1.0 ABSTRACTAfter independence in 1957, the government of Malaysia set out on a program to establish Malay language as an official language to be used in all government functions and as a medium of instructions. At 53 years, government supported a major program for language cultivations and modernization. Malay language becomes the sole official language of Malaysia in 1968 but English is widely used. In the formation of Malay language as Lingua Franca Policy is that, we want to create a nation that has their identity through language. Malay language will be widely used by the Chinese, Indians and other minority groups despite of only the Malays. Therefore, like Indonesia, Malaysia should make Malay Language become the lingua franca for every ethnic group. It should widely speak among the public and recognized under Malaysian’s Constitution as a ‘working language’ in this country regardless of races, languages, norms, ethnics and cultures.2.0 INTRODUCTIONLingua Franca is refers to a language that is most widely used. It is adopted as a common means of communication between different languages. Therefore, from here, we concern on how to create a nation that much more similar with Indonesian nations which they communicate in Indonesian language which is a mixture of Dutch and Javanese. We want the Malaysians to really instill the spirit of using Malay language as their means if interactions between the citizens. The Malay language had since the early centuries reach a level of sophistication not just in terms of its role in the region’s governance but also as a conveyor of high literature and philosophy. The Malay language is also known as the mother tongue among Malay people. Through the Malay Language as Lingua Franca Policy, it will be used by every government department despite of only becoming the mother tongue among Malaysians. We strongly believe that through this, we will inculcate strong unity among Malaysians and fulfilling One Malaysia Concept that been mention by Datuk Seri Najib bin Abdul Razak.4.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE POLICYMalay belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the family which includes the languages of Philippines and Malaga. Malay’s language closest relatives are Javanese, Acehnese, Chamorro, and Palauan. The Malay language came into widespread use as the trade language of the Sultanate of Malacca which begins from the year 1402 until 1511. During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature. The development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Persian and Hindi or Sanskrit vocabularies. Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognizable to speakers of modern Malay.In Malaysia, the term Bahasa Malaysia was in use until the 1990’s when most academics and government officials reverted to ‘Bahasa Melayu’, used in the Malay version of the Federal Constitution. According to Article 152 of the Federal Constitution, Malay is the official language of Malaysia. ‘Bahasa Kebangsaan’ was also used at one point during the 1970’s. National Language Policy and the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka are among the bodies that responsible with the usage of Malay language in Malaysia.
5.0 PURPOSES OF IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY BY THE GOVERNMENTBasically, policy that implemented by the government is to shape and color the behavior of society. It is a useful tool that used by the government and always being implemented either drastically or by steps. The drastic introduction by government will shows that such government is not stable. There are purposes of implementation of this policy by the government. Firstly, is unity. Unity which originated from the word unite means the situation where all the multiracial people are unite among each other without any misunderstanding and fighting. Whenever unity is achieves, they will responsible among each other, helping each other and the most important thing is respecting each other. For example, unity can be seen in Malaysia where Malays, Ibans, Chinese and Indian are able to live with each other. Secondly, the purpose of this policy is nation building. Nation building is almost similar with the self belonging awareness toward nation. Self belonging is very important because it will determine the level of loyalty to the nation and betray avoidance. Once this purpose is achieved, Malaysian with multiracial culture will be identified as one. For example, Indonesia had achieved strong nation building among its people. Next, is to achieve One Malaysia Vision. One Malaysia Vision is introduced by our present Prime Minister, Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak upon his early appointment. One Malaysia Vision can be considered as almost similar with unity and nation building purposes. It is to create the identity where Malaysia is having one spirit and one understanding. It is important as to achieve unity and harmonious among people.
6.0 THE APPLICATION OF THE 5 STEPS IN THE POLICY MAKINGThere are steps in policy making process. These are steps that should be followed in order to produce greater policy which is suitable for the usage nowadays. Firstly, is agenda setting. It is where the agenda and objective is set up. The agenda setting is usually implemented by the top management person such as ministers in nation or Chief Executive Officer for the organization. It is important to set up the direction of the policy so it ensures the path is good and achievable. Secondly, is forecasting. Forecasting is the action where the situation and environment around are observed. In this policy, the forecasting is made either the level of unity is in satisfactory or not. In Malaysia, the level of unity is not yet in the par but it is in average. This might happens because of variety of language that used by people in town or somewhere. Thus it will create misunderstanding and able to damage the unity. This happens because there might be person who does not understand what the other people talk. So, the implementation of this policy should be done so the unity can be achieved. Next, is formulating. It can be defined as to formulate the policy. The policy is made draftly and consider about the cost benefit and so on. The policy must be formulated in line with its objectives. The regulation also involve and so the action taken if the policy is not guided. Then, the step of policy making is adopting. This policy is an adoption of National Language Policy. However some people tend to say that this policy is not comprehensively followed. The National Language Policy is only stated that Malay language as official language but so far such policy unable to strengthen the unity because it can be observed as only a guideline. As our group proposes, the force must be taken and the penalties for whom disobey the policy to be introduced. After it, the policy will be implemented. The implementation can be made only with stages. It is too drastic if the policy is compulsory to implement immediately. The stages should start during childhood. During childhood, the Malay language should be teaches so that they will not only communicate in other words. Then it should be implemented during school. It should start while in kindergarten, primary schools or other higher education institution. This is effective because if the Malay language is use as lingua franca, the multi racial student will understand and automatically uniting them. After implementation, it should be evaluated. Evaluate is the action which the feedback is try to obtain by the producer or government. The evaluation can be made through several methods. It can be done through questionnaires, interviews, or many more. The good feedback should be stayed and the bad feedback should be taken as learning process to enhance his life. Lastly, the step of policy making is by recommendation. After evaluation is done, there are some recommendation will be occurs. The amendment should be done as to improve the policy to the better one. Then, the cancellations of the policy should be done if it is overlap or already introduced or not up to dated.
7.0 CONTRIBUTIONS TO SOCIETY Malay Language as Lingua Franca Policy can give contributions to the society. Firstly, this policy can be the platform to support government aspiration. The Malayan Council had agreed on 31 May 1955 to take the Malay Language as Malaya’s National Language. So, through this policy, the society can show their support to the government that wants to make the Malay language as our country’s national language. Secondly, by this policy the society also will be uniting. When they are using the same language in their daily activities to communicate with others, it can help to make their relationship become strengthen. All of the society will speak only using one main language. They did not have to face problems to communicate with other races like Chinese, Indian and other races when Malay language is the Lingua Franca in this country. Thirdly, other races can learn more about the Malay arts and culture of Malay society besides learning about the language. When they are able to speak in Malay language, they will have the feeling to know more about Malay arts and culture. It can be the extra knowledge for them because Malay culture is one of our country main cultures. If they know about other culture, it shows that they are care with other society and this can lead to harmonious country.8.0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion, different kind of party such as the government, media and other parties need to work together to increase Malay language usage. They can implement different kinds of programs to show their effort in implementing this policy. This policy also should be implemented to all level of society to show that the government is serious in implementing this policy. The course of action from the government also should be continuous in order to ensure this policy success or achieve its objective.
-Malay Language As Lingua Franca-By;Rhohanniza Amika 2009248576Siti Hadiah Bakar 2009249062Dinie Zulhilmi Sulaiman 2009248576
PREPARED BY:KHAIRUL AMREE ABDUL RAHMAN (2009233666)MARDIANA BORHAN (2009244134)TOPIC:A study of Immigration Malaysia PolicyABSTRACTThe objective of this paper is to determine why the people from Peninsular Malaysia have to use the passport to entered into Sarawak and Sabah. Besides that, there is autonomy and independence that supports the uses of passport to entered into Sarawak and Sabah which also stated in the constitution in 20 Point Agreement. The people from Peninsular also must follow the procedure and they must know why they have to use the passports. A valid passport and visa if applicable with minimum 6 months validity is required for all persons entering Malaysia. A valid passport is also necessary for travel between Peninsular Malaysia and the East Malaysian States of Sabah and Sarawak, as well as between Sabah and Sarawak. INTRODUCTION In every country, the government must have one department where is responsible to take in charge about the movement of the people who is want to travel outside of the country or the people who want to come into the country. This department is known as Immigration Department in every country. All people who want to travel must have one important document where is call as visa, pass, or passport. Every country has different types of passport. Have different colour and design. This is to ensure that the people can differentiate the passport of the country by only looking of the colour. This passport or visa can differentiate where the people is come from. All the data of the people can be trace by the Immigration Department from looking the information inside the passport. As you know, every people who are travel to the other s country must bring together this document because this document can shows that they come into the country by using the right ways and legally. If the people come into the country without using this document, than they call as immigrants. This kind of people or group can be arrested by the government of the country because they are trespass the boundaries without the permission from the government. The government in the country can take an action against him because they are found guilty. According to the Immigration Department of Malaysia, the function of the department are issuing of passport and travel document to Malaysia Citizens and Permanent Resident, issuing of visas, pass and Foreign Visitors entering Malaysia, Administering and controlling the entry and exit of people at authorized entry points and enforcing the Immigration Act 1959/63, Immigration Regulations 1963 and Passport Act 1966. In this study, we only focusing in the Immigration Policy implemented in the Malaysia or domestic where passport using by the peninsular people who are come to Sabah and Sarawak by using the passport. This policy was implemented in Malaysia sense the independent of Sabah and Sarawak where is when joining Malaya and nowadays known as Malaysia. .
HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION DEPARTMENTIn the early years before World War II, the Immigration Department conducted surveillance and inspection work involving physical inspection and travel documents at entry points.Immigration matters were administered by a Senior Officer of the Malayan Civil Service with the title, Immigration Officer of the Straits Settlement and Federated Malay States. He was assisted by Deputy Immigration Officer, who was actually a police officer, temporarily seconded to the post. They were based in Penang which was the main entry point into Malaya. Other entry points were Changloon, Padang Besar, Kroh and Port Swettenham. The administrative centre was based in Singapore. After World War II, the Immigration Department was known as The Refugees and Disposal Persons Bureau based in Kuala Lumpur, led by a British Military Administration Officer. Its main role was to bring back people stranded in other countries due to World War II.The first immigration law was the Passenger Restriction Ordinance 1922, which was enforced on 21 July 1922 to regulate entries into this country. In 1930, the Aliens Immigration Restriction Ordinance was enacted to regulate the arrivals and to monitor the labourers especially those from China where the quota system was used. A review to the law was done as a step to increase the control with the establishment of The Aliens Ordinance 1932, which took effect on 1 April 1933.A treaty on the formation of Federated Malay States and the Declaration of Emergency in 1948 led to a better immigration and passport Law as follows:1. The Emergency (Travel Restriction) Regulation 19482. The Passport Ordinance 19493. The Passport Regulations 1949 and4. The Emergency (Entry By Land From Thailand) Regulations 1949The immigration laws used during the State of Emergency were replaced by The Immigration Ordinance 1952. It became the main immigration law used to regulate and monitor the entries of all British nationals, people under the British colony and aliens to the Federated Malay States. The law was also enforced in Singapore.The Immigration Department was then placed under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Besides being responsible for the control of entry, the Immigration Department was also responsible for:i. Issuing of passports at the passport issuing offices in Singapore, Penang, Resident’s Offices and British advisor;
ii. Issuance of visas and citizenship applications for Commonwealth countries on behalf of the British governmentAfter independence, The Immigration Ordinance 1959, The Immigration Regulations 1959 and The Passport Ordinance 1960 were introduced to replace The Immigration Ordinance 1949. These laws provided greater power in regulating the entry of foreigners and visitors into the Federated Malay States.The formation of Malaysia in 1963 had extended the immigration requirements to the state of Sabah and Sarawak. The Immigration (Transitional Provisions) Act 1963 was enacted to protect the interest of both States. Apart from regulating and controlling the entry and exit of non citizens, the Sabah and Sarawak’s immigration also controlled the entry of Malaysian citizens originating from Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia).In 1964, the management of immigration matters was placed under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The administration was handed over to a Malaysian, and Mr. Ibrahim bin Ali was appointed as the first National Immigration Controller. The appointment took place on 1 January 1967. From 13 April 1965, the immigration head office was located at Jalan Tugu, Kuala Lumpur.On 1 December 1971, the immigration administration of the Malay States was centralized as the Malaysia Immigration Headquarters. The immigration laws enforced at that time were reviewed and in 1974, it was integrated to include special provision for the state of Sabah and Sarawak. The Immigration Act 1959/63 (Act No. 155) and the Passport Act 1966 (Act No. 150) were used nationwide. These Acts were revised and amended from time to time according to the current situation and needs. The title, Immigration Controller had been replaced with Director General of Immigration in 1969.Since its establishment in 1947, the Headquarters Immigration Department of Malaysia was in Penang. On 13 April 1965, the Immigration Headquarters was transferred to Jalan Tugu, Kuala Lumpur. In January 1981, the office moved to BUKOTA Building, Jalan Pantai Baharu, Kuala Lumpur, before moving to Pusat Bandar Damansara, Kuala Lumpur in 1988. Now, the headquarters of the Immigration Department of Malaysia is located at Putrajaya. The move started since September 2004 and it was done in stages as a step to ensure the quality of services to the public remained excellent.
PURPOSED OF IMMIGRANT POLICY PROPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENTThe purposed of Immigrant policy proposed by the government is due to the importance and the autonomy of people from Sabah and Sarawak. According Prof. Dr Shad Saleem Faruqi, Sabah and Sarawak cannot withdraw from the Federation. He iterated that joining a federation is irrevocable. See Point 7 of Sabah 20-point agreement prior to formation of Malaysia. Dr Shad Saleem Faruqi who is from the Faculty of Law, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) when he stated that Sabah Immigration Law was undermined by the influx of illegal immigrants to Sabah. It has been undermined by closing one eye, two eyes, three eyes, all three eyes. It is clear for everyone to see like an elephant in the sitting-room. He said that Sabahan are too generous to the illegal immigrants while the federal government have couldn't-care-less attitude to enforce the immigration law in Sabah.18-point agreement.The 20 Points Agreement was written for the main purpose of safeguarding the interests, rights, and the autonomy of the people of Sabah upon the formation of the federation of Malaysia. It was originally envisaged that Sabah be one of the four entities in the federation, the others being Malaya, Singapore, and Sarawak. However as times passed, Sabah and Sarawak has ended up being merely one of the 13 states in the federation.Now that 16 September, Malaysia Day, has been declared a public holiday from next year, let’s take it the next step and see what the 20-Point Agreement is all about, which has been a sore point for Sabah for a long time now, although Sarawak does not appear to be too flustered about its 18-Point Agreement. There have been numerous calls for the agreement to be reviewed to take into account social, economic, and political changes over time.
20 POINTS AGREEMENTPoint 1: ReligionWhile there was no objection to Islam being the national religion of Malaysia there should be no State religion in North Borneo, and the provisions relating to Islam in the present Constitution of Malaya should not apply to North Borneo.Point 2: Languagea. Malay should be the national language of the Federation.b. English should continue to be used for a period of 10 years after Malaysia Day.c. English should be an official language of North Borneo for all purposes, State or Federal, without limitation of time.Point 3: ConstitutionWhilst accepting that the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya should form the basis of the Constitution of Malaysia, the Constitution of Malaysia should be a completely new document drafted and agreed in the light of a free association of states and should not be a series of amendments to a Constitution drafted and agreed by different states in totally different circumstances. A new Constitution for North Borneo (Sabah) was of course essential.Point 4: Head of FederationThe Head of State in North Borneo should not be eligible for election as Head of the Federation.Point 5: Name of Federation“Malaysia” but not “Melayu Raya”.Point 6: ImmigrationControl over immigration into any part of Malaysia from outside should rest with the Central Government but entry into North Borneo should also require the approval of the State Government. The Federal Government should not be able to veto the entry of persons into North Borneo for State Government purposes except on strictly security grounds. North Borneo should have unfettered control over the movements of persons other than those in Federal Government employ from other parts of Malaysia into North Borneo.Point 7: Right of SecessionThere should be no right to secede from the Federation.Point 8: BorneanisationBorneanisation of the public service should proceed as quickly as possible.
Point 9: British OfficersEvery effort should be made to encourage British Officers to remain in the public service until their places can be taken by suitably qualified people from North Borneo.Point 10: CitizenshipThe recommendation in paragraph 148(k) of the Report of the Cobbold Commission should govern the citizenship rights in the Federation of North Borneo subject to the following amendments:a) Sub-paragraph (i) should not contain the proviso as to five years residence.b) In order to tie up with our law, sub-paragraph (ii)(a) should read “7 out of 10 years” instead of “8 out of 10 years”.c) Sub-paragraph (iii) should not contain any restriction tied to the citizenship of parents – a person born in North Borneo after Malaysia must be federal citizen.Point 11: Tariffs and FinanceNorth Borneo should retain control of its own finance, development and tariff, and should have the right to work up its own taxation and to raise loans on its own credit.Point 12: Special position of indigenous racesIn principle, the indigenous races of North Borneo should enjoy special rights analogous to those enjoyed by Malays in Malaya, but the present Malays’ formula in this regard is not necessarily applicable in North Borneo.Point 13: State Governmenta) The Prime Minister should be elected by unofficial members of Legislative Council.b) There should be a proper Ministerial system in North Borneo.Point 14: Transitional periodThis should be seven years and during such period legislative power must be left with the State of North Borneo by the Constitution and not be merely delegated to the State Government by the Federal Government.Point 15: EducationThe existing educational system of North Borneo should be maintained and for this reason it should be under state control.Point 16: Constitutional safeguardsNo amendment modification or withdrawal of any special safeguard granted to North Borneo should be made by the Central Government without the positive concurrence of the Government of the State of North Borneo.The power of amending the Constitution of the State of North Borneo should belong exclusively to the people in the state. (Note: The United Party, The Democratic Party and the Pasok Momogun Party considered that a three-fourth majority would be required in order to effect any amendment to the Federal and State Constitutions whereas the UNKO and USNO considered a two-thirds majority would be sufficient).Point 17: Representation in Federal ParliamentThis should take account not only of the population of North Borneo but also of its seize and potentialities and in any case should not be less than that of Singapore.Point 18: Name of Head of StateYang di-Pertua Negara.Point 19: Name of StateSabah.Point 20: Land, Forests, Local Government, etc.The provisions in the Constitution of the Federation in respect of the powers of the National Land Council should not apply in North Borneo. Likewise, the National Council for Local Government should not apply in North Borneo.
