclusion, a democracy is freedom to choose and the freedom to change. The government authority will work based on people’s interest and therefore the abuse of power can be prevented. The people will do check and balance toward the governments. People is playing the big role in determining the government’s success because the representatives that they elect will eventually run the governments.

barney_temok said...

Ergonomic at the workplace

Ergonomic at the workplace refers to the physical ergonomics of the workplace as it is related to the environment of that particular workplace. Ergonomic at the workplace is all about the safety at the workplace as it play the major role as to avoid or prevent any injuries of the worker that may cause big problems to the organization.

When the ergonomic at the workplace are effective, an organization can decrease the money paid out in workers compensation. For example, over five millions workers sustain overextension injuries per year. Through ergonomics workplaces can be created or designed so that workers do not have to overextend themselves and the manufacturing industry could save billions in workers compensation.

There are two approaches of ergonomic practice applied in the workplace which is proactive and reactive. Reactive ergonomic is when something needs to be fixed and corrective action is taken. Proactive ergonomics is the process of seeking areas that could be fixed through equipment design or design task.

Fields of ergonomics.

Engineering psychology is on of the interdisciplinary part of Ergonomic. Engineering psychology studies the relationship between people and machine with an objective to improve such relationship by redesigning the equipment of the machine, the place or location at workplace and also changing the way people use the machine. Usually engineering psychology used to be call as making the relationship between people and machine more “user-friendly”. Engineering psychology is field of psychology that concerned with psychological factors which are related to design of equipment and also use of machine. Human factors is much more detailed than engineering psychology, which is focused specially on designing systems that accommodate the information-processing capabilities of the brain.

Macro ergonomics is an approach to ergonomic that emphasizes more on broad system view of design, examining organizational environments, culture, history, and work goals. It deals with the physical design of tools and the environment. It is the study of the society/technology interface and their consequences for relationships, processes, and institutions. It also deals with the optimization of the designs of organizational and work systems through the consideration of personnel, technological, and environmental variables and their interactions. The goal of macro ergonomics is a completely efficient work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, and employee satisfaction, health, safety, and commitment. It analyzes the whole system, finds how each element should be placed in the system, and considers all aspects for a fully efficient system. A misplaced element in the system can lead to total failure.

jaras ak pau said...

Ergonomics can be define as the scientific discipline concerned with designing according to human needs, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It also can be define as human engineering that integrates the use of space, furniture, equipment and other physiological factors such as light, colour, sound and temperature for the workers on the job. In specific, it is the science of fitting the workplace to the worker and it encompasses the entire office from ceiling to floor, or from wall to wall and etc.
There is several ways of ergonomic works in office management. First of all, the ergonomic will improve productivity and work quality. The performance of the employees will be improved if they were doing their job in comfortable and convenience office environment. This is because the employee will perform their jobs without any disturbance from internal and external environment. For example, the surroundings of office or workplace are quietly. This show that the employees will focus and more concentrate in performing their task. As the result, the employees were doing their task pleasantly.
Furthermore, the performance of the employees will be decrease if there are so many disturbances such as noise and etc in workplace or office. Beside that, if the workers failed to give full attentions to their work, it will lead to the unsatisfied final work. This mentions that the ergonomic should come forward to make sure that the employees’ performance can be achieved.
Secondly, the employees also can improve their morale and motivation through the ergonomics. The employees always want to come to work if the office arrange or do a decoration that using the landscaping plants or neutral resources. There are many advantages decoration that using the plant resources such as counteract the cold, provide privacy, brighten and warm area. These decorations will attract the emotion of the employees. Furthermore, people spend something like half of their working life at work. So, their working condition should be favourable and conducive to a high level of productivity.
Beside that, if the temperature, ventilation and cleanliness (air environment) in good condition the workers feel comfortable to do their job. It also can improve mental activities, boost efficiency, increases productivity and decrease absenteeism. Improper air environment may lower workers vitality and causes headache.
Thirdly, the ergonomic also can play an important role in office to reduce occupational illness and injury. Nowadays, most office uses various modern office technologies. There are some problems relating to using the modern office technologies which are hazy eyesight, strenuous eyes, repetitive motion disorder, and strain in the muscle on the torso, back and neck and bruise in the wrist. For example, to have a better view of the monitor and see the image clearly the management of office should take good care in selecting the right of illumination and place it appropriately. Normally, brighter lighting or sources that cause glare on your monitor lead to eyestrain or headaches which may force you to work in awkward postures to have a better view of screen.
Other than that, if the illness and injury in office or workplace can be reduced this will cause the claims for the workers expenses for medical also decrease. If less money spent on workers compensation claim, the office management can used or spent that money for other related needs such as buy the new office equipment, buy new modern technologies and etc for increase level of productivity.
Fourthly, ergonomic are refers to the equipment of office automation that be use or designed to improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the business office. Through this automation, the clerical workers, managers and supervisors will easy to perform their task. Beside that, the time to implement the task is shorten and faster. Therefore, the workers no need to wait or take for a long time to implement the task given by their employer. For example, in the previous days, all the organisation use a type writer but nowadays, the organisation uses a laptop or computer to write or do a presentation through the Power Point or Microsoft Words.
Generally, using the computer or laptop are more better and efficiency as compare with the using of the type writer. This is because when using the computer or laptop the employees or employer easier to do a correction. But, using the type writer they need to write again from the first sentences. It because the time needed to implement the task given is longer if employee and employer using the type writer as compare with the modern technologies.
Next, ergonomic also can act as a security system and provide safety to the workers. In other words, its will protect of physical needs of the employees and it’s also give sense of well being that soothes of employees emotions. Beside that it’s also will make employees feel safely. Safety and security system is important to our mental well being both on the job and off the job. During on the job or off the job operation the office management should provide the security alarm, fire alarms, fire extinguisher and etc to make sure the unexpected accident such as fire or emergency case settle in peaceful.
In the conclusion, the office ergonomic are plays an important roles in the office operation. Through these ergonomic the office will achieve their target or aim. Besides that, the office also will increase in their productivity. So that, my suggestion is all the office should maintain their office ergonomic to make sure their offices objective will be achieve.

Muhammad Amirul said...

Universiti Teknologi MARA
(Kampus Samarahan)



Topic : Explain how Ergonomic works in Office
Management.

Course : Diploma in Public Administration (AM110)

Faculty : Administrative Science and Policy Studies

Group : AMD4P1

Subject : PAD 260 (Office Management)

Prepared By : Muhammad Amirul Bin Azlan
(2007240166)

Prepared For : Lt Col Saiful Anwar Md Ali (R)

Due Date : 26th February 2009






INTRODUCTION

Ergonomics is the study of how body interacts with environment when performing a task or activity. Ergonomics often involves arranging environment, including equipment, tools lighting, task given and the activity in the organization. Ergonomics also includes the relationship as example physical, social and emotional between people and machine they operate. Ergonomics also the scientific discipline concerned with designing according to human needs, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. The field is also called human engineering, and human factors. In studying office management, ergonomic is performed by those who study human capabilities in relationship to their work demands. Information derived from these studies contributes to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people.
There are five aspects of ergonomics: safety, comfort, ease of use, productivity/performance, and aesthetics. Based on these aspects of ergonomics, examples are given of how products or systems could benefit from redesign based on ergonomic principles.
1. Safety - Medicine bottles: The print on them could be larger so that a sick person who may have impaired vision (due to sinuses, etc.) can more easily see the dosages and label. Ergonomics could design the print style, color and size for optimal viewing.
2. Comfort - Alarm clock display: Some displays are harshly bright, drawing one’s eye to the light when surroundings are dark. Ergonomic principles could re-design this based on contrast principles.
3. Ease of use - Street Signs: In a strange area, many times it is difficult to spot street signs. This could be addressed with the principles of visual detection in ergonomics.
4. Productivity/performance - HD TV: The sound on HD TV is much lower than regular TV. So when you switch from HD to regular, the volume increases dramatically. Ergonomics recognizes that this difference in decibel level creates a difference in loudness and hurts human ears and this could be solved by evening out the decibel levels.
5. Aesthetics - Signs in the workplace: Signage should be made consistent throughout the workplace to not only be aesthetically pleasing, but also so that information is easily accessible.






