THE APPLICATION OF THE FIVE STEPS IN THE POLICY MAKING PROCESS Agenda Setting: In this agenda setting, this policy was comes out because of the demand for special of right during Sabah and Sarawak was invited to joined Malaya. During that time, there has 20 points agreement or request by the Sabah to Tunku Abdul Rahman but only a few was agreed and approved by the government during that time. One of the demands for specialty of right was agreed are the people from peninsular must using the passport if they want to come into Sabah and Sarawak. In our study, we didn’t found any specific evident that shows why people during that time request or demand for specialty of right in term of using the passport to comes into Sabah and Sarawak. But, in our feedback and observation from the respondent were we ask spontaneously, the feel that they request for the demand of specialty of right because to control the migrant of the people from the peninsular to Sabah and Sarawak. Another respondent was said that this demand of specialty of right because to guarantee the social culture and life culture in Sabah and Sarawak is not mixing with other outside cultures. The third respondent was given his opinion toward this issue because purpose of control economic and political that can manage by their own local people. This issues looks like very sensitive issues for the people of Sabah and Sarawak. But this issue always be question and asked by people why this policy was be implemented. Whatever the policy was be implemented by the government, there must have the reason and the important why the government implement the policy.Policy Formulation: The next step is policy formulation. Policy formulation is the development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda. The effective formulation means that the policy proposed is regarded as a valid, efficient and an implement able solution to the issue at hand. Policy analysts always try to identify effective alternatives. This is the analytical phase of policy formulation. It means that proposed course of action is likely to be authorized by the legitimate decision makers, usually through majority-building in a bargaining process. That is, policy formulation must be politically feasible. In this policy, during Sarawak and Sabah was joining into Malaya, 20 Points Agreement was be request. In 6th point, that have stated that control over immigration into any part of Malaysia from outside should rest with the Central Government but entry into North Borneo should also require the approval of the State Government. The Federal Government should not be able to veto the entry of persons into North Borneo for State Government purposes except on strictly security grounds. North Borneo should have unfettered control over the movements of persons other than those in Federal Government employ from other parts of Malaysia into North Borneo. In the Cobbold Commission was stated there are 6 suggestions which are:I. The new Malaysian Constitution is based on PTM1957II. Sabah and Sarawak will be given the power towards their own immigration policy.III. Malay language as the national language.IV. The guarantee of the rights of people from Sabah and Sarawak.V. The giving of the name of “Malaysia”.VI. The date of Independence of Malaysia.
Policy Adoption: The third step is the policy adoption. In policy adoption, they try to analyze what the effects and consequences if the policy implemented. This policy must be discuss in the parliament before proceed to be a law. That’s mean that the entire factor that can influence and disturb the implementation can be discussed and can be found the way how to overcome the obstacle before implemented. If these policy can be implemented, so that it can fulfill the request by the Sarawakian and Sabahan where need the special of right. This policy was be implemented because this is one of the agreement between Malaya and Sabah and Sarawak.Policy Implementation: The forth step is Policy Implementation. This policy already be implemented and approved by the government to give this specialty of right to the Sabah and Sarawak. This is because the Malaya during that time must think for the future because Sabah and Sarawak is the biggest source of economy for Malaysia. Until now, this policy can be implemented easily and all people easy to follow it. It also can protect the specialty of right of Sabah and Sarawak so far. This policy must be implementing by the Immigration Department and all people who came from Peninsular Malaysia must stamp their document, visa or passport every 30 days after stay in the Sabah and Sarawak. This is to ensure that the local government will know how many people from Peninsular Malaysia is stay and work in the Sabah and Sarawak. Policy Assessment: The last step in this policy is Policy Assessment. In this step, this policy will be rechecking weather this policy is suitable and have any problem or not. As soon as the local people have no problem on it, this policy can still be implemented in the country. But, from year to year, the government try to flexible this policy and to ensure that people from the Peninsular Malaysia who always comes and visit Sabah and Sarawak easy to travel into this state. As the people from Peninsular Malaysia can adopt with this policy, then there will not any barriers and obstacles for the government to implement this policy.
CONCLUSIONFor the conclusion, it is very important to know about the immigration policy of Sabah and Sarawak as it only real safeguards the Sarawak and Sabah in order to protect the rights and the interests of the people. Cobbold Commission also plays the important roles where a Commission of Enquiry chaired by Lord Cobbold was entrusted with the task of ascertaining the opinion of the general population in North Borneo and Sarawak on the Malaysia proposal and the result is towards the realization of Malaysia.
Malaysia National Defense Policy: Malaysia Total Defense (HANRUH)AMB4P2SAIFUL RIZI AMIR BIN SHAARI(2009219578)MOHD ILSAN BIN MULUT(2009228814)ABSTRACTHANRUH is a short form for “Pertahanan Menyeluruh” or in English it was called Total Defence. HANRUH was one of the national securities since it was introduce in year 1986. However, it not practiced well until now although it was introduced for so long in Malaysia.HANRUH show the country to defend its strategic interests and safeguard national security. This concept of total defence act active role of government agencies, private sector, non-government and people in defending the sovereignty and integrity of country. This means in order to defence the country, all of the society involve making the country remain peace and harmony. The term HANRUH is not something new where it has been practiced since Cold War by some of the country like Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Singapore and Switzerland. These countries has been practiced it in order to defend their country from the threat of the country.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF HANRUHAs mentioned before, HANRUH was introduced in year 1986. Due to that, it was not a new policy where it was implemented a long ago. However, it was not practiced like nowadays. As we know, security at any country is not really secure due to many threats from other country. Due to that matter, government come up with policy where it was align with HANRUH and also strengthen it in order to make it give more security to the country. Government encourage the society to involve more in this policy where it will make the outsider will not face Malaysia’s Army only but they will face about 27 million people in Malaysia. That means, the national security not only done by the military but also carried by the society.Due to the geographical location where Malaysia is in the heart of Southeast Asia, it could not help the strategic interests of Malaysia have close ties with countries in the region to another. Based on this position, the security of Malaysia is part of the security of member countries of ASEAN. Thus, any threat to ASEAN or any ASEAN country is also seen as a threat to Malaysia. Accordingly, Malaysia gives priority to regional cooperation.The concept of a HANRUH or Total Defense is related with total and integrated efforts undertaken by the Government, non-governmental agencies, private sector and citizens to defend the country. Preservation of the integrity and sovereignty of Malaysia requires the commitment of all citizens, and not just the Armed Forces. While the defense of the country is the responsibility of the security forces, the duty to ensure that the team is able to withstand the challenges of national responsibility.
PURPOSE OF THE HANRUHThe main purpose of HANRUH is of course to defense the country from any treat from the other country. It implemented in order to prevent war, protect and at the same time to defend the civil society from any harmful threat from outsider. As mentioned before, this policy is collaboration between army and all of the society in Malaysia. So that, society also can participate in order to prevent war between country in order to maintain the peace and harmony relationship with them.Second purpose of HANRUH is to maintain continuous readiness and have the ability to prevent any threat. The awareness among society toward their responsibility in order to ensure the integrity and national sovereignty need to be maintain. Their spirit and also their mind need to relevant to this concept in order to face any challenge to ensure the freedom and independence of the nation. Preparedness of civil agencies, private organizations, volunteer groups and the public at large, to provide means to protect the lives and properties of the community and the nation from the threat of war. They also need to become involved in efforts to guarantee the continued supply basic necessities during times of war, emergencies and disasters.Third purpose of HANRUH is to establish the defence credible not only the responsibility of the Armed Forces. Instead there is a need to coordinate efforts and actions involving public and private sectors, especially in the use of "resources" or assets in the private sector and civil defence. In society perspective, they need to understand that this objective is important. So that, as an owner of private company sector they need to be together in order to make this concept practiced well. Private sectors also need to understand where the country’s harmony and peace also give impact to economic growth to that company.Lastly but not least, HANRUH component covers 5 aspects of the defence Military Defence, Civil Defence, Defence Economic, Social and Psychological Defence. The first component mostly well know by all people where all military that established to defend country and all society from any threat from the other countries. This also relevant with the second concept where HANRUH make society and military to work together and collaborate with each other to prevent war and defend the country. This civil defense is a defense internal where it to prevent threat between society. Third component of HANRUH is where it covers the economy in Malaysia either by public sector or private sector. This is in order to make them more competitive in economic arena. This also to ensure them becomes a well known company without any harm from other company that wants them to bankrupt. HANRUH also cover the social and psychological defense where it is to ensure the society in Malaysia live in harmony and peace. This is to make society feel that they more secure live in Malaysia and due to that they will also collaborate in order to make that peace last longer.
POLICY MAKINGPolicy is the plan of action that it objective is to guide the decision made. Policy making is the process that involves many decisions. It will cover interaction with variety external interest groups. In the policy making it involves five steps. The five steps in policy making is agenda setting, policy formulation, policy adoption, policy implementation and policy evaluation or assessment.In the five step of policy making, agenda setting involve the problem structuring that the process of analysis the present or future problem. In policy formulation the process of forecasting are involve that the policy will be create by the forecasting. The forecasting is the process to make sure the uncertain problem will be occurs after the policy has been set up. Third step of policy making is policy adoption that involve the recommendation of the strategy that must be create, for example in Hanruh, the government not only focus on the arm forces to protect the country but involve the citizen and focus on more area such as natural disaster. Fourth step of the policy making is the policy implementations that involve the monitoring process, all the policy make must be implementing and monitor by the government to make sure all of the policy are success. Last step of the policy making is the policy assessment that involves the evaluation process. Evaluation process is the process of determination of policy output. From the definition, the steps of the policy making can be applied at the Malaysia Total Defense strategy in the Malaysia Nation Defense Policy.
1. Agenda Setting Agenda setting is the list of subjects or problems to which government official are paying some serious attention at any given time. For example the lists item such as sugar issues that can consider as important thing bring to the public meeting of a council. From Malaysia Total Defense strategy (HANRUH) there was several Agenda setting that encourage government to establish this strategy.First agenda setting is the geographical location of Malaysia in Southeast Asia. Malaysia is the central of international trade routes in Southeast Asia and it means every day all trade ships cross the Malaysia border. When so many ships cross the border it will became the threat for the country. That is the significant of the government establish HANRUH, because it will increase the awareness of the citizen about the threat that will be occur.Second agenda threat to ASEAN also a treat to Malaysia. Nowadays many crisis or conflict occurred within the region. For example the issues of the former prime minister of Thailand, his influence power made the big impact to the nation where many his supporter against the current government. Thailand is Malaysia’s neighbor; the crisis will be arriving to Malaysia if the government not takes the awareness action.From the two examples of the agenda setting that make the Malaysia Government establish the HANRUH strategy. In addition, the division of world by bipolar world is not occurring now. Now the world holds by the uni-polar world. The government does not know where they’re enemy. From the example of the agenda setting, the government of Malaysia takes the initiative to establish the HANRUH strategy in the National Defense Policy. It show the government of Malaysia consider that deciding what will be the problems is even more important than deciding what will be the solutions. However, there was other matter that can be observed by Malaysia, it is include the threat from the foreign worker and the extreme group in Malaysia.2. Policy formulation Policy formulation is the policy making that involves the forecasting process. It is a procedure for producing information about the future state or society on the basis of prior information about policy problem or situation. Base on HANRUH strategy it was formulated as third strategy in National Defence Policy.As stated in Globalsecurity.org, Malaysia’s defense policy is a manifestation of its goal for the protection of its national strategic interests and the preservation of national security. The defense policy outlines three basic fundamentals namely national strategic interests, principles of defense and the concept of defense. It emphasizes on the need for the maintenance of a stable and peaceful environment of the immediate areas of its strategic interests.From three outline given, HANRUH is the strategy involve in the concept of defense where the government aware about all the national treat and take consideration to protect national security and prevent treat from any sides.
3. Policy adoptionPolicy adoption is the process of collecting or gathering the data and information in the policy for the policy choices, consisted of analysis of alternatives, the forecasting of each alternatives and cost and benefit of the analysis of the policy. Base on the definition it importance to minimize risk of the policy that might not achieve the objectives and goals, to choose suitable method for the policy implementation. According to HANRUH, the prime minister said HANRUH must be adopted in accordance with the requirements and the suitability of the country today. I therefore think that the following be taken into account: First - HANRUH implementation plan should not be limited to the need to face security threats such as conflict or war alone. It should include the challenges and crises as natural disasters or national energy crisis. HANRUH will be more practical and meaningful if the plan is based on the implementation of such requirements. As an example of the flood crisis that hit state of Johor, Malacca and Pahang part of the recent highly integrated and requires the consolidation of government agencies, private sector and voluntary bodies to move together as a team to face these challenges. HANRUH here can play its role effectively. Second - HANRUH also play a role in shaping and strengthening the mental and minds of people especially in the areas of economic resilience. This aspect is very relevant in the context of globalization and the nation is facing fierce competition in the business world. From that, HANRUH must consider the implementation of appropriate strategies so that it becomes relevant and practical to ensure the resilience of the economy. Three - Integrity and cohesion of society is recognized as one of the main base for building development and prosperity of the country. This has been proven from the time we reached independence in which citizens and leaders and security personnel have been integrated effort and energy in opposing the threat of communism and confrontation. Further cooperation of all parties and people has to bear the progress of the country until we are in now. From the unity of society cannot be ignored or taken for granted but it should be built and nurtured an ongoing basis for this bias may threaten the well being of the country. In this context, HANRUH must examine and describe the programs and activities to develop the integration of people based on the values of life and gain the fate or destiny 'together. Strong united community with unity and precision of the soul is an important asset in ensuring the safety and integrity of the country. From the speech of the prime minister we will consider that HANRUH is not only involve war and conflict but also involve nature disaster or energy crisis, forming and strengthening people's minds and mental endurance, especially in the field of national economic resilience, and integrity and unity of peoples in order to build development and country peaceful.
4. Policy ImplementationImplementation is the realization, application or execution of plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard or policy. Policy implementation is the process that to put adopted policies into effect in an effort to attain policy or program goals. For example is the law that make by judiciary that has discus at the parliament. The law must be implementation by the executive body. Its means the law has to be translated into specific guidelines for successful implementation by the executive body.From the HANRUH strategy, the government has listed the ccomponents of HANRUH. It is covered as Integrity of Psychology, Mergers and Solidarity Society, Readiness of Public Integrity of Economics and, Readiness of Security. There was several program that introduce by the government to achieve their goal. For example NATIONAL SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM (PLKN) is a program aimed at enhancing civic consciousness and defences preparedness in the youth by developing the ethics of service and patriotism while undergoing training any of its three components, specifically designed to enhance the youth's contribution to the general welfare, BIRO TATA NEGARA (BTN) that nurture the spirit of patriotism and commitment to excellence among Malaysians, and train leaders and future leaders to support the nation's development efforts, PASUKAN LATIHAN PEGAWAI SIMPANAN (PALAPES) the program in all university in Malaysi ,PASUKAN LATIHAN ANGGOTA SUKARELA (PLAS) and ANGGOTA PASUKAN SIMPANAN (PSS).From the example, the government has already taken the step to make sure the strategy goal and objective will be achieved. As stated above the policy implementations is involve the monitoring process, all the policy make must be implementing and monitor by the government to make sure all of the policy are success.5. Policy AssessmentPolicy assessment is the process that is concerned with what happens as a result of the public policy that is what happens after a policy is implemented. It emphasis is now on equity and efficiency. From our opinion people in Malaysia lack of understand and appreciate the HANRUH’s concept because the environment in Malaysia was so peaceful and there is no potential for conflict that sparked the war. It will give bad effect to the country when some conflict suddenly occurs.Government must play a role to enhance the promotion of the strategy to every level in the citizen. All program and activity objective relate to HANRUH must clear convey to the citizen. It will encourage all people to more understand what the government objective.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE SOCIETYHANRUH make societies more aware about their role in order to ensure their country remain independent and also to protect the harmony and peace that they grab for a long time. Thus, this policy builds their nationalism spirit toward the country. HANRUH play it role in develop and strengthen the mental and minds of the people, especially in the areas of economic resilience. Due to that, more people involve in the business area because they feel safer and their business is guaranteed. This contribution is more relevant in the context of globalization and competitiveness in the world business that faced by the country.HANRUH also protect and defend the country’s interests, in accordance with Malaysia’s sovereignty, the integrity of the Federation, and economic prosperity. Integrity and unity of society is recognized as one of the main components for the development and prosperity of nation building. So that, HANRUH make all of the society become more united and this will make the country defense more stable. In addition, this policy also make all race more collaborate and this give more contribution to the country development where they all work together either in public sector or private sector. Starting as early as the National Service Training (PLKN), youths has made aware of their role, and followed by their involvement as members of reserve army group (PSS), Reserve Officer Training (Palapes) at institutions of higher learning, Volunteer Member Training Group (PLAS) at polytechnics, colleges and so on. The continuity of training and exposure to these youths must be made a priority so that the necessary military knowledge becomes second nature to them and can be mobilized at any time depending on the nature of the internal national threat deemed appropriate with this concept. In near future, they will be in the front line in order to protect the country from any threat from outside countries.
COMMENTSThe government must add more military module in NSTP because some of the youth that grade from NSTP not practice what has been taught to him or her. They likely forget for what purpose that they taught that entire thing. They easy to forget their role that described well in NSTP where they are the future hope of country to defend Malaysia’s sovereignty, the integrity of the Federation, and economic prosperity. Due to that, government need to make their NSTP lesson more effective.For a long time HANRUH concept was introduced but it is still the old level. Thus, all society need to play their role to modify and adapt to the needs of this concept is considered as a practical concept, and "meaningful" in the country face many challenges to further develop and strengthen national welfare. To ensure HANRUH acceptable and more importantly, it should be seen not merely from the perspective of national defense or security threats.CONCLUSIONAs a conclusion, HANRUH is an effective way in order to prevent the war from happen again. This policy also is an effective way in order to help society to live in peace and harmony. However, it needs support from the society to make this policy more success in near future. So that, the objective of HANRUH can be achieve and develop it to be more success.It should be noted that national defense is the responsibility of all and to defend its sovereignty requires commitment from all parties whether the government, security forces and the private sector and civil society. Without this awareness, people will certainly underestimate the threat that is always looking for space to threaten the stability of the country. Efforts in empowering all people toward HANRUH concept are very meaningful.
1.0 INTRODUCTIONHalal is an Arabic word which means lawful or permissible by Islamic laws.Definition of Halal in accordance to Trade Descriptions ( Use of expression "halal" ) 1975 is as follows:When used in relation to food in any form whatsoever in the course of trade or business as or as part of, a trade description applied to the food, the expression "Halal" , "Di-Tanggung Halal" or "Makanan Halal" or any other expression indicating or likely to be understood as indicating that Muslims are permitted by their religion to consume such food such expression shall heve the following meaning, that is to say the food in relation to which such expression or expressions are used:The processors of foods and goods for the Muslim market need to understand and comply with the specific requirements of the Muslim consumers before their product could be labeled as HALAL food in Malaysia. The use of the word “HALAL” (Permissible), ‘CERTIFIED HALAL’, ‘FOODS FOR MUSLIM’ and other similar labeling is controlled under the ‘Trade Description Act (Usage of HALAL/Permissible’ statement) 1975.2.0 AGENDA SETTINGThe consumption of Halal foods and goods is compulsory to all Muslims. Lack of knowledge, awareness and understanding of the Halal concept among Muslims and the manufacturers of Halal products may cause the loss of appreciation to Halal.The Halal Policy was introduced because to reduce the uncertainty of Halal products that been produce in our country. It is also to make the society recognize which one is Halal foods production and the logo itself.
3.0 POLICY FORMULATION3.1 Government Halal Food PolicyThe Malaysian Government strongly supports the halal food industry as evidenced by its various programs. The inclusion of the halal food in the Second Industrial Master Plan (IMP2, 1996-2005), setting halal and haram committees and also forming working groups on halal food for developing Malaysian SIRIM standards are some of the examples. In the ASEAN region, Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Singapore, Philippines, and Indonesia have also jointly prepared standard halal food requirements in the region through the ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF). Internationally, Malaysia has also played an important role in halal food standard such as Codex Alimentarius Commission.In the IMP2, one of the strategic directions is to position Malaysia as an international halal food hub. The IMP2 has identified several high potential sectors in the food processing business, which include processing of meat products, especially the halal meat and livestock product. However, Malaysia lacks comparative advantage in many areas of food production. If we want to be competitive and gain a position in local, regional and international food markets, we need to improve on our technology, infrastructure, and product development for halal food. As Malaysia is in a good position to be the center for halal food production, our Government has introduced several guidelines and control mechanisms to ensure the halal status of food. The problem of 'halal-haram' food may not be apparent to non-Muslims. This is compounded by the fact that Malaysia imports a high percentage of its food from non-Muslim countries. To many non-Muslims halal food only pertains to the exclusion of pork. To a Muslim, it is not enough for the food to be ‘pork-free’; it has to be ‘guilt-free’ too. Therefore, the control of halal food is viewed by the Government as a sensitive and serious matter. The Government’s commitment to facilitate the provision of halal food for the Muslim consumers in the country is reflected through the establishment of the following legal infrastructures:• Trade Description (Use of Expression ‘Halal’) Order 1975 • Trade Description (Marking of Food) Order 1975• Customs (Prohibition of Imports) Order 1988• Animal (Importation) Order 1962 • Local by-laws as well as its enforcement• Establishment of halal guidelines and certification activities by JAKIM • Establishment of SIRIM Halal Standard4.0 POLICY IMPLEMENTATION4.1 Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) Initially, the role of the JAKIM was to liase with the Ministry of Domestic / International Trade and Industry in implementing and enforcing the Trade Description Act, 1972. In 1994, JAKIM introduced the halal logo and enforced the Halal Certification System. Due to high demand for halal certification and the inadequate personnel in JAKIM,JAKIM remains as the national authority that controls, monitors, and regulates all halal food products sold in the domestic market and for export. The control of halal food is currently addressed through a multi-agency approach lead by JAKIM. Other agencies include the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs, the Veterinary Services Department, the Customs and Excise Department, local authorities, Ministry of Health, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Standards Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), Chemistry Department, and local universities and research institutions.A halal logo was introduced by JAKIM to help Muslim consumers differentiate food products that have obtained official government approval and those that have not. The Halal Verification Certificate issued by JAKIM with the logo is used as a control mechanism for food handlers, importers, and sellers on the use of Government’s halal logo.
4.2 Roles and Efforts of Government Agencies in Positioning Malaysia as Halal Food HubVarious government agencies are involved in the effort of positioning Malaysia as the international halal food hub. Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) is the leading agency that is coordinating and facilitating this effort. The committee on Malaysian Halal Food Hub is still working on the concept paper at the present moment. There are ongoing efforts in creating various halal food zone / park in states such as in Pahang, Selangor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, and Perlis where certain areas are allocated for the creation of halal food production zones. These efforts include development of infrastructure and food processing facilities. At regional level, the halal food zones planned are such as the Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand (IMT), Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia (BIM) and Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore (IMS) triangles.According to the MOA, as part of the NAP3 strategic approach to develop agricultural-based products, the Ministry will identify key products and markets based on the consumers’ and market demand, preferences, and potential. Halal livestock and livestock value-added products have been identified for expansion and scrutiny to meet the national food requirement and enhance competitiveness and profitability. This move is complementary with the IMP2’s objectives, which identifies food processing as one of the sources of future growth for the country.The Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) under the Ministry of Agriculture is the custody body that ensures the quality of livestock products by strengthening veterinary services to maintain and enforce high veterinary sanitary standards for imports and exports of livestock products. In order to achieve this, DVS has introduced the following measures:• Establishing standards on livestock products.• Promoting Good Animal Husbandry Practices (GAHP) in all livestock farms.• Strengthening accreditation schemes through Quality Assurance Program (QAP).• Promoting Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) in all abattoirs and processing plants by the DVS in order to maintain and improve quality, cleanliness, and safety of food products.• Liasing with JAKIM to inspect the slaughtering procedures and conditions of abattoirs.In strengthening the supportive organisations, the following are areas highlighted;a) Infrastructure and Support Services• Slaughter, processing and support facilities for halal products will be expanded and upgraded. This will include the establishment of “centralized slaughter facilities” with veterinary supervision to replace the current “wet slaughter market”. There will also be infrastructure at entry points for exporting and importing halal products including storage systems.• Cold rooms, warehouses, and containers will be built and better transportation system will developed for proper distribution purposes.• Skilled manpower will be developed through accredited training schemes. Industry funded training programs will be encouraged to complement training provided by Government institutions and the academia.
b) R&D and Food Processing Technology• Government involvement in R&D will be strengthened and consolidated to increase overall institutional capacity and efficiency to support the industry. The R&D are carried out by several institutions, especially MARDI, DVS, UKM and UPM, on new product development, food biotechnology, halal food ingredient, disease diagnostic, and prevention and control on livestock. • According to the director of MARDI, Dr. Abu Bakar Hussin (1999), MARDI has a very strong team of food specialists and technologists contributing to the food processing technology, such as creating a new supplement for halal ingredient such as the vegetable-based gelatine to substitute the meat-based gelatine. The advancement of food biotechnology has instigated new issues to halal food production. For example, if the swine DNA is transplanted to the yeast cell for producing a kind of protein, is the new protein halal or haram? The fermentation of soy sauce and tapai, which produces very low level of alcohol in the final product, is it halal? These types of issues will be forwarded to the Majlis Fatwa of JAKIM to determine the halal status of the product. MARDI is trying to develop proper processing methods, new technology, new ingredients, and material that are safe, clean, healthy, and halal. c) Laws and Regulations• Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs has some authority to regulate halal food in Malaysia. Trade Description• 1972 (Use of Expression “Halal” Order 1975 and the Marking of Food Order 1975) has stated clearly the condition of using the halal expression and the labelling of halal food, as well as the penalty of misuse of the halal expression and marking. However, as explained by Encik Mohd. Rabani of Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs, the use of halal and the marking of halal are voluntary, which mean that halal products do not need to be marked halal. However, if a manufacturer uses the halal expression and the halal logo and the products are found to be non-halal, they will be penalised. • For importation of meat and livestocks to Malaysia, all the meat and livestocks must be halal, safe and disease free under the Animal Rule 1962, which is enforced by the Custom and Excise Department. Halal certifications from the exporting country must be recognised by the Malaysian Government in order to ensure the products are halal, and prevent confusion and misunderstanding.
d) Capital and Financial Support• Public and private financial institutions are helping halal food manufacturers to get adequate funding in investing to be halal food producers. According to Ms Lilywati (1999), Deputy Director, Agro Industries Division of MIDA, several banks such as Bank Negara, Bank Islam, and Bank Pertanian have special packages to help manufacturers get sufficient funding• In addition, suitable incentives for automation investment will be provided, and import tax on specialised livestock farm and processing equipment will be abolished. The main incentives for the investment in manufacturing and agriculture sectors are provided for in the Promotion of Investment Act, 1986 and the Income Tax, 1967. MIDA is also providing incentives to food processors and manufacturers in the form of import duty exemptions for raw ingredients and tax incentives to encourage investments in infrastructure development to attract local and foreign investors.The NAP3 comes with RM32.4 billion Plan of Action for a 13-year period (Singh, 1998). Since promoting Malaysia as an international halal food hub is under the medium-term measure, sufficient amount of fund is expected to be allocated in this action plan.e) Institution of Accreditation and Standards• Besides JAKIM’s official logo, the Veterinary Health Logo is another accreditation to enhance the halal product. This DVS logo ensures the meat and meat product is safe to consume and disease free.• The food quality division of MOH is the agency in charge of the HACCP accreditation in Malaysia. The Guidelines for HACCP Certification Scheme (1998) is ready and available to assist food manufacture to oversee the food manufacturing and practice the GMP.f) PromotionMATRADE is the agency responsible for promoting Malaysian halal food under the Malaysia brand name. Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) is also playing an important role in the international arena to promote Malaysia as an international halal food hub. Both these agencies also conduct trade exhibitions, seminars, and conferences to promote and ‘sell’ our halal food worldwide especially to United States, European• Nations, Middle East, and OIC countries where there are substantial Muslims populations. MITI also facilitates efforts in identifying new halal export markets such as Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Russia.g) The Industrial Master Plan 2 (IMP2)The following are IMP2’s additional measures in the halal meat processing industry• Facilitate importation of meat from new sources for the processing industry• Promote joint ventures in beef and dairy industry both local and overseas to ensure consistent supply of meat and feed ingredients• Designate specific zones for livestock production and promote large-scale cattle and sheep integration under plantation crops• Promote branded halal food internationally
5.0 POLICY EVALUATION5.1 Statistic of Halal CertificationThis table shows that the amount of Halal certification that been applied by the Bumiputera’s and Non-Bumiputeras’s company.Types of Industry BUMIPUTERA NON BUMIPUTERA Multinational 144 357 S&M Ind 736 1226Small Ind 1142 1245 As we can see, there are more Non-Bumiputera’s apply for the Halal certification in all of types of industries. This is because, the Non-Bumiputera’s company want to attract not only their own customers, but also the muslim customers. Despite of the Halal certification issue, JAKIM is one of the body that has the responsibility to do inspection to any premises that already have the Halal certification. this is because, JAKIM should ensure that the premises operate in line with the Halal regulation.
6.0 CONCLUSIONThe consumption of Halal foods and goods is compulsory to all Muslims. Lack of knowledge, awareness and understanding of the Halal concept among Muslims and the manufacturers of Halal products may cause the loss of appreciation to Halal. In fact the holy Quran addressed all human being and not just Muslim to search for Halal and it is for their own benefit. 7.0 RECOMMENDATIONThe government should elaborate more on the Halal food policy rather than only introducing the Halal certification and Halal logo. Improve the regulation to be more rigid and strict, so the business company be more serious on handling the Halal issues.As a Islamic country, the government should pay more attention on the human right, so that they know what their right is.
NATIONAL WOMEN POLICYAMB4P2OSIN ANAK MALANG(2009667444)CHRIS HERBERT AK ISIK(2009262854)1.0 INTRODUCTION In accordance with the spirit of our independent developing nation, this National Women Policy upholds the aspirations, to ensure loyalty, prosperity, justice, freedom and basic human rights for all its citizens. In cognizance of the fact that women constitute an important potential resource, not yet fully recognized, the purpose of this Policy is to provide some guidelines and directions to all endeavors in the planning and implementing of the development programmes of the nation, so as not to overlook or neglect the interests and participation of women, both as targets of development as well as agents in the development process. In realization of the fact that solidarity is the basis for achieving progress in our national development, this Policy emphasizes the need to draw up comprehensive and effective programmes for fostering a concept of unity amongst individuals as well as between governmental and non-governmental agencies. Women have all along been involved actively as supporters in the political arena of the nation. The process of development necessitates the full involvement of both men and women. This Policy therefore reiterates the stand which emphasizes the active and meaningful participation of women in the political arena. This Policy takes into consideration the interest, endeavors and involvement of the Government, the needs of several organizations to support various international resolutions, the needs of various women's organizations, and the establishment of the Secretariat for Women's Affairs as the national machinery. At the national level, several consultations, seminars and workshop were organized by HAWA and the National Council of Womens Organizations (NCWO) with a view to obtaining consensus and support on the various resolutions made at various international conferences. The involvement of the government was sought at all levels.2.0 OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL WOMEN POLICY The main objective of this policy is to ensure an equitable sharing in the acquisition of resources, information, opportunities and benefits of development for men and women. The objectives of equality and justice must be made the essence of development policies which must be people oriented so the women, who constitute half the nations population, can contribute and realize their potentials to the optimum. Another objective is to ensure an equitable sharing in the acquisition of resources, information, opportunities and benefits of development for men and women. The objectives of equality and justice must be made the essence of development policies which must be people oriented so the women, who constitute half the nations population, can contribute and realize their potentials to the optimum.Beside that, the objective of this policy also related to integrate women in all sectors of development in accordance with their capabilities and needs, in order to enhance the quality of life, eradicate poverty, ignorance and illiteracy, and ensure a peaceful and prosperous nation.
3.0 STARTEGIES TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES The first one is raising consciousness and understanding of all those concerned, and sensitizing them with issues and status of women. The second strategies is channeling women's issues through a central agency to various institutions and government bureaucracy in the form of administrative directives, programmers aimed at attitude modification and the building of commitment among those entrusted with the task of programmers implementation. Then, national women policy also planning for the distribution of resource to the various sectors that are implementing programmers pertaining to women's issue. Means that women are encourage involving in decision making process. As we can see nowadays, a lot of women working and holding a higher position either in the private sector or public sector. Last but not least is securing the cooperation among the various governmental sectors and between governmental and non - governmental agencies in the process of centralizing and coordinating all efforts aimed at enhancing the participation of women in development from the aspects of human resources.
4.0 SPECIFIC STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE OBJECTIVES These are all the strategies that introduced by the government in order to ensure the establishment of this policy achieve its objective. The first one is by strengthening the Women's Affairs Secretariat as the Machinery for Women's Development. This is done through the national machinery for the advancement of women is currently the Women's Affairs Division (HAWA) of the National Unity and Social Development Ministry, which serves as the Secretariat for the National Advisory Council for the Integration of Women in Development (NACIWID). Appropriate action should be taken to further strengthen HAWA and to up-grade its status by establishing channels of communication with every relevant ministry and appointing coordinating officers in every State. In this manner, HAWA would be able to function more effectively in matters of concern to women as well as initiate specific development programmers for women at all levels. Second is orienting Policy and Action Programmes of Government Agencies in order to include the Processes of Planning, Implementing and Monitoring Programmes for the Integration of Women. In the formulation of policy, legislation, regulations and programmes by any sector or agency, consideration must be given to ascertain its impact, contributions and implications for women; its negative impact and effects must be avoided. A comprehensive system for coordinating and monitoring of programmes shall be created to prevent negative effects as well as to identify obstacles and constraints to women's participation, whether this be from the legal perspectives or in practice, so that appropriate action can be taken to alleviate them. All development programmes must have strategies that would benefit women; the involvement of women at all levels, from the planning to evaluation stages at both local and national levels must be guaranteed. Third is education and training for sensitizing government administrators on women's issues. The purpose is to promote awareness and commitment of government agencies and institutions, gender sensitizing training programmes on women and development shall be held continuously for all government personnel. Fourth is involvement of non-governmental organizations. The Government shall attempt to involve all Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and voluntary bodies in programmes and measures concerning women's development. In this manner, national efforts for integrating women in development can be strengthened. Financial, technical, advisory and institutional support shall be provided on an on-going basis to women's organizations in order to encourage and promote their services. Fifth is elimination of discrimination and affirmative action. Special measures shall be taken to eliminate discrimination against women where it exists. In this context, existing lacuna in legislation for the protection of women should be rectified through affirmative action. Special focus shall be directed towards the less developed areas, handicapped and disabled women, and women in employment, women in health and women in education.