HOW EGONOMIC WORKS IN OFFICE MANGEMENT

Injury and illness are common in the workplace and costly to both you and your employer. Not only do they reduce your quality of life, but they also reduce your ability to be efficient and productive. As example, in workplace, over half of employees who used computers for at least 15 hour a week reported musculoskeletal problems in the first year of a new job. Most job-related injuries are caused by falls, repetitive movement, and awkward postures, reaching, bending over, lifting heavy objects, applying pressure of force, or working with vibrating tools. Ergonomics in office management can help you be more comfortable at work while reducing stress and injury caused by awkward positions and repetitive tasks.
Most problems that occur in the office are caused by physical stress, such as awkward positions, repetitive motions and overuse. This injury can cause stress and strain on muscles, nerves, tendons, joins, blood vessels, or spinal discs. Symptoms include fatigue and hand, wrist, arm, shoulder, neck, or back pain. You may also be at risk for conditions such as tendinopathy and bursitis, which are caused by overuse and repetitive motions. Ultimately, physical stress decreases your overall well-being, may cause chronic health problems, and uses up your sick time. You may be at greater risk for workplace injuries if you have other health conditions, such as arthritis or mental or emotional stress.
To prevent work-related injuries, it is important to position the work so that you can sit comfortably and minimize stress on any specific area of your body, vary your positions and tasks, and match tools to your size and preferences. It's also important to apply the same ideas about positioning your work and your body to activities you do at home or at play.


CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, The goals of an ergonomics program are to protect jobs and assets and to guard against liability. Although it is unwise to use economic factors and convenience issues to sway decisions about managing your ergonomics program, it is critical to understand the potential bottom-line effects of particular actions or conditions. Consider that for every dollar spent on ergonomics, the return on investment is tenfold, as reported by the Insurance Association of America. Further, properly addressing ergonomics helps to retain valued employees. The application of ergonomics to the office environment is critical to the success of any business mission. The direct benefits of an ergonomics program are to reduced occupational illness and injury, reduced number of lost workdays, reduced number of workers' compensation claims, reduced premium payments for workers' compensation insurance, reduced number of complaints of discomfort, reduced instances of eyestrain and reduced incidents of localized pain. The indirect benefits of an ergonomics program include effects on productivity such as projects are completed, client deadlines do not lapse, client relations stay positive, workers are more productive. It also will effects on cost. For example, the cost of producing a piece of work does not increase because there isn't a need to replace the previous worker and train a new one, insurance costs do not go up, and regulatory liability is reduced.

dayangkusitihajar said...

Ergonomics
Ergonomics is the study of how the workers interacts with the environment when their performing a task or any activity in the organization. Ergonomics also known as “human engineering” that integrates the use of space, furniture, equipment and other physiological factors such as light, color, sound and temperature for the workers on the job. Ergonomics commonly refers to designing work environments for maximizing safety and efficiency. Biometrics and Anthropometrics play a key role in this use of the word Ergonomics. Besides that, it also involves the design of furniture and equipment to meet the safety and comfort needs of the workers. Office ergonomics are focuses on the arranging the work environment to fit their needs while their do their job. This is important in order to achieve the level of satisfaction on the job.

In other word, ergonomics includes the relationship such as physical, social and emotional between the people and machines that they operate in the workplace. When the workplace is set up properly, the workers may be less likely to have problems such as headaches or eyestrain, possibly reduce neck and back pain, and perhaps prevent conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome that can be related to repetitive activities. Ergonomics equipment helps the workers to done their work easier and fasters. This is because, ergonomics equipment more flexible and easy to handle and used. For example the ergonomics chair, computer table, staff desk and other equipment and furniture of ergonomics.

To improve the workplace, choose the suitable tools that can be fit the workers physical and comfort needs such as a desk or work surface which is large enough to accommodate papers, reference manuals, and other workstation tools, but arranged properly to access the items easily. Put the items at a height that allows enough space for your knees and thighs to comfortably fit under the desk. A computer monitor also must be in a right place which can protect against eyestrain, which may lead to vision problems and headaches. For example, glare guards that are available either as part of the monitor or to be placed over the monitor screen. Plasma screens also have less - glare than other monitors.

The chairs need to be adjusted so thighs are approximately parallel to the floor. Sitting back in the seat also allows the lower back to be supported firmly by the chair or support cushion. The workers should stretch their backs and legs at least every hour. As the working environment continues to evolve, facility managers are often forced to shrink the individual office space for each worker. This trend signifies the importance of practicing ergonomic principles and implementing the right product solutions to maintain a healthy, comfortable and happy work environment.

It is in the design of the workplace as a whole, where the greatest impact can be seen for both safety and efficiency. The easier it is to do a job, the more likely it is to see gains in productivity due to greater efficiency. Analogously, the safer it is to do a job, the more likely it is to see gains in productivity due to reduced time off for injury. Ergonomics can address both of these issues concurrently by maximizing the workspace and equipment needed to do a job.

Ergonomics stuff or tools help the workers in their workplace to reduce the problem such as physical or health problem that exist in the workplace. With the ergonomics tools in the workplace also can increase the productivity of the workers and can improve their skill or performance in doing their task or job. Besides that, within the ergonomics in the office also will improve the quality of work among the staffs because their will feel more comfortable and relax in complete their task or work. Whether or not the workplace is causing physical problems, a workplace that is properly set up can increase the productivity and quality of work life.

Farah said...

1. Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with designing according to the human needs, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. The field is also called human engineering, and human factors.
Ergonomic research is performed those who study human capabilities in relationship to their work demands. Information derived from these studies contributes to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people.

Ergonomics is a science concerned with the ‘fit’ between people and their work. It takes account of the worker's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker.

To assess the fit between a person and their work, ergonomists consider the job being done and the demands on the worker; the equipment used (its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task), and the information used (how it is presented, accessed, and changed). Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, kinesiology, physiology and psychology.


2. Five aspects of ergonomics

There are five aspects of ergonomics, safety, and comfort, ease of use, productivity/performance, and aesthetics. Based on these aspects of ergonomics, examples are given of how products or systems could benefit from redesign based on ergonomic principles.

a. Safety - Medicine bottles: The print on them could be larger so that a sick person who may have impaired vision (due to sinuses, etc.) can more easily see the dosages and label. Ergonomics could design the print style, color and size for optimal viewing.

b. Comfort - Alarm clock display: Some displays are harshly bright, drawing one’s eye to the light when surroundings are dark. Ergonomic principles could redesign this based on contrast principles

c. Ease of use - Street Signs: In a strange area, many times it is difficult to spot street signs. This could be addressed with the principles of visual detection in ergonomics.

d. Productivity/performance - HD TV: The sound on HD TV is much lower than regular TV. So when you switch from HD to regular, the volume increases dramatically. Ergonomics recognizes that this difference in decibel level creates a difference in loudness and hurts human ears and this could be solved by evening out the decibel levels. Voicemail instructions: It takes too long to have to listen to all of the obvious instructions. Ergonomics could address this by providing more options to the user, enabling them to easily and quickly skip the instructions.


e. Aesthetics - Signs in the workplace: Signage should be made consistent throughout the workplace to not only be aesthetically pleasing, but also so that information is easily accessible for all signs


3. Domains

The International Ergonomics Association (IEA) divides ergonomics broadly into three domains:

• Physical ergonomics: is concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. (Relevant topics include working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements, work related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health.)