5.0 FIVE (5) STEPS IN POLICY MAKING5.1 AGENDA SETTING Agenda setting is a standard artifact of policy makers. It is where all on the issue or problem will be fine in order to solve it. We can say people such as legislators, judges, chief executives and bureaucratic officials who use agenda setting in their work. Inside the agenda setting itself there are two stages that are defining the problem of society and suggestion alternative solutions. Defining the problem of society here refer to what actually happen or face by the society itself. In here also we try to give the best solution to solve the problem that has been defines. In here the power to decide what will be a policy issue is crucial to the policy making process. As we discuss on the National Women Policy about the historical background and also it definition, this policy also has some issue or problem that we can identify. The issue that we can see here that still happening until now is gender discrimination and women abuse. Although these issues are not obvious in this modern world but still it need to be cater before it becoming worse. This are the issue that can be identify in order for us to know what can be link to National Women Policy. First we will discuss about the gender discrimination that occur. This gender discrimination always happens everywhere whether in private or public sector. Normally women will be monopolized in any situation. First statement that we can see as gender discrimination was when people said that women can’t hold any position in decision making position. Key position in the public sectors that have never been held by women such as general manager of a state development corporation, state secretary and vice chancellor of university. They are being said to easily influence by their emotion and feeling. This is one of the reasons why women can’t hold any decision making position. Decision making position is one of the most important positions in any sector. Normally in public sector itself this situation are happening. We can see in any government department most of highest position are hold by men. This shown that discrimination on gender is still happening especially to women itself. In selection making process or hiring employee, most organization will hire men compare to women. But in any universities, school or any other place, we can see that women are more than men and even some of them better than men. Although there is one objective in National Women Policy mention that objectives of equality and justice must be made the essence of development policies which must be people oriented so the women, who constitute half of the nation can contribute and realize their potentials to the optimum but still discrimination in term of gender are happening in our society. Next issue that still happening until now and becoming worse is women abuse. Women always being discriminate and monopolized by the women. Most of the cases on women abuse are happening to the marriages partners. Through research, we can see that one of the major problems that cause divorce in marriages is women abuse. This abusing usually by the husband itself due to stress in work place, wife refuse sexual relationship, want to married and others factors. Another issue that increasing until now is rape cases to women and worst part is happens to children.
5.2 POLICY FORMULATION Policy formulation can be defined as passage of legislation designed to remedy some past problems or prevent some future policy problems. In this stage, government will try to find the best alternatives or identify the best way to address this issue. This is where they create new policy in order to cater this issue before it becomes worse. When we talk about the issue of discrimination in gender in public or private sector, it is a complex issue and it hard government to identify where the source of problem come from. Some of government alternatives are by introducing National Women Policy. In this National Women Policy, strategies use by the government was to provide more education and trainings opportunities. This is to encourage women to enter fields like the public services, judiciary and research and development. There’s been some discussion being made by government in order to overcome this issue becoming worse. When we refer to the discrimination in gender in public sector, women in public sectors are sensitive by this issue. They are questioning the government why women can’t become decision maker. Recently we heard news about women can’t become leader in any department or organizations because it is being said that women are easy to be influence by people especially they emotion in making decision and they are not type of person who can lead. This actually has pulled the trigger among the women and especially to Women ministry department. Also we heard about women abuse especially in marriages. More women are now being abuse by their husband. Maybe one of the reasons is because they want to get married or pressure due to work overload. This has cause women to become a tool for men to unleash they anger. In this situation it is important for policy formulation to be made. Government need to identify what policy is suitable to tackle this problem. Thus, government come out with the policy on 30 percent of women a decision making position. This is an example of policy formulate by the government. This policy is to overcome the issue on discriminating gender in any sector. Also in order to tackle the issue of women being abuse, government also formulates National Women Policy. In this policy women are well protected. There is one guideline mentioning that the specials needs and interest of women and the special virtues of feminity shall not be jeopardized. Where the responsibilities of motherhood and family life should neither be compromised nor neglected and the dignity, morals and respects due to women shall not be sacrificed. This shown that women shall be respect by other people. After government has formulated and identify the policy that suitable to the issue then the next stages that are policy adoption will take place.
5.3 POLICY ADOPTION Policy adoption is the step involved to select the appropriate methods of the policy selected before implementing the policy analysis process. It is a process of pre-evaluation among the policies by referring to the outlined forecasting. Thus in policy adoption it is more towards looking for a step to implement the policy. This step also must relevant to the policy that being formulated. We must include the characteristics of policy adoption when we want to find method to implement the policy adoption. A first characteristic is to minimize risk. Whether the risk is high or low this must need to be consider. What is the risk of that policy towards people if it is being implemented? A second characteristic is to choose suitable method for the policy itself. How government will implement this policy into the society itself? Government also needs to think the best method to install this policy in society so that it becomes successful in the society. Governments also need to highlights the target objectives of this policy that they want to achieved. So in order for the policy to be success, government through Women Minister Department has come out with their step to implement it. To implement the policy on 30 percent of women in decision making position, government has come out with it step. Government agreed to implement the quota of at least 30 percent of decision making position in public sectors and to be held by women. In line with that, the private sector and NGOs were also encouraged to increase the participation of women in managerial and key positions. In women abuse, government through National Women Policy has come out with Domestic Violence Act, Islamic Family Laws and also others related laws. This was to enforce fully anti-domestic violence laws. Government department that involves in this were Police department, Civil and Syariah courts, Ministry of Health and other religious institutions. So as we know in this policy adoption, governments want to identify the steps in implement this policy. And this policy will be done or implement every year by all this agencies and government departments.
5.4 POLICY IMPLEMENTATION Policy implementation is refers to the carrying out of public policy. This implementation also involved legislatures pass laws that are then carried out by public servants working in bureaucratic agencies. In here the process consists of rule making, rule administration and rule adjudication. Another definition of policy implementation is the realization, application or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm or policy. Inside policy implementation there are certain barriers need to be avoid in order to implement it. First is time constraint. The policy itself must not been implemented for short time only. It must be implemented for longer period. This is to get the result more accurately and effective. There must be full concentration of policy so that it contributes to positive outcomes. The next barriers that need to be considered were costly. More or less the policy proposed needs high allocation from the government. The investments to the policy may not convince the government to get the return on investment. In ensuring the policy being implemented, proper budget for the proper policy need to be introduced. Next barriers that need to be considering in implementing policy is authoritative decision. This refers to bureaucratic system exist in the political institution. The problems occur in here is that the redundancy of making the decision and from who the decision should get. When we talk about gender discrimination and women abuse thus government comes out with ideas in tackling the issue and how to overcome it. Government introduce Women Action Plan to ensure that National Women Policy have no constraints and obstruction to the full integration of women in the development process. This Women Action Plan also guarantees equitable sharing the acquisition of resources, information, opportunities and the benefits of development for women and men. This include the participation of women in power sharing at decision making levels, strengthening the position of women in terms of legislations, eliminating violence towards women and much more. Some of the strategies by government were to have personnel policies that are sensitive to women, to collect and analyze data regarding women participation in the economy and labour market, retraining for women, to reviews law in order to remove discriminatory provisions or those that negative impacts on women, to amend the Employment Act 1955 to enable women to work temporarily and have flexible working hours and more.
5.5 POLICY ASSESSMENT Policy assessment is concerned with what happens as a result of the public policy that is what happens after a policy is implemented. Here it emphasize on equity and efficiency. Through this assessment we can get the data and information about the policy. We also will know whether the policy has been successful implement or not. We see that after this National Women Policy being introduced, government especially public sector and also private sector are now become more flexible in hiring employee. We can see now more women have their own career rather than become housewife. As government introduce the 30 percent of women in decision making position policy, there is an increase in hiring women and reducing the gender discrimination. Also talking about violence against women, now there is the decrease in number of women abuse by men. This shown that the policies made by government were successful. But my point of views is that, although there is a decrease in women abuse but still the crime of abusing and rape children under age is still happening. Although government has taken major steps in overcome this but actually the issue also still happens. Also in gender discrimination in public and private sectors, although policy has been introduced but recently we heard that woman can’t become leader and make decision. This statement was making by one of the leader. This show here that the issue were still occurring although government has taken an action. In order to solve this issue on women abuse and gender discrimination, in my opinion government has to again amendment the violence domestic law on women. The law itself must be enforced well that is to put a heavy punishment. Thus government also need to provide protection for the women that being abused so that they were not afraid to report any case that happen surround them and also to them. About the gender discrimination, governments need to start hiring women employee in their own department first. This will ensure that others will follow also. Government also must introduce reward system where else who perform well will get the reward. This will ensure that there will be healthy competition among men and women in any sector.
6.0 PLAN OF ACTIONThe first one is national machinery for the integration of women in development. This is shown through the establishment of HAWA as a Unit in the Prime Minister's Department and as the Secretariat for the National Advisory Council for the Integration of Women in Development (NACIWID) is a positive step. In accordance with the policy of decentralizing the duties and powers of the Central Government, it is therefore appropriate that the machinery for women in development be upgraded, so that it can function more effectively to initiate various programmes at all levels of development. With this wider involvement, the machinery will be able to identify priorities, areas and targets for specific intervention and plan appropriate actions accordingly. The second is involving in health and care. Women's health serves as an important indicator of their advancement and status. Not only is health important for women to achieve their rightful status, but as mothers and care-providers, they can influence the health of the family and community. The other way is implementing an effective policy for the prevention of drug abuse and addiction by involving all parties and levels. Then, enacting laws that can provide protection to patients from irresponsible practitioners of medical and health care. Victims of rape and violence shall be protected from adverse and sensational publicity that could undermine their dignity and moral virtues and reviewing existing laws or formulating new laws with a view to providing protection to women in occupations with health hazards.
7.0 CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETYMany people didn’t realize but National Women Policy actually already brings impact to our society especially to women itself. National Women Policy actually has raising consciousness and understanding of all those concerned, and sensitizing them with issues and status of women. It is important for the society itself to know what are happening surround them especially to women itself. Through this Nation Women Policy, society itself knows what at the rights of women and also they can help to protect the women itself.Thorough National women Policy also they can channel women's issues through a central agency to various institutions and government bureaucracy in the form of administrative directives, programmes aimed at attitude modification and the building of commitment among those entrusted with the task of programme implementation. This is to ensure that all the bodies or governments departments that involve join hands together to combat the issue that occur among the women itself. The women itself also know which government departments or agencies they can refer to if any problem will happen. National Women Policy also helps the government body to plan for the distribution of resource to the various sectors that are implementing programmes pertaining to women's issues. The purpose of these resources is to encourage more activity being done for the women itself. Through this activities also the can enhance the relationship between the society and governments agencies. Society can benefit from any activities done by the government bodies itself. They will get new knowledge and also they will be providing with new information or any new updates.National Women Policy also securing the cooperation among the various governmental sectors and between governmental and non - governmental agencies in the process of centralizing and coordinating all efforts aimed at enhancing the participation of women in development.
8.0 CONCLUSIONIn our conclusion here we agree that National Women Policy has contributed to a lot of major change in our society itself. Now we see that our society itself do care about what is happening surround them. They know what should be done if there is issue or cases that happen to women. As we can see that cases of women abuse in married and also the cases of rape are starting to decrease now. Because of the introduction of this National Women Policy the women in our country itself now what are their right and they know which governments bodies or agencies that they can refer to. But are this National Women Policy is really-really affecting or bring impact to our society? We evaluate and discuss here that it is not hundred percent successful for this National Women Policy. Why? It is because crime of abusing and rape is still happening. But the trend now it is more towards children and even baby itself. A major problem that we can see is abusing the children and then rape.And although government has introduced the 30% policy of women in decision making position but still there is an issue occurs. Recently we heard issue that woman can’t become leader and make decision. This issue shows that there is no proper way or measurement being taken to tackle or overcome this issue. It still needs a lot of improvement especially to the National Women Policy itself.In order to strengthen the National Women Policy and also to address this issue in term of women abuse or rape, governments need to provide protection for the women that being abused so that they were not afraid to report any case. This is being implementing by government at the end of this year 2010 whereby government will establish shelter or home for those women that being abuse or being rape. This is to ensure that they morale are being support and to let them know that there are people also care about them. On the second issue that is on gender discrimination, governments need to start hiring women employee in their own department first. Not to say that government only hire women employee but there must be a check and balance. Maybe during the process of selection they can select 50% men and 50% women to undergone the next process. But it still depends on the qualification of that person itself. The rules and regulation especially the law of the government itself need to be more strictly and ensure that it being enforce.
Green Technology Policy1.0 ABSTRACTAt the Copenhagen Climate Change conference, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak announced that Malaysia was committed to reducing its carbon emissions by offering credible cuts of up to 40% by 2020. This is importance of the corporate sector taking steps on their own to reduce GHG and therefore its carbon footprints is giving the right impact as well as an endorsement of the government’s green technology policy that was launch in July 2009 whereby to reduce GHG emissions throughout our country’s economic production processes at the Copenhagen conference.National economies also trying to out-green each other with various new polices. Renewable energy technologies have created 1 million new jobs in China in the last 3 years. Obama’s Green Deal is based on a $150 billion investment plan for clean energy, hybrid cars and renewable power. In Malaysia, Prime Minister Najib Razak’s vision for a ‘Green Malaysia’ came to fruition with the recent launch of the National Green Technology Policy. This bodes well for an incipient green market in the country.Malaysia’s Green Technology Policy is part of the Razak government’s agenda for the newly set up Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. The four pillars of energy, environment, economy and social support the underlying policy drive. A Green Technology Council which monitors and advises on the policy is being set up. The policy outlines 5 strategic thrusts towards implementing the framework including strengthening institutional frameworks, providing a conducive environment for green technology development, intensifying human capital development in green technology, intensifying green technology research and innovations as well as ongoing promotion and public awareness.Malaysia’s seriousness to go green is based on the opportunities that lie in a green future. For Malaysia, moving towards a greener market can provide benefits that include savings on foreign exchange, increased competitiveness of industries, expansion of export markets, new job opportunities and a better environment.
2.0 INTRODUCTIONGreen Technology is the development and application of products, equipment, and systems used to conserve the natural environment and resources, which minimizes and reduces the negative impact of human activities. Green Technology application is seen as one of the sensible solutions which are being adopted by many countries around the world to address the issues of energy and environment simultaneously. Green Technology is a technology that allows us to progress more rapidly but at the same time minimizes the negative impact to the environment. Besides that also, the National Green Technology Policy will provide guidance and will create new opportunities for businesses and industries to bring a positive impact to our economic growth. It will also be the basis for all Malaysians to enjoy an improved quality of life, in line with the national policies. The establishment of the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water reflects Malaysia’s seriousness in driving the message that ‘clean and green’ is the way forward towards creating an economy that is based on sustainable solutions.In addition Green Technology refers to products, equipment, or systems which satisfy the several criteria which are it can minimizes the degradation of the environment and it has a zero or low green house gas (GHG) emission. Among that also the green technology is safe for use and promotes healthy and improved environment for all forms of life where it conserves the use of energy and natural resources and it promotes the use of renewable resources.Therefore, the introduction of Green Technology Policy shall be a driver to accelerate the national economy and promote sustainable development.
3.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICYCarbon emissions are a measure of the amount of carbon as well as Greenhouse Gases (GHG) that are released into the atmosphere from our all daily activities. Carbon and GHG ‘eats up’ the ozone layer, a protective coating around the Earth which protects us from harmful radiation from the sun and keeps global temperatures and weather patterns in check. A large portion of carbon and GHG comes from the burning of oil for all sorts of purposes from power generation to driving our vehicles. Malaysia had consistently ranked poorly in the global ranking of carbon emitters which number 157 out of 224 countries and according to several reports and studies done by the Unite State based International Energy Agency, Malaysia’s carbon emissions per capita had increased from 3.1 tons per capita to 7.2 tons per capita over a 16 year period from 1990-2006. By 2010, this figure is expected to touch 8 tons per capita putting Malaysia third behind Vietnam and China in terms of the growth rate of carbon emissions. Realizing that 28 million Malaysians were burning more and more fuel, Prime Minister Najib Razak in April 2009 was established the Green Technology Policy and in the 24 July 2009 was launched that policy under the newly renamed ministry, the Energy, Green Technology and Water Ministry which replaced the former Energy, Water and Communications Ministry whereby Y.B. Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui as Minister of Energy, Green Technology and Water. There have many agencies was involved to implementing the policy whereby divide to 5 type of group such as local government which involved the Putrajaya Corporation (PJC) and Sepang Municipal Council, the Township Developer such as Putrajaya Holdings and Cyberview Sdn Bhd, the operator or owner or manager involved the Cyberview Sdn Bhd & Multimedia Development Corp. (MDEC) PWD Putrajaya, BahagianPerumahan & Hartanah (BPHJPM) & PJC, Project Implementor such as KeTTHA, PTHN and the other group such Kementerian Wilayah Persekutuan & Kesejahteraan Bandar,Ministry of Natural resources and Environment(NRE), Ministry of Housing and Local Government (KPKT),Department Of Town and Country Planning,Institut Sultan Iskandar Institute (ISI‐UTM),Malaysia Green Building Confederation (MGBC),Malaysia Institute of Planners (MIP) and National Hydraulic Research Institution.In time had come for Malaysia to go green, citing global concerns to adopt and embrace sustainable and renewable best practices whereby plan to facilitate the growth of the Green Technology industry that was named as one of the key drivers that would contribute to the national economy. In other words, the going green was not just for tree-huggers, it was for entrepreneurs, industrialists, inventors and consumers at large.
3.2 PURPOSES OF THE GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICYGreen technology is becoming an important sector in economic development. Towards this, the Government launched the National Green Technology Policy in 24 July 2009. There have five purposes that have been decide to implement the policy in order to achieve government objective. Such as:- Minimize growth of energy consumption while enhancing economic development To facilitate the growth of GT industry & enhance its contribution to national economy; To increase national capability and capacity for innovation in GT development and enhance Malaysia’s competitiveness in global arena; To ensure sustainable development & conserve environment for future generations; To enhance public education & awareness on GT and encourage its widespread use.
3.3 5 STEPS PROCESS3.3.1 AGENDA SETTINGOur readiness to reduce carbon emissions from 187 million tons in 2005 to 74.8 million tons in 2020 whereby a 40% cut in order to showcases our seriousness in combating the climate change issue which is closely associated with palm oil and timber-related issues. These were relating to how Malaysia has handled its commodity sector, particularly palm oil, rubber, timber, cocoa, pepper and tobacco. Despite the criticisms, our commodity sector had recorded commendable export performance in 2008. This sector contributed 16.94% whereby RM112.43bil to total exports in the same year which have RM663.51bil. As far as green efforts are concerned, the palm oil industry has already embarked on initiatives to reduce carbon emissions. This is done through initiatives that trap biogas, which includes methane, to be used to generate electricity by fuelling steam turbines. Methane has 21 times global warming potential compared to carbon dioxide. Its use for power generation will further reflect the environmental friendliness of the palm oil industry as well as reduce the impact towards global warming. Methane is generated from the biological breakdown of empty fruit bunches such biomass and other organic matters such as manure, sewage and domestic waste. Methane and other gases emitted from this process are called biogas. Amongst all the biogases, methane is the most potent greenhouse gas which has high potential to cause global warming. But these processes have had their challenges. The distance of the mills to the national grid has resulted in poor connectivity of electricity, where only 18 out of 417 mills are equipped with methane trapping devices. The other stumbling block is the high cost of installing methane trapping devices and steam turbine generators, estimated at between RM4mil and RM6mil.This explains why 96% of the mills are still without the methane trapping facilities. A concerted effort is needed to ensure Malaysia will be able to deliver our commitment of 40% carbon reduction by 2020. Some portions of the RM1.5bil Green Technology Fund could be channeled for the development of methane trapping activities. This is in line with the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry’s plan to cut 50 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per annum with 20% to be contributed by energy efficiency projects and renewable energy sources. Methane trapping falls under this category. In addition, research is being undertaken to promote the use of waste in the form of biomass into possible growth areas in line with the policy on creation of wealth from waste. These include the use of fibre from oil palm trunks and fronds for the production of medium density particle board and bio-composite.The development of second generation biofuel using biomass as a feedstock holds much potential given that 30 million tons of palm oil biomass annually is available for utilization. This is also in tandem with the National Green Technology Policy launched by the Prime Minister on July 24 last year. The policy outlines the framework for the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable forms of energy, in addition to promotion of this sector as a new growth area. Given the security of fossil fuels globally, the switch to an alternative form of energy is inevitable. Renewable energy is not limited to source of production. Even though initial investments in renewable energy power plants require a significant amount of capital, companies can mitigate this through multiple business model strategies which allow for growth without excessive demands on capital resources. This is an area Malaysia must focus much of its public and private sector brains and resources on. Intensive efforts are being pursued to ensure the midstream rubber industry achieves a green industry status through adoption of more environment-friendly processing technologies, especially in minimizing waste discharge and an enhanced sludge treatment to overcome malicious odour or malodour.
3.3.2 POLICY FORMULATIONThe National Green Technology Policy is predicated on four primary pillars of Energy, Environment, Economy and Social perspective. This is where in term of the Energy perspective, the objective is want to seek to attain energy independence and promote efficient utilization. Apart from that, while from the Environment perspective is conserve and minimize impact on environment. Among that is Economy perspective where to enhance national economic development through use of Green Technology. The last pillars is that in term of Social Perspective which to improve the quality of life for all.The National Green Technology Policy comprises five strategic thrusts. The Strategic Thrust 1 aimed at strengthening the institutional frameworks especially among Government Ministries, agencies, private sectors and other stakeholders. In order to strengthening this thrust, the formation of a Green Technology Council chaired by Y.A.B. Prime Minister or Y.A.B. Deputy Prime Minister for high-level coordination among Government Ministries, agencies, the private sector and key stakeholders for effective implementation of the Green Technology Policy was establish. Among that also through the establishment of a Cabinet Committee on Green Technology chaired by Y.A.B. Prime Minister or Y.A.B. Deputy Prime Minister and the establishment of the Malaysia Green Technology Agency for the effective coordination and implementation of Green Technology initiatives and programmes.In addition, the establishment of legal mechanisms to foster an accelerated growth of Green Technologies in line with National objectives and goals. Lastly is by enhancement of institutional clarity so that all agencies are aware of their respective roles and responsibilities. The Council is chaired by Prime Minister, YAB Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak, will comprise members from various ministries to discuss and approve green technology policies and other related issues. The members of the Council are YAB Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Energy, Green Technology and Water, Minister of Transport, Minister of Plantation Industries and Commodities, Minister of Information, Communications and Culture, Minister of Higher Education, Minister of International Trade and Industry, Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation, Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Minister of Works,Minister of Housing and Local Government,Chief Secretary to the Government and CEO of the National Green Technology Agency. The Second Strategic thrust aims to provide a conducive environment for Green Technology Development. This includes the introduction and implementation of innovative economic instruments as well as the establishment of effective fiscal and financial mechanisms to support the growth of green industries. Among the strategies is that by strengthening the understanding of local players in Green Technology industries and their value chain, including the supporting industries through various industries enhancement programmes.Besides that is through promotion of foreign direct investments (FDIs) on Green Technology which foster domestic direct investments (DDIs) and local industry participation and development. Another strategy are establishment of strategic Green Technology hubs throughout Malaysia, expanding from the core value chain to the upstream and downstream of the industry and also the establishment of Green Technology funding mechanism in order to ensure the successful of Green Technology Policy.
Hence, Strategic Thrust 3 will seek to intensify human capital development by availing training and education programmes and by providing financial packages and incentives for students embarking on green technology related subjects. This is where by giving the provision of financial and fiscal incentives for students to pursue Green Technology disciplines at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Among the strategy is that, by implementation of retraining programme and apprenticeship scheme to enhance competency of semi-skilled labour to meet the demands of the Green Technology industry. Besides that, is through formulation of grading and certification mechanisms for competent personnel in Green Technology and exploitation of brain gain programmes to strengthen local expertise in Green Technology.The Strategic Thrust 4 focus on Intensify Green Technology Research and Innovations. Research, Development, Innovation and Commercialization (RDIC) is very crucial in creating new technologies, techniques and applications which would be able to reduce the cost of Green Technology and promote its usage. Research, Development and Innovations (RDI) could be enhanced through the provision of financial grants or assistance to public and private sector in RDIC.Apart from that is by the implementation of Green Technology foresight and establishment of an effective coordinating agency for RDI and Centre of Excellence or new research institute for Green Technology development. Enhancement of smart partnerships between the Government, industries, and research institutions among the strategy in the Strategic Thrust 4 in the Green Technology Policy. The other strategy is by establishment of strong linkages between local research institutions and regional and international centres of excellence in Green Technology RDI.The final thrust is for green technology to move forward is grounded on strong promotion and public awareness. Green technology is a new sector for the country and not many people could relate well to this subject. Effective promotion and public awareness are two of the main factors that would affect the success of Green Technology development. This is particularly significant as such adoption requires the change of mindset of the public through various approaches. Apart of the strategy is that, by effective, continuous promotion, education and information dissemination through comprehensive roll-out programmes to increase public awareness on Green Technology. Among that also, through effective involvement of media, non-governmental organizations and individual stakeholders in promoting Green Technology. In addition, inculcation of a culture that appreciates Green Technology among students at all levels through the development of effective syllabus among the strategy in the education system. The other strategies are that by demonstration programmes of effective Green Technology applications and adoption of Green Technology in all Government facilities and Government-linked entities.
3.3.3 POLICY ADOPTIONMalaysian businesses that can particularly benefit are those in the energy supply and demand sector. In the area of energy supply, green technology is particularly useful in power generation and in energy supply management areas. Potentials can include more co-generation by the industrial and commercial sectors which can lead to cost efficiencies. Similar opportunities lie in the energy utilisation sector and in demand side management programmes. The growth is exponential and presents vast new opportunities. Presently, every one per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP) is accompanied by a growth in energy demand (and associated green house gas emissions) of 1.2 to 1.5 per cent. Further, there is a renewed emphasis on alternative energies in an attempt to steer away reliance from oil and gas. For example, the government is already exploring the potential of using wind as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation is already undertaking tests in several parts of Malaysia to access its viability.In the building sector, the construction, management, maintenance and demolition of buildings can provide new avenues for a greener construction industry. Not only will there be more companies vying for green certifications for their buildings but this will also see the drive for a greener supply chain. One study reveals that every building or industrial plant constructed without optimal energy efficiency represents a lost opportunity to lock in lower energy consumption for decades.Similarly, the waste and water management sector can possibly see technology demand in the management and utilisation of water resources, waste water treatment, solid waste and sanitary landfill.Also, the transportation sector may be able to incorporate green technology in transportation infrastructure and vehicles, particularly through development of biofuels and public road transport.As the conclusion, a robust green policy can be seen as helping to overcome technological barriers, create a level playing field for these technologies and drive new markets. While the role of public policy is clearly important, it is certainly not enough to turn around the market, particularly an emerging one. Companies themselves need to harness the policy and develop more strategic approaches. This refer to terms of products which the companies need to capitalize on the demand for green products which will grow exponentially.
3.3.4 POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONGreen technology is becoming an important sector in economic development. Towards this, the Government launched the National Green Technology Policy in August. The objective of the policy is to provide direction towards management of sustainable environment. To further promote the development of green technology activities, the Government will firstly restructure the Malaysia Energy Centre (PTM) as the National Green Technology Centre (PTHN) tasked with formulating a green technology development action plan. This Centre will function as the focal point to set standards and promote green technology. The main functions of the National Green Technology Centre are the implementation agency for GT, leading the development of GT industry and promoting effective GT initiatives and programs. Besides that also the other function of PTHN are as one stop centre for standards and database and facilating the research, development and application fro the development of GT.Secondly is that, organise an international exhibition on green technology in April 2010. The exhibition is expected to attract internationally renowned companies and experts in green technology. Among the programme and activities are such as conference, seminar, cooperation between local and foreign universities, workshop and business networking. This activities and programme are implementing in order to widespread the GT among nations.Thirdly is, develop Putrajaya and Cyberjaya as pioneer townships in Green Technology, as a showcase for the development of other townships. Apart from the activities or programme in greening of Putrajaya and Cyberjaya is that to develop and promote a guideline for green township such as reduce carbon footprint, green building, effective use resources(reuse,reduce,recycle),sense of belonging and community and so forth. Besides that also other alternative is such to develop and apply a green rating system for township and community. The system to be based on ‘carbon footprint’ using ‘common carbon metric (CCM)’protocol develop by UNEP to sustainable building and construction initiatives. In addition the system used for calculating ‘carbon emmision’or ‘green house gases’ produced by the development and operation of a townships or community. The third is aims to saving 10% of energy and water usage in government buildings in Putrajaya.The implementation of this through several activities such as seminars and awareness campaign, basic training on energy, management to user’s building Managers and so forth.
Besides that by give priority to environment-friendly products and services that comply with green technology standards in Government procurement. This is where KeTTHA is working with Ministry of Finance on mechanism for Green Procurement to be implemented for government agencies. Apart from that, KETTHA is working with SIRIM to develop standards, certification and labeling mechanism to support this programmes.Among that also, KeTTHA will undertake a promotion and public awareness programme in order to increase awareness of GT among the stakeholders and general public which involve media and NGOs.Other from that, the alternatives also is that by enhancing highly skilled human capital. High quality human capital is a prerequisite to support the national development agenda. Therefore, the Government will ensure human capital development is implemented comprehensively, encompassing efforts to increase skills and knowledge. Apart from this, measures will be taken to develop intellectuals in science and technology, groom entrepreneurial capabilities as well as nurture positive and progressive values.The other programmes is such promoting Construction of Green Buildings. To expand the use of green technology, the Government launched the Green Building Index. GBI is a green rating index on environmentally friendly buildings. Green buildings save utility costs and preserve the quality of the environment. To promote green technology, the Government proposes that building owners obtaining GBI Certificates from 24 October 2009 until 31 December 2014 be given income tax exemption equivalent to the additional capital expenditure in obtaining such Certificates and buyers purchasing buildings with GBI Certificates from developers be given stamp duty exemption on instruments of transfer of ownership. The exemption amount is equivalent to the additional cost incurred in obtaining the GBI Certificates. This exemption is given to buyers who execute sales and purchase agreements from 24 October 2009 until 31 December 2014.Apart from that is through development of regional economic corridors. The Government launched five development corridors to narrow economic growth disparities between regions, increase income and ensure equitable wealth distribution. In addition, these efforts will generate business and job opportunities as well as improve the quality of life of the society. The Government will ensure that the regional corridors are developed according to schedule. Among projects to be implemented include Projek Perumahan Awam and Pembersihan Sungai Segget in Iskandar Malaysia, Projek Pertanian Bersepadu and Pusat Latihan Usahawan Tani in Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER), Projek Pelebaran Jalan Persekutuan Kuala Krai-Gua Musang and Kuala Lipis-Raub- Bentong in East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Projek Kluster Industri Minyak Sawit Sandakan and Keningau Integrated Livestock Centre in Sabah Development Corridor (SDC) as well as Projek Jalan Akses Empangan Murum and Projek Jalan Akses Empangan Baram in Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE).
3.3.5 POLICY ASSESMENTThe launch of the Green Technology Policy today signals the way forward to a sustainable environment in a coherent and integrated manner to ensure a brighter world for our future generations and to create the right business culture for continued economic growth of the nation. But the Green Technology Policy is seen as less effectives in the implementation as there are many issues and challenges arise.As we know, in Strategic Thrust One of the National Green Technology Policy, which is the strengthening of the institutional framework, the National Green Technology Council has been set up to accelerate the development of green technology in the country. The Council, to be chaired by Prime Minister, YAB Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak, will comprise members from various ministries to discuss and approve green technology policies and other related issues. By not included Minister of Rural and Regional Development seen to be lack and less efficient in the implementation of Green Technology Policy as this Ministry plays an important role in developing the rural area in order to achieve the GT policy.Apart from that also, the proposed Renewable Energy Act (REA) may help drive national policies on renewable energies but it will not be effective in facilitating such a drive but there are less due attention given to tax matrix as an effective tool apart from other related legal instruments or even the proposed Renewable Energy Act (REA). With reference to the imminent enforcement of GST, it can be seen that no attention has been given to the tax consideration as an effective tool in facilitating the pickup rate and public acceptance of green energy and related green technologies.In addition, this policy needs to enhance commitment to manage our waste stream objectively. There are several advanced and efficient technologies but without sincere commitment to implement “Go Green” policy from all parties, it is impossible to achieve a Green Community. The appreciation and acceptance by our Industrial Community is still low. Thus, the applicable technologies cannot be implemented. Everyday we talks about how to better manage our waste stream problems but failed to consider objectively applicable technologies. Likewise, on subsidize Petrol pricing but the government failed to consider NGV/CNG as immediate alternative. Among that also, the contribution of the less effective of the GT policy is that the shortage of availability of skilled, qualified, competence and productive human resources to support green IT growth. This is where the GT policy needs the competence and qualified ability in order to adapt this policy. For instance the using of nano technologies that need the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to these field.The new technologies needs more time and money to adapt which not all the society are ready and accept the new changes.Thus,it is difficult to the government in order to successfully implement this policy.
3.4 CONTRIBUTION OF THE GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICYThere have several of the contribution of this policy to the world, people and environment. Firstly, the green market was provides vast opportunities for businesses to innovate and grow as well as develop new paths of competitiveness. This refer to the more open opportunity whereby the government was encourage the businessman or industry to implement or manufacture the product which it less of using carbon emissions. This will open the more green market to implementing the policy thus can compete of each other to gain profit.Next, the policy also helps us to reduce the green house gas emission into our atmosphere. This is because the government wants to reduce the carbon emission in producing the good whereby nowadays the earth pollution become worst thus, through this policy it can contribute to reduce the issue and save our earth for pollution.Third, more adapt a green environment approach in businesses by moving towards low carbon technology. Consumers have become increasingly conscious not only of what they buy but also how the goods and services they buy have been produced. They are choosing to shop at companies that support environment and are avoiding companies which do not give emphasis to environmental factors. Besides, most industries have become so comfortable with low energy costs that there is less incentive for them to become energy efficient or look to alternative energy sources. While the technology for energy efficiency and alternative energy sources is available, the costs of implementing the technology are expensive compared to cheap subsidized power produced by the IPPs.Lastly, the gradual removal of subsidies not only for gas to produce electricity but for petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) will benefit Malaysia in the long run, not only environmentally but economically as well. The Green Technology policy is giving us a way to build not only a greener and more sustainable future but a more economical and profitable one at that.
4.0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion, we can conclude that Green IT development in Malaysia is still at the early stage. Green Technology seen has a strategic role which spans beyond achieving energy autonomy and mitigating climate change. Green Technology is one of the emerging drivers of economic growth for our country. Green Technology will encourage facilitate the development of knowledge society, which would encourage us to embrace a sustainable and better way of living. The National Green Technology Policy has been developed with intense thought and cooperation with all stakeholders from all segments of society. It is the culmination of efforts from a number of workshops to define the scope of the endeavour and formulate thoughts for the prospective long term achievements for the nation in a business friendly environment. Our hope that the Green Technology Policy will help our nation to stride towards a better quality of life and economic development for our citizens and our future generation. It is our dream that one day we can live in a clean, healthy and high quality environment, where cities, townships and communities are built on the fundamentals of Green Technology. The road to our future sustainability may be challenging. However, unity and commitment under the spirit of 1-Malaysia will drive us successfully to our target destiny. Therefore, greater efforts and promotion is required to ensure the success of development and implementation of Green Technology Policy in Malaysia.
SUGGESTIONAs we know that the Green technology seen less effectives in the implementation. Therefore, there are several suggestion in order to improve and enhance this policy so that its can be successful to be implemented.Firstly, from the list of the council members involved in this policy, it seems that all critical sectors are well covered. Green technology efforts have always been fragmented with different ministries and agencies running their own projects. Environmental initiatives often involve several parties across the government, so there is the need to first strengthen the institution However, we feel there a need to include Minister of Rural and Regional Development as one of the GT council members. This is to ensure that GT policies and action plan will not overlook the people in the rural areas and maybe help to improve their social and economics wellbeing. Furthermore, many of renewable energy and solar hybrid system are installed in the rural areas and these projects were implemented by this ministry.Secondly, the establishment of the recent Green Technology Policy and the accompanying Renewable Energy Policy & Action Plan Roadmap is a move towards the right direction that the government is serious in taking renewable energy policy to the next level. In enhancing local involvement in the research and development of sustainable green energy-related technologies, Malaysia may need to learn from international leaders such as Denmark, Germany, Japan and Korea depending on the specific niche area of green energy specialization. This alternative is to emphasize on the control of importing overseas green equipments or machines for projects used in Malaysia whereas Malaysia can have its own factory in our own backyard.Besides that also, Tax Component as an effective instrument in the development and usage of Green-based Technologies in Malaysia. Usage of green technologies will still be subject to the same tax liabilities and subsequent tax treatment (notwithstanding certain tax exemptions granted for specified R&D subject matter). Up to now, there is no indication at all from the government that the usage, promotion and implementation of green technologies and energy will not be treated differently from the tax liability aspect. Hence, in order to achieve an integrated approach in finding a viable energy solution to the green technology and adoption of renewable energy equation, the tax component must be taken into serious account.Among that, the government needs to establish a policy and the setting-up of NGV/CNG Commission to regulate the NGV/CNG industry. This will stimulate & enhance the development and growth of NGV/CNG industry. Malaysia is now far behind compared to Thailand who had established policy and commitment in developing the NGV/CNG industry. Several technologies had landed in Thailand although these Principals favoured Malaysia but without the policy in place they had decided to move away. The effort by Ministry is needed in order to objectively review the matters and readiness of the respective agencies and the Malaysian on the whole to change the mindset towards achieving a balanced Green Community. Apart from that, the government need emphasize on discussion on how local startup technology company and university range from IT to nano technology can contribute to Malaysia green economy and later export it the rest of the world. Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Some scientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transform the way that everything in the world is manufactured. "Green nanotechnology" is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to this field. For example of the nano technologies is that produce by local producer such as ‘Bioaura’water that use nano technologies.Therefore the expanded on the nono technologies can increase the export for around the worth which contribute to the economic growth.
PREPARED BY:ELAYNA ANAK JAHARI (2009264466)JACQUELINE DORIS AK KASA(2009231618)A study of Sex Education PolicyMINISTRY THAT INVOLVE IN SEX EDUCATION POLICY The ministry that involve in proposing the sex education policy are the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, under the Senator Datuk Seri Shahrizat Abdul Jalil and the Ministry of Education, which is under Tan Sri Dato’ Muhyiddin Yassin. Besides that, there are also participating by the Malaysian Islamic Development Department, nongovernmental organizations, and education experts.ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper is to determine why the Sex Education need to be implemented in Malaysia because of the social problems occur among the teenagers dramatically increase from day to day. With having Sex Education as a full course as part of the co-curriculum in school, it can slowly decrease the number of social problems and increase the awareness among the teenagers about the consequences, negative impacts towards their futures. It is also compulsory for the students to take this sex education as for them to learn how to respect their own bodies and also others.
INTRODUCTION Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, contraception, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns. Sex education may also be described as "sexuality education," which means that it encompasses education about all aspects of sexuality, including information about family planning, reproduction (fertilization, conception and development of the embryo and fetus, through to childbirth), plus information about all aspects of one's sexuality including: body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. Sex education may be taught informally, such as when someone receives information from a conversation with a parent, friend, religious leader, or through the media. It may also be delivered through sex self-help authors, magazine advice columnists, sex columnists, or through sex education web sites. Formal sex education occurs when schools or health care providers offer sex education. Sexual education may thus be seen as providing individuals with the knowledge necessary to liberate themselves from socially organized sexual oppression and to make up their own minds.
HISTORY OF SEX EDUCATION Sex education had been taught in all worldwide long time ago except Malaysia. Muslims comprise over half of the 26 million population of Malaysia, one of the world's most developed Islamic countries, but to them, sex is still a taboo subject. At the time of the prophet, muslims men and women were never too shy to ask the prophet about all affairs, including such private affairs as sexual life, so as to know the teachings and rulings of their religion concerning them. As Aisha, the wife of the prophet testified, "Blessed are the women of the Ansar (the citizens of Madina). Shyness did not stand in their way seeking knowledge about their religion." (all except Termizi). The way the ladies asked the prophet-directly or through his wives is a proof that sexual matters were not taboo but were fully acknowledged and respected. "Shyness is part of the faith" as the prophet taught, but he also taught "There is no shyness in matters of religion" even entailing the delicate aspects of sexual life.For United States, almost all U.S. students receive some form of sex education at least once between grades 7 and 12; many schools begin addressing some topics as early as grades 5 or 6. However, what students learn varies widely, because curriculum decisions are so decentralized. Many states have laws governing what is taught in sex education classes or allowing parents to opt out. Some state laws leave curriculum decisions to individual school districts.
continue..HISTORYFor example, a 1999 study by the Guttmacher Institute found that most U.S. sex education courses in grades 7 through 12 cover puberty, HIV, STIs, abstinence, implications of teenage pregnancy, and how to resist peer pressure. Other studied topics, such as methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and factual and ethical information about abortion, varied more widely. Two main forms of sex education are taught in American schools: comprehensive and abstinence-only. Comprehensive sex education covers abstinence as a positive choice, but also teaches about contraception and avoidance of STIs when sexually active. A 2002 study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 58% of secondary school principals describe their sex education curriculum as comprehensive. Abstinence-only sex education tells teenagers that they should be sexually abstinent until marriage and does not provide information about contraception. In the Kaiser study, 34% of high-school principals said their school's main message was abstinence-only. The difference between these two approaches, and their impact on teen behavior, remains a controversial subject. In the U.S., teenage birth rates had been dropping since 1991, but a 2007 report showed a 3% increase from 2005 to 2006. From 1991 to 2005, the percentage of teens reporting that they had ever had sex or were currently sexually active showed small declines.
Continue..HISTORYIn Asia, such as Japan, sex education is mandatory from age 10 or 11, mainly covering biological topics such as menstruation and ejaculation. In China and Sri Lanka, sex education traditionally consists of reading the reproduction section of biology textbooks. In Sri Lanka they teach the children when they are 17–18 years. However, in 2000 a new five-year project was introduced by the China Family Planning Association to "promote reproductive health education among Chinese teenagers and unmarried youth" in twelve urban districts and three counties. This included discussion about sex within human relationships as well as pregnancy and HIV prevention. The International Planned Parenthood Federation and the BBC World Service ran a 12 part series known as Sexwise, which discussed sex education, family life education, contraception and parenting. In 1936, Wilhelm Reich commented that sex education of his time was a work of deception, focusing on biology while concealing excitement-arousal, a pubescent individual is mostly interested in. Reich added that this emphasis obscures what he believed to be a basic psychological principle: that all worries and difficulties originate from unsatisfied sexual impulses. It was first launched in South Asia and then extended worldwide.
PURPOSES OR GOALS OF SEX EDUCATION Sex is an important area of marital life. The approach of sex education is to reduce the risks of potentially negative outcomes from sexual behavior, such as unwanted or unplanned pregnancies and infection with sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Therefore, sex education should be implemented as for the teenagers to know what sex is about, what are the consequences of having sex without proper safety and pre-marriage. Besides that, it is also to contribute to young people’s positive experience of their sexuality by enhancing the quality of their relationships and their ability to make informed decisions over their lifetime. This is important as to make a right decision for a bright future.
Sex Education from the Islamic PerspectiveIslam comprises a total way of life. It is hard to take any major issue in life in isolation. Sexual life cannot be conceived of without marital and family life and these are all to be considered in relation to other Islamic teachings which regulate and control Muslim behavior.Ibn al-Quyem in his book, Prophetic Medicine, assigned a full chapter to discussing the Islamic attitude to sexual and marital life, the interaction between the spouses, and the permissions and prohibitions concerning sexual intercourse between spouses. Muhammad Qutb in his book, Islam the Misunderstood Religion, discussed the subject in two chapters, one On Islam and Woman and the other, On Islam and Sexual Repression. Reading through the Quran and the Traditions of the Prophet there are many verses and Traditions about the creation of human life, cleanliness and purity, interaction between tile spouses, and mention of sexual intercourse between the spouses. In the explanation of these verses and Traditions, issues did arise, questions were asked and both sexes were involved jointly or separately. Then, there are several important points as following:
1. In Islam sex has always been taken seriously and it should remain so. It is not a subject for fun or mere absolute pleasure. It is never discussed obscenely or subjected to scrutiny. Decency and due respect always characterize the subject. 2. Sex is never discussed in isolation for its sake or mere pleasure. It is always related to marital life and family life. It is is viewed as a superior human relationship subject to strict regulations. Thus sex within a marital relationship is a worship that is rewarded. Outside a marital relationship sex is a punishable sin. 3. Sex is privacy between the spouses. What goes on is confidential and should not be divulged to outside parties. The human factor in marital and sexual relationship is superior to mere pleasure. 4. Legislation concerning sex is not subject to change by pressure groups or change in social attitudes. 5. Like the rest of Islamic teaching, knowledge about those verses and Traditions on the subject is not age-specific and is not meant to start at a certain age. As the Muslim is leaming the Quran and Sunnah he or she will come across these teachings. It is our belief that facts about sex should be taught to children in a way commensurate with their age as they grow up both by the family and the school. This should be done within the total context of Islamic ideology and Islamic teaching, so that the youth-beside getting the correct physiologic knowledge become fully aware on the sanctity of the sexual relation in Islam and the grave sin of blemishing such sanctity whether under Islamic law, or far more important in the sight of God. Islamic conscience is developed we see no reason to shun sex education (unfortunately the rule in many muslim countries), and we believe it is better to give the correct teaching rather than leave this to chance and to incorrect sources and to the concomitant feeling of guilt by the hush-hush atmosphere in which this is done.
The Muslim doctor needs to understand thoroughly all that the Quran has mentioned pertaining to sex and all that the Traditions of the Prophet included concerning conjugal rights and how spouses should treat each other concerning those conjugal rights. Female Muslim physicians in a Muslim society need not worry about handling overt and obscene sexual problems. One main reason to believe this assumption is that the Quran and the Sunnah should be the framework for Muslim life and thus shape and fashion the behavior and attitudes of Muslims. As the children are brought up they will have an Islamic orientation to marital life and sex education is then part of that education rather than a separate and major issue in isolation.
THE APPLICATION OF THE FIVE STEPS IN THE POLICY MAKING PROCESSIn make policy the government has to follow five steps to make their policy became more effective and efficiency. There steps are: i. Agenda settingii. Policy formulationiii. Policy adoptioniv. Policy implementationv. Policy evaluation or assessmentFirst step is agenda setting; in agenda setting the government will introduce some policy that can solve the problem among the society. Sex education policy do not yet publish by the government but due to the some cases that involve social problem, our ministers of Women, Family and Community Development and Education was agree to publish this policy to the public to make our social problem can be reduce and also make their society have higher moral value in their life. The cabinet also gives green light to introduce this policy because of increasing of social problems among the teenagers in Malaysia. For example, cases of abundant babies, abortions and sex before marriage.
Second step is policy formulation; in this step policy formulation will be introduce their policy to the public. So that they will development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda. The effective formulation means that the policy proposed is regarded as a valid, efficient and an implement able solution to the issue at hand. Policy analysts always try to identify effective alternatives. This is the analytical phase of policy formulation. It means that proposed course of action is likely to be authorized by the legitimate decision makers, usually through majority-building in a bargaining process. That is, policy formulation must be politically feasible. Malaysia gives green light for sex education to the public. So that they need to explain more detail to the public so that they can be more understand and accept that policy. This is because our society mindset is typically so hard to change their mind set. So this mean the minister have their step to handle of this problem. For example, sex education will start for pre-scholars from the age of four up to teenagers and young adults according to the ministries for education and women, family and community. The subjects they will teach in school will be including rape, sexual abuse, abortion, infanticide and the spread of HIV/AIDS. This is because to make our teenager know the bad and good before marriage or to teenagers who always change their partner. The ministries said they had developed a sex education guidebook incorporating the topics that was written after consultations, which started in July 2002.The guidebook was published to impart knowledge to all Malaysians from various age groups to think positively in life by absorbing good and honorable social values.
Third step is policy adoption, in this step the government try to adopt their policy after they receive the feedback from the society. For example, after this policy already introduce in public through news paper or mass media. We can see the feedback from society what their opinion about that policy and whether that policy can achieve their goals. This policy became more interested because station radio hot.fm make this topic for their hot chat or hot topic so through that the society can give their opinion about that policy. Though policy adoption, the government tries to analyze what the effects and consequences if the policy implemented. This policy must be discuss in the parliament before proceed to be a law. That’s mean that the entire factor that can influence and disturb the implementation can be discussed and can be found the way how to overcome the obstacle before implemented. So through this step we can see the effectiveness this policy to the public and how they can accept that policy whether they follow that policy or not. This step also helps the government change any plan or improve their weakness to make a better policy. So that is important part of any step because under this step we receive the feedback from the society and the government also need do some research and predict what happen in future. To make our policy effective we should know what need to do and have answer for any question if society asks what the benefit of that policy.
Fourth step is policy implementation; policy implementation means that policy already establish in the public. Sex education policy is implemented by ministries of education and women, family and community and their plan also approved by the cabinet. Before this policy implement our Ministry of Education and Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development jointly formed a committee as a springboard for the long-awaited implementation of sex education in schools in may 2004. And finally in May 2005, a press release stated that the sex education module was almost ready and due to be discussed in Cabinet. Malaysian also set to Implement Sex Education in Schools that the sex education classes will begin at pre-school level where children are aged 4-6 years old. If the programmed is approved by the Malaysian cabinet, the classes will be launched in February next year. This is because to teach them the basic subject of sex education. For example In Sweden, sex education has been a mandatory part of school education since 1956. The subject is usually started between ages 7 and 10, and continues up through the grades, incorporated into different subjects such as biology and history. But In England and Wales, sex education is not compulsory in schools as parents can refuse to let their children take part in the lessons. The curriculum focuses on the reproductive system, fetal development, and the physical and emotional changes of adolescence, while information about contraception and safe sex is discretionary and discussion about relationships is often neglected.
Final step is policy evaluation or assessment, in this step, this policy will be rechecking weather this policy is suitable and have any problem or not. Sex education, understood as educating about sexual practice, is still not available in Malaysian schools despite a demonstrated need among young people. The introduction of sex and sexual health education has met strong resistance from parents and religious leaders. For those political leaders who support sex education, they are fearful of the religious repercussions entailed. There is a misunderstanding among teacher and parent associations that sex education will encourage sexual activity. Religious leaders are totally opposed to discussing male/female relationships based upon understand that religion forbids it and therefore the topic should not be discussed at all.
Conclusion For conclusion, sex education policy should be implemented in Malaysia. The policy implemented must be suitable according to the Constitution of Malaysia and also based on the Islamic perspective. So that, every people can accept the policy. Furthermore, it is also to build a sense of morality in order to reduce risk behaviors such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make informed decisions about their personal sexual activity. Sex education is not only about the mechanics of sex but also learning how to respect our bodies and one another. But it is also need not encourage promiscuity, but properly taught can encourage abstinence till marriage and not falling for the “if you love me, you will have sex with me” line. It is needed to encourage responsible sexual behavior and avoid unwanted pregnancies, STDs and HIV/AIDs.The parents should not just leave it to the teachers but take it upon themselves (no matter how embarrassing) to have frank discussions of responsible sexual behavior with their kids. So that, their kids will know what is the meaning of sex and what is the effect of having sex. Then, their kids will understand and can differentiate between right and wrong. With these, the numbers of social problems occur among the teenagers can be reduce slowly although it is not 100%, but at least we as part of the citizen, cooperate together with government, NGO-NGO, and others as to build a harmony, peaceful country and responsible Malaysians.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIESPrepared By:Khairunnisa Idil(2009241728)Noor Amalina Azhar(2009869744)Group: AMB4P1Abstract Nowadays there are many issues regarding the problems of poverty in rural areas. To ensure the problems in rural areas can be reduce or eliminate, the government has implement rural development policies. Rural development has been the core focus of the Malaysian economic policies since her independence in 1957 until nowadays. Today, the new Minister of Rural and Regional Development Minister is Datuk Seri Mohd Shafie Apdal. The rural sector is pivotal to the country’s economic growth, social and political development. Some of the salient characteristics of the sector are: high incidence of poverty, low productivity, lack of basic economic and social infrastructures and market imperfections. This paper examines the evolution of the Malaysian rural development policies, strategies and programmes since the 1960s. As the rural economy is agriculture-based, agricultural policy through agrarian reform has been the major instrument that was responsible in transforming the poverty-stricken community to a commercial-oriented sector. Development efforts are governed by the twin objectives of achieving growth with equity. The government policy has to some extent achieved the intended results but poverty and inequality within and between sectors are still significant and apparent. Hence, rural development continues to be an important agenda to the country’s development effort.
Introduction One of the major thrusts of the Malaysian economic development since her independence in 1957 has been and continues to be the rural development programmes. The rural sector plays a pivotal role in the country’s economic growth, social and political development. The Malaysian economy depended on the rural sector in the early development stage for agricultural input and output and hence the country’s export earnings and growth in the 1960s and 1970s. The rural sector before the 1990s was almost synonymous with agriculture as more than 70% of her population were engaged in agricultural activities including livestock and fishing. Taking agriculture as a proxy for the rural sector, its importance as the engine for growth reached its peak in the 1970s.In 1970, this sector accounted about 30% of the country’s GDP, it went down to about 14% in 1995 and expected to reduce to about one-tenth in the early 21st century (while the share of the manufacturing sector is estimated to increase to around 40%). Like any other developing economies, the growing economic importance of the manufacturing sector implies that the rural sector has fulfilled its role as the supplier of labour, land and capital required for industrial development. Despite the declining trend of agricultural share in the GDP, it will remain an important sector to the country in terms of export earning, employment and food security. The same argument applies to the rural sector. One of the major social problems of the rural sector is poverty. Although poverty is a universal problem; its higher occurrence and incidence in the rural sector makes it predominantly rural phenomenon. The incidence of poverty in the country was very high in the 1970s, that is, almost half of the populations lived in poverty, with the rural sector suffered the highest. In the this period, about 60% of the rural population were considered poor and lived in poverty compared to 21% of the urban sector. The problem is further aggravated with the predominance of the Malays (the indigenous population which account about 57% of the country’s population in 1995) in the rural sector and hence creating an economic imbalance between the Malays and the other ethnic groups. This inequity was perceived as a potential seedbed for social unrest and political stability which might hinder the country’s progress and development. With the above premise, the Malaysian government, since Independence has embarked on various economic programmes and strategies aiming at developing the rural sector mainly through the agricultural policies and the whole economy through the industrialisation policies. The success has been commendable as reflected by the reduction of poverty incidence to 9% in 1995 and expected to reach only 6% by early 21st century. Nevertheless, the benefits of the development strategies have not been equitable between the rural and urban sector as the former recorded 19% incidence of poverty compared to the latter which was about 4% in 1995. Hence, the struggle to improve the rural sector is still an important agenda to the government in the next century. This paper attempts to examine the evolution of the rural development policies in Malaysia since her Independence that was responsible in improving somewhat the quality of life in the rural sector. The review would provide some understanding of the philosophies, rationales as wells as the lessons that can be learned from the Malaysian rural development experience.
The Rural Sector The rural sector economy is mainly agriculture-based as more than three-quarter of her population are involved in agricultural activities. It comprises mainly smallholder operators in the agricultural sector and labourers and employees working in an informal sector which has been defined as “other industries”. The smallholder agricultural sector comprises rubber, palm oil and coconut smallholders, paddy farmers, fishermen, mixed farmers and estate workers. The “informal sector” refers to population residing in the rural sector that is involved in other agricultural activities not mentioned earlier or semi-industrial urban based employment like mining, manufacturing, construction, transport, utilities, trade and services. In terms of population distribution, the rural population has registered an increase in number from 4.6 mn in 1957 to 9.4 mn in 1995 (an increase of 106%). The share of rural population of the total however has shrunk from about three-quarter to 45% during that period. The decline in the share of rural population from the total despite the high birth rate in this sector was due to the massive out-migration to the manufacturing sectors which were mainly located in the urban areas, particularly in the post 1970 period. It was during this period that Malaysia began her intensive effort towards urbanisation and industrialisation programmes. As mentioned earlier, poverty was and still is prevalent in the rural sector. Firstly, at the national level, the incidence of poverty seems to have reduced from almost half in 1970 to about 9% in 1995. Regionally, the problem of poverty is more acute for Sabah (34% in 1990) and Sarawak (21%) compared to Peninsular Malaysia (15%). Secondly, the incidence of poverty in the rural sector is relatively high example at 19% compared to the urban sector at 3.7% in 1995 for the whole of Malaysia. The regional distribution of poverty incidence suggests that the rural sector in Sabah and Sarawak are higher relatives to the Peninsular Malaysia. The rural sector in Sabah and Sarawak records poverty incidence at 39% and 24% respectively compares to 19% in Peninsular Malaysia in 1990. Despite the overall reduction in poverty incidence, the problem of poverty among traditionally peasant farmers and fishermen remain intractable. In 1990, the incidence of poverty among padi farmers (30%), rubber smallholders (24%), coconut smallholders (27%) and fishermen (39%) remained high. The factors contributed to the poverty problem are multidimensional in nature ranging from social to economic factors. Ungku Aziz (1964) in his earlier work on the subject described poverty as a vicious cycle of low productivity, malnutrition, lack of infrastructures, low incomes and unemployment embedded in structural defects, reinforced by imperfect competition (middlemen monopoly-monopsony) and the relative neglect of the rural economy. Hence, rural development addressing poverty problem involves a multi -sectoral approach which include agricultural development, rural industrialisation, infrastructural development and welfare programmes.
Evolution of Development PolicyPre-Independence Prior to Independence, Malaysia’s rural development policy was embedded in the agricultural development policy. During this period, the agricultural policy was designed to serve primarily the needs of British colonial rule with a purposive neglect of the rural sector. While the British companies ventured into plantation agriculture, largely rubber and other commercial crop cultivation, the indigenous population (the Malays) remained largely in subsistence and smallholder agriculture. The neglected rural economy in general became involutes where incomes were very low because output and prices were low; output was low because of poor traditional production techniques, and low income led to a lower standard of welfare. This scenario, considered as the legacy of the British colonial agricultural policy, became the basis that shaped Malaysia rural development policy after independence.
1960s There was a significant change from benign colonial neglect to active intervention in the development of the agricultural and rural sectors. The main effort at agricultural development devolved upon the traditional subsistence and smallholder subsectors to serve primarily the indigenous population. Two development plans were introduced First Malaysia Plan (1956-60) and Second Malaysia Plan (1961-65). Under the two plans, agricultural development programmes were assigned to improve the economic and social well being of the farming communities in particular and the rural populace in general. To implement the programmes, Malaysia adopted a laissez faire economic system. The private sector was assigned the role of engine of growth in contrast to the government sector which undertook investment in social and physical capital apart from providing support to the private sector. The Second Malaysia Plan also incorporated a National Rural Development Plan aimed at reorganizing and mobilizing institutions and efforts towards modernizing and developing the rural sector. The Ministry of Rural Development planned and co-ordinated the activities of all agencies related to rural development. At the district or local level, the District Rural Development Committees implemented, monitored and reviewed as the Rural development projects in what was known as the Rural Economic Development (RED Book) Plan located at District Operation Rooms, which recorded the progress and attainment of rural development projects as district level. The RED projects focussed on building basic infrastructures and institutions.The infrastructural approach was intended to provide linkages to the rural economy provide rural employment and raise productivity and incomes of rural peasants. The social and economic infrastructures provided were rural roads, drainage and irrigation facilities, basic amenities like rural electricity, water, school, health, community and religious centres and so forth. The rural institutions were established to facilitate production and marketing functions; and also the credit needs of the rural peasants. These infrastructures and institutions were expected to generate rural employment besides raising productivity, incomes socio-economic status of the rural population.
1960s(continues...) Despite the infrastructural programmes, the incidence of poverty remained at a serious level in the 1960s. To break through the vicious cycle of poverty, a more effective measure was needed in the form of a structurally-oriented programme that could absorb the underemployed rural population in the overcrowded rural agricultural sector. During this period, there was abundant agricultural land which could be developed into land development schemes. Thus large and extensive land development schemes under the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) became a catalyst for rapid rural development. Vast areas of undeveloped land were brought into cultivation of rubber and palm oil through new land development and settlement schemes. Largely for economic and political reasons, the main thrust shifted production orientation of traditional smallholder from policy subsistence activities to the production of export crops. New land development programmes were extended to include the cultivation of oil palm through a policy of crop diversification and double-cropping of rice was expanded under the drive for self-sufficiency in rice production. Agricultural rehabilitation and consolidation were also emphasized under in situ development programmes. Emphasis was also made to upgrade agricultural research and extension and to correct the shortcomings facing land tenure, credit processing and marketing. These aimed at reducing production costs so as to ensure fair returns to producers. The policy objective of increased productivity and output, nonetheless, had not been eschewed in view of continuing emphasis on agricultural modernization and increased pace of land alienation and development for agriculture. Rural industrialisation was another strategy started under SMP to increase employment, productivity and incomes of the rural population. Rural Industrial Development Authority (RIDA) was launched to improve the well-being of rural communities by setting up rural or cottage industries. Later RIDA was expanded into MARA or The Council of Trust for Indigenous People, whose role has included providing training and educational facilities to Malays to further their education and to than involvement in the urban industrial sector.
1970s The advent of racial disturbance in 1969 caused a major shift or turnaround in the role and policy of the government. It pointed out the relative failure of private sector led growth strategy in bringing about equitable distribution of income and development among races, sectors and region. This subsequently brought about an interventionist role of government in the economy. In 1970, The government launched The New Economic Policy (NEP) 1971-1990 and The First Outline Perspective Plan 1971-1990. The primary objective of NEP was national unity and this was to be achieved through a two-pronged strategy of eradication of poverty and restructuring of society. The First Outline Perspective Plan, 1971-90 spelt out poverty reduction and equity share ownership targets to be achieved. It was targeted that the rural poverty would reduced to about 21.6% by 1990 and the Bumiputera (indigenous Malays) share of equity ownership should be at least 30%. The implementation of these two policies saw a more direct role of the public sector in agriculture and a series of policies effecting equity, ownership and employment in the private sector.
1980s In 1984, the National Agricultural Policy (NAP) was launched to provide a much more “all encompassing” policy approach to agricultural development. The NAP was designed to ensure a balanced and sustained rate of growth in the agricultural sector vis-a-vis the other sector in the economy. The policy objectives of the NAP aimed specifically at maximising income from agriculture through effective and efficient utilisation of the country’s resources and the revitalisation of the sector’s contribution to the national economy (Malaysia, 1984). An important rationale behind the formulation of the NAP was the concern for the slower rate of growth of the agricultural sector relative to other sectors in the economy and the prevailing poor state of welfare of agriculture. In the 1980s, agricultural development strategies continue to accelerate new land and in situ development, and social and institutional progress. In addition to primary commodity production, food and industrial crop production have become implicit policy goals. There was also emphasis on agricultural-industrial linkages through the expanded development agro-based industries mainly in processing, storage and handling of agricultural commodities to increase their value-added before export. This approach to agricultural development, in general, was to incorporate the participation of the private sector as “partners in development”. The NAP was assumed significant for expanded efforts to rise agricultural productivity and incomes in the Fifth Malaysia Plan period (1986-90) and thereafter. In 1987, a “new” approach to rural development was implemented with the launching of (Red Book II) which attempted to revise the legacy of The Red Book plan of the 1960s. The new approach emphasizes the role of the districts in spearheading the rural development in a more integrated manner using group farming, rural industries, cooperatives, rural urbanization, regrouping and restructuring of traditional villages and commercialization of agriculture as the main strategies. NAP has been effective in terms of guiding resources use as well as output growth and changes in its composition. Value-added of agriculture grew at 4.6% per annum during the period 1986-90 compared to 3.1% for 1981-85 although its share in the overall GDP has declined to 18.7% in 1990 as against 20.8% in 1985. Agricultural output and export base have become more diversified as new and higher value commodities enter local and foreign markets
1980s (continues...)The level of agricultural employment in 1990 was marginally higher than that of 1985 reflecting a limited headway in the mechanisation and automation of important production activities. This was due to the slow pace of generation, adoption and diffusion of labour saving technologies coupled with relatively low level of human capital base in the sector. However, the growth of labour productivity in particular for the period 1986-1990 was 3.7% p. annum, higher than that of the overall economy although still below the 4.7% growth rate of the manufacturing sector. Productivity differences within sector especially for major export crops have also been narrowed. However, supply side constraints have increasingly become policy concern particularly those involving increased labour shortages, wage increases for important farm operations, increasing cost of new land development and limited technological options which have reduced the competitiveness and the international market share of the traditional export commodities and have constrained the overall growth of the sector. Late 1980s saw that Malaysia was unable to sustain the leading position in rubber whilst simultaneously facing limited viable options with regards to other crops and commodities such as flowers and fruits, in its diversification efforts. This is despite the expanding market opportunities for such non-traditional agricultural exports. Thus it is clear that the 1984’s NAP has not adequately and effectively addressed the increasing inter-sectoral productivity and implied income, differences, in particular, between agriculture and manufacturing sector. Secondly, it did not develop sufficient viable options to supply-side constraints. Lastly, it did not sufficiently position the sector to take advantage of market opportunities. With this scenario, the new NAP was introduced in 1992 to rectify the problem.
1990s The First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), covering the period 1971-90 has implemented four development plans for the Second Malaysia Plan 1971-75 to theFifth Malaysia Plan 1986-90. These development plans have been implemented within the framework of the NEP which was introduced by the government in 1970 to promote growth with equity with the objective of fostering national unity among the various races. The Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), covering the period 1991-2000 has been formulated based on a policy which is called The National Development Policy (NDP). The NDP will build upon the achievements during the OPP1 to accelerate the process of eradicating poverty and restructuring society so as the correct social a economic imbalances (Malaysia, 1992). It provides a broader framework for achieving these socio-economic objectives in the next 10 years within the context of a rapidly expanding economy. It was in 1992 the New National Agricultural Policy was introduced to address the significant shortcomings of the previous NAP. The overriding objective of the newNAP is the maximization of income through optimal utilisation of resources. Its specific objectives include: the achievement of a balanced development between agriculture and manufacturing sector, enhancement of the integration of the sector with the rest of the economy and in particular the manufacturing sector and the achievement of a higher level and greater depth of food industry development. Agricultural development efforts will be implemented on the basis of sustainability. The new NAP introduced a number of significant shifts in policy stand. First, unlike in the 1970s and 1980s, the private sector was assigned again to provide the impetus for growth in the agriculture to compete with the manufacturing sector for resources particularly land and labour. Secondly, in view of the limited agricultural land in the Peninsular Malaysia, land development schemes will be limited to Sabah and Sarawak states. Thirdly, food sector is given a special emphasis, beyond self-sufficiency objective stipulated throughout the 1960s and 1970s. The policy emphasis for food sector is towards creating a dynamic industry capable of both substituting imports and exploiting the export market potentials. Fourthly, downstream activities will be encouraged to increase the linkages between the agriculture and manufacturing sector. Lastly, a more dynamic and competitive marketing and exporting strategies will be adopted in response to the liberalisation of the world trade in the next century.
2000-2010s Infrastructure and utilities development during the Eighth Plan period contributed to the expansion of the transportation, water supply and sewerage networks. Infrastructure projects contributed to economic growth through its linkages and spill over benefits. Measures were undertaken to increase the efficiency and reliability of infrastructure facilities and services to support trade and business activities as well as improve the quality of life. In the Eight Plan Period, a total of RM38.7 billion was expended to increase the capacity as well as upgrade and refurbish the infrastructure and utilities networks to meet rising demand and improve service delivery. During 20012005, in line with the policy of providing potable water to rural areas, a total of RM734 million was expended for the Bekalan Air Luar Bandar (BALB) programme. This programme comprised the construction of pipe connections from public water mains to rural areas, upgrading of existing WTPs and water supply systems as well as the construction of reticulation systems. The programme also included the implementation of alternative water supply systems. The BALB programme benefited 41,000 people in Peninsular Malaysia, 207,000 in Sabah and 106, 000 in Sarawak. The thrust for infrastructure and utilities development in the Ninth Plan period will focus on increasing the coverage of the networks and optimising the utilisation of existing facilities to support economic activities. Increasing accessibility to infrastructure facilities in rural areas, better integration of transport modes and services as well as higher quality and reliability of the water supply system will be the thrust in the planning and implementation of infrastructure projects. Environmental considerations will be emphasised in project planning and implementation to ensure sustainable development. While in the Ninth Plan Period, a total of RM 3.5 billion was allocated for building and upgrading rural roads. This is emphasizing on connecting the resettlement areas with rural industrialization area and estates, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak. The budget also includes supplying water to isolated areas such as villages of Orang Asli and other indigenous groups, small estates and rural schools. The accessibility to potable water in rural areas, priority will be given to states with low supply coverage such as Sabah, Sarawak, Pahang, Kelantan, Terengganu and Kedah.In the 2010 Budget, RM2.3 billion (RM2, 300, 000, 000) will be allocated to various rural development projects such as to build and upgrade infrastructures in rural areas. Government provides RM41 million to improve income and quality of life of the Orang Asli Community by implementing various projects.
Rural Development Strategies and Programmes The persistence of rural poverty in the country implies that agricultural development alone could not be relied on to significantly reduce rural poverty. Strategies of rural industrialization, rural outmigration, creation of non-farm employment, population control programme, community development and rural urbanization, form the non-agricultural components of rural development policy. Together with the provision of infrastructure, basic needs and welfare programmes are provided to improve the quality of life and well-being of the rural population and to bring about greater integration between the rural sector and the national economy.This section reviews the major strategies that have been implemented to develop the rural sectors namely: agrarian reform, integrated rural development, rural industrialisation, and rural growth centres.Agrarian Reform Among the above mentioned policy strategies, one key strategy that was responsible in transforming the rural sector in Malaysia was agrarian reform. It was viewed as a means of bringing structural and institutional changes in the agricultural sector, and fostering the greater equity in agricultural and rural development. The reform determines the size distribution of holdings and alters the institutional structure governing man’s relationship with land. While land reform may be a necessary condition for agricultural and rural development, it is not a sufficient condition, as its strategy affects only one of the factors of production, namely land (World Bank, 1975). The strategy of agrarian reform affects a wider range of inputs and institutions and aims at the transformation of rural life and activities in all their economic, social, cultural, institutional, environmental and human aspects. The major agrarian reform implemented in Malaysia was land development and settlement and in situ development.
Land Development and Settlement The primary objective of the settlement strategy is to provide land to landless or marginal farmers, and at the same time to provide more gainful employment and better incomes. These settlements or schemes are normally managed by a semiautonomous land development authority which plans, designs, coordinates and implements the schemes which involve land clearing, provision of infrastructure, services and housing, selecting the settlers and assists the settlers in the production, marketing and processing of the crop. Land development by various federal, state and joint venture programmes are undertaken to modernize the agricultural sector, eradicate poverty and to overcome the unemployment problems. Suitable agricultural lands are opened up into economic-size lots of between 8-10 acres for distribution to potential landless or marginal farmers. Up to 1995, more than 1.9 mn ha of land were developed under various programmes. Land developed by federal agencies, especially Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) form the bulk (45%) of land development programmes. The area developed increased from 418,608 ha between 1965-70 to 866,058 ha between 1971-80, but declined to 417,570 ha between 1981-85, reflecting the constrains in land availability and escalating costs of development. Between 1991-95, FELDA only developed 14,930 ha of land in Sabah, reflecting a shift in operation to land abundant regions. Since 1991, joint venture between government agencies and private sector, mostly in Regional Development Authority (RDA) areas formed the bulk of new land development schemes.
In Situ Development In situ development involves replanting, rehabilitating and consolidating activities on existing agricultural areas that are faced with problems of poverty and low productivity. The government agencies that are mainly involved in the replanting programme are the Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority (RISDA), Sabah Rubber Fund Board (SRFB) and Departments of Agriculture, Sabah and Sarawak. Between 1991-1995, a total of 305,420 ha of land were replanted. RISDA replanted 204,870 ha of land, benefiting 118,900 rubber smallholders. Land consolidation is aimed at consolidating and enlarging fragmented and uneconomic holdings. In Malaysia, the problems of uneconomic and fragmented holdings have long been recognized as the major structural factors contributing to low incomes and low productivity among farmers. Traditionally, the role of land consolidation and rehabilitation in Malaysia, except for the state of Sarawak, has been entrusted to the Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (FELCRA), except for rice land which is handled by the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). For Sarawak, the land consolidation and rehabilitation programme is conducted by the Sarawak Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (SALCRA). FELCRA’s task were mainly, the rehabilitation of unsuccessful state managed schemes, the consolidation of unused government land fringing villages for the purpose of providing additional land to small farmers so as to enable them to possess economic size land holdings, youth land development programme to develop unused marginal government land to provide land to unemployed rural youths and in situ development project. SALCRA has similar task as that of FELCRA. Between 1991-95, a total of 48,310 ha of land under the land consolidation and rehabilitation programme were developed for various crops. FELCRA developed 24,490 ha. SALCRA rehabilitated 14,270 ha of land for oil palm cultivation, whileMOA rehabilitated 5,250 ha, particularly rice land. For paddy sector, a common form of rehabilitation is through group farming approach, popularly known as the Padi (rice) Mini Estate (PME). Conceptually, thePME refers to the cultivation of rice under a single management, involving the amalgamation of rice land under one large unit, managed by government agency, cooperative, individual or a private sector concern. Under the group farming approach, all participants will jointly own the scheme, share all costs and benefits according to their share of land in the scheme. In addition, participants may work on the scheme as farm labourers to earn wages.
Integrated Rural Development The persistence of poverty in the rural sector prompted questions and appraisal regarding the effectiveness of past rural development in reducing rural poverty. It was felt that past rural development strategies, including agrarian reform measures, although these were technically sound, was unfocused and lacked the integrative nature of a more comprehensive strategy. To ensure an effective result, a more integrated approach to rural development was needed. In 1971 the FAO popularised the strategy of integrated rural development (IRD) which later gained popular support from lending and donor agencies. Such a strategy of area development along with the provision of basic inputs and infrastructure for resource development and the support of well-structured rural institutions are the necessary components of IRD. The ultimate objective of the comprehensive IRD strategy is to transform rural society through collective self reliance. The strategy of area development was justified on the basis that focusing IRD projects on selected or targeted areas would produce quicker and greater impact compared to an unfocused and diluted approach. This is particularly important in situations of scarce resources and manpower. By concentrating on selected areas or localities, it will facilitate intensive planning and implementation that will help identify and solve the rural problems, integrate basic components of IRD and link micro-level village planning with macro target-setting and planning. From a concept of area development, IRD may be expanded as a regional development strategy. This strategy normally includes natural resources or land development programme, basic economic infrastructure and social amenities, the provision of agriculture support services like credit, marketing, research, extension, farm inputs and the development of the non-agriculture rural component like rural industries, rural public works and community development projects. A typical IRD will consist of rural development projects with an agricultural component, known as the Integrated Agricultural Development Projects (IADPs), and with a non-agricultural component. In Malaysia the IRD approach was originally considered as a rural development strategy in the early 1970’s. The concept of area development which was to become the basis for regional and integrated agricultural development programme emphasised a two-pronged attack on rural and agricultural development. The first prong called for an integrated and concerted effort of rapid rural and agricultural development to meet the needs of areas or regions that were ready for take-off. The second prong called for a continuous programme directed towards preparing other areas or regions for accelerated rural and agricultural development.Area development is considered as one of the strategies identified by the New Economic Policy (NEP) to reduce poverty and to structure of society. The strategy was aimed at:i. Encouraging the modernising of the rural sector through modern techniques of production.ii. Providing agricultural support services such as extension credit and improve marketing arrangements.iii. Modernizing the rural sector through direct and indirect participation of the farming community in the establishment and running of rural industries and commercial enterprises and the expansion of urban services.
Continues... In Malaysia, the IADP is designed to revitalise and rehabilitate in-situ or existing agricultural areas that are faced with problems of poverty and low productivity. An integrated package of infrastructures, services, inputs and technology are provided and coordinated through institutional development specific to the IADP. Currently there are 17 Integrated Agricultural development Projects (IADPs), 10 of which have been completed and another seven in various stages of implementation. Initially, some IADPs started as large-scale irrigation projects (Muda, Kemubu, Besut, Barat Laut Selangor and Krian/Sg. Manik and Kelantan Utara) which were aimed at increasing rice production to meet the self sufficiency target. Hence, it is not surprising that most of the IADPs are paddy-based. Other IADPs which are based on mixed crops, the replanting of rubber, coconut, pineapple or rehabilitation through diversification into more profitable crops, such as oil palm and cocoa forms the major programmes. Examples of such IADPs are the Johor Barat, Pahang Barat and Negeri Sembilan Timur. Relative to new land development, the project costs of IADPs are cheaper, resulting in lower per hectare development costs. The projects costs which range between RM0.23 million for Pulau Pinang and RM646 million for Samarahan are partially funded through foreign loan either from the World Bank or Asian Development Bank. The IADPs benefited a large number of beneficiaries, amounting to about 514,000 households. The projects cover about 5.13 million hectares, 61 percent of which are agriculture areas. Out of the 17 IADPs, Muda and Kemubu are statutory authorities which are run on a corporate model and are given powers including planning, promotion and undertaking agricultural, social and economic development in the designated area. In the corporate model, the Authority is the main planning and implementing agency, with the activities of other agencies coordinated through the office of the General Manager. The other IADPs are run on a co-coordinative model through the Project Management Unit. The Project Director (from the Ministry of Agriculture) manages and coordinates the planning, implementation and monitoring of projects which are under the jurisdiction of various related agencies. In the presence of a large number of agencies, the issue of effective coordination always presents immense problem. In the case of large IADP such as the Pahang barat (6 administrative districts), decentralisation was undertaken which led to the creation of mini-IADPs to facilitate implementation at the local level.
Rural IndustrialisationRural industrialisation began to receive major attention and encouragement in Malaysia in the early 1970s. This was seen to comprise four integral components; namely;i. Primary processing of agricultural raw materials for export, for example, rubber milling, palm oil milling and cocoa bean production.ii. Traditional activities which may loosely be described as handicrafts with such products as batik, basketry, pottery, silverware and woodcarvings, produced by small, home-based enterprise.iii. Small-scale production of consumer goods for local markets, with products such as bread and cakes, fish crackers, clothing, furniture, brick and cement blocks; andiv. Automotive and electrical repairs, often involving only a working proprietor using informal premises. With a view of promoting and enhancing rural industrialisation, substantial public sector resources have been earmarked to provide, among others, loans and grants, consultancy and extension services, entrepreneurial development, training, infrastructure facilities and tax benefits (Sixth Malaysia Plan 1991-95). Six main areas of rural non-farm and industrial opportunities have been identified to have strong inter-sectoral linkages namely, low and medium-technology transfer, subcontracting, resource-based industries, local market-oriented activities, tourism-related activities and traditional manufacturing. Among the programmes which have been promulgated for the Seventh Malaysia Plan included provision of credit trough government agencies including the Agricultural Bank of Malaysia (BPM), development of industrial land and premises, provision of training and entrepreneurial development by government agencies, upgrading of technology and promotion of marketing, product and process development; preparation of feasibility studies and development of ancillary industries. During the Seventh Malaysia Plan, appropriate institutional arrangements and incentives will be provided to facilitate the implementation of a more broad-based programme with greater emphasis on higher employment opportunities and increased productivity. The development of the rural non-farm industry is seen to be an essential component of the strategy necessary to achieve a more balanced growth in the rural areas. Accordingly, the scope of rural industrialisation programmes will be extended beyond cottage and handicraft industries and will not be confined to only villages. In the context of the Second Outline Perspective Plan 1991-2000 (OPP2), the development of rural industries will continue to be an important vehicle towards increasing the living standard of the rural population. Their development will also provide opportunities for entrepreneurial resources of the Bumiputera community to interface with the modern manufacturing sector. Toward this end, the OPP2 has identified a number of approaches to support rural industrial development including marketing, infrastructure and financial programmes aimed at restructuring the rural industries and improving productivity, technology, product and management capabilities of the rural industries.
Rural Growth Centres The rural growth centres (RGCs) involve the clustering of traditional villages, encompassing the main village or a cluster of villages to function as a single economic unit. The RGC shall be provided with the necessary facilities and infrastructure such as school, shops, markets, clinics, prayer halls, civic centres, water, electricity and other amenities. The objectives of the RGCs are as follows to eradicate poverty, to ensure a balanced development between urban and rural areas, to improve the quality of life of the rural population, and to establish and strengthen the rural urban linkages between the rural hinterland and the neighbouring towns. The RGCs involve the diversification of the rural economy based on the development of agro-based small scale industries and non-agricultural activities and services. These are aimed at enhancing the urban environment and infrastructure for a more effective linkage with the mainstream economic activities. The strategy of RGCs through rural urbanisation and agricultural commercialisation and modernisation are expected to provide the impetus for the growth of the rural areas. Rural urbanisation could either come about through the location of industries in the rural areas, or resource-based industrialisation, building upon strong and effective linkages between the rural and industrial sectors through employment, consumption, supply of inputs and raw materials, sub-contracting, marketing, transportation and other ancillary services.
APPLICATIONAgenda Setting An agenda is the list of subjects or problems to which government officials are paying some serious attention at any given time. For example it is the list of items to be seriously considered at a public meeting of a council is a public agenda. In rural development policies, the agenda is to transform the rural community so that they can become self-sufficient and not relying too much on the government. Recently, the government had also allocated RM750 million in additional fund to the Rural and Regional Development Ministry to implement rural development programmes. The government hopes that the allocation will help increase the income among the poor and hardcore poor, totalling 543,000, including those in Sabah and Sarawak. the income of rural community, especially farmers would be enhanced through programmes such as the agropolitan project. The rural community would also be taught entrepreneurial skills and business culture. Government hopes the rural income can be further increased to create a balanced society. The government will give emphasis to achieving a high-income economy, and agriculture is seen as one of the sectors to push the third phase of the rural development agenda.
Policy Formulation Policy formulation can be defined as the passage of legislation designed to remedy some past problems or prevent some future policy problem. For rural development, it suit to promote the greatest access possible to information and ICTs that are consistent with national and human development goals. This means that everyone and every group should be included. Leave no one behind. Next, adopt an integrated and pro-development approach, with positive impacts on people, rather than technology deployment, as the main outcome. Besides that, base policies and interventions on local needs assessments and on what the market can bear. The formulation also must be realistic. Many national strategies will never be implemented because they do not correspond to local, regional and international realities. Adopt a participatory approach in all steps in the development and implementation of the vision and the ICT strategy. Consult widely and often and do not forget the marginalized community, and promote partnerships between development actors, especially public-private partnerships. Other complementary approaches have also been suggested. Accascina3 suggests six components as part of a multi-pronged approach to information-driven change within and across developing countries and regions such as: Coordination of ICT policy within and across countries. National level assessment of the present ICT situation, problems, opportunities and trends. Information access and availability of technical capacity. Multi-level human capacity building. Government information systems designed for efficiency y, transparency and equitable access, including access to social services. Information and communications technology applications and interventions for poverty alleviation.
Policy Adoption. Policy adoption means we choose to take up or follow an option in policy formulation. To adopt the formulation, the government needs to increase spending in the ICT sector to drive innovation among domestic players. Through previous initiatives such as Accelerated Capital Allowance (ACA), which was introduced this year, the Government has provided the seeds to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to upgrade their ICT infrastructure and so increase spending in the sector. The Government also must focus on driving PC usage and adoption among the lower-income group to increase Internet penetration. Schemes such as the distribution of net books and reduction in broadband prices need to be implemented. The Government also could consider a direct, one-off soft loan or relief grant to struggling local SME ICT companies. This would help them ride through this (difficult economic) period. The Government also could consider a direct, one-off soft loan or relief grant to struggling local SME ICT companies. This would help them ride through this (difficult economic) period. While IDC sees the importance of addressing the core needs of human capital, Budget 2010 should carry forward over-arching agendas to boost selected segments of the ICT industry or at minimum, to detail out more granular ICT impact based on Government strategic initiatives. For example, in improving public transportation, on top of expansion of routes, there should be support for ICT elements such as improved traffic control systems. Instead, IDC believes it is time for the Government to lay the foundation for another push in driving ICT adoption, especially in rural areas. This may include initiatives such as PC adoption packages, broadband subsidies and rollout of rural Internet centres. To further spur the creative multimedia industry, more incentives could be provided to emerging ICT companies under MDeC (Multimedia Development Corporation). These incentives could focus on new emerging technologies as well as serve rural communities to drive the adoption of broadband. On human capital, the government like to see more implementation and continuation of finishing school programmes to close the gap on skills mismatch between fresh graduates. It should focus on addressing critical growth areas by promoting a culture of innovation and inculcating the value of raising productivity levels through the global, not local, industry. For 2010, Intel would like to see a budget allocation and commitment towards the implementation of a long-term programme that makes teaching and learning more effective through the use of technology. Such a move would help guide the nation towards building a knowledge and innovation-led economy. Similarly, the budget should consider making allocations for the adoption of a nationwide remote learning system or virtual classroom environment.
Policy Implementation The government has implemented a few policies that were to transform the rural sector in Malaysia. The first policy is the agrarian reform. Its function was mainly to bring structural and institutional changes in the agricultural sector, and promoting greater equity in agricultural and rural development. This reform decided on the size distribution of property and alters the institutional structure governing man’s relationship with land. The strategy is highlighting on to transform rural life and activities in all their economic, social, cultural, institutional, environmental and human aspects. The major agrarian reforms implemented in Malaysia were land development and settlement and in situ development. The main objective of the settlement strategy is to provide land to landless or subsidiary farmer. It is also to provide more gainful employment and give better incomes. These settlements are normally managed by a semi-independent land development authority which plans, designs, coordinates and implements the schemes which involve land clearing, provision of infrastructure, services and housing, selecting the settlers and assists the settlers in the production, marketing and processing of the crop. This reform is also to overcome the poverty in rural area and at the same time modernizing the agricultural sector and give jobs to the unemployment civilians. Land was opened up for suitable agriculture sector into economic-size lots of between 8-10 acres for distribution to potential landless or minor farmers. The land are also developed under several agencies such as Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) and joint venture between government agencies and private sector, mostly in Regional Development Authority (RDA) areas formed the bulk of new land development schemes. The second point is the integrated rural development. Although some serious measures have been taken to develop the rural life but there is still some part that has not been improvised. The integrated rural development (IRD) approach