• Cognitive ergonomics: is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. (Relevant topics include mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design.)

• Organizational ergonomics: is concerned with the optimization of sociotechnical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.(Relevant topics include communication, crew resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work paradigms, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.)
At home, work, or play new problems and questions must be resolved constantly. People come in all different shapes and sizes, and with different capabilities and limitations in strength, speed, judgment, and skills. All of these factors need to be considered in the design function. To solve design problems, physiology and psychology must be included with an engineering approach.


4. Ergonomics in the workplace

Fundamentals for the Flexible Workplace Variability and compatibility with desk components, that flex from individual work activities to team settings. Workstations provide supportive ergonomics for task-intensive environments.
Outside of the discipline itself, the term 'ergonomics' is generally used to refer to physical ergonomics as it relates to the workplace (as in for example ergonomic chairs and keyboards). Ergonomics in the workplace has to do largely with the safety of employees, both long and short-term. Ergonomics can help reduce costs by improving safety. This would decrease the money paid out in workers’ compensation. For example, over five million workers sustain overextension injuries per year. Through ergonomics, workplaces can be designed so that workers do not have to overextend themselves and the manufacturing industry could save billions in workers’ compensation.
Workplaces may either take the reactive or proactive approach when applying ergonomics practices. Reactive ergonomics is when something needs to be fixed, and corrective action is taken. Proactive ergonomics is the process of seeking areas that could be improved and fixing the issues before they become a large problem. Problems may be fixed through equipment design or task design. Equipment design changes the actual, physical devices used by people. Task design changes what people do with the equipment. Environmental design changes the environment in which people work, but not the physical equipment they use.


5. Macro ergonomics

Macro ergonomics is an approach to ergonomics that emphasizes a broad system view of design, examining organizational environments, culture, history, and work goals. It deals with the physical design of tools and the environment. It is the study of the society/technology interface and their consequences for relationships, processes, and institutions. It also deals with the optimization of the designs of organizational and work systems through the consideration of personnel, technological, and environmental variables and their interactions. The goal of macro ergonomics is a completely efficient work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, and employee satisfaction, health, safety, and commitment. It analyzes the whole system, finds how each element should be placed in the system, and considers all aspects for a fully efficient system. A misplaced element in the system can lead to total failure.


6. Methods

• Cognitive Walk-through Method: This method is a usability inspection method in which the evaluators can apply user perspective to task scenarios to identify design problems. As applied to macro ergonomics, evaluators are able to analyze the usability of work system designs to identify how well a work system is organized and how well the workflow is integrated.

• Kansei Method: This is a method that transforms consumer’s responses to new products into design specifications. As applied to macro ergonomics, this method can translate employee’s responses to changes to a work system into design specifications.

• High Integration of Technology, Organization, and People (HITOP): This is a manual procedure done step-by-step to apply technological change to the workplace. It allows managers to be more aware of the human and organizational aspects of their technology plans, allowing them to efficiently integrate technology in these contexts.

• Top Modeler: This model helps manufacturing companies identify the organizational changes needed when new technologies are being considered for their process.

• Computer-integrated Manufacturing, Organization, and People System Design (CIMOP): This model allows for evaluating computer-integrated manufacturing, organization, and people system design based on knowledge of the system.

• Anthrop technology: This method considers analysis and design modification of systems for the efficient transfer of technology from one culture to another.

• Systems Analysis Tool (SAT): This is a method to conduct systematic trade-off evaluations of work-system intervention alternatives.

• Macro ergonomic Analysis of Structure (MAS): This method analyzes the structure of work systems according to their compatibility with unique sociotechnical aspects.

• Macro ergonomic Analysis and Design (MEAD): This method assesses work-system processes by using a ten-step process.


7. Conclusion

Ergonomics doesn’t matter the scale, effect the user in many ways, to obtain a better productivity and efficiency in any organization, the health and safety of the employees must be looked after by providing user friendly, with proper ergonomic equipment for the comfort and safety of their employees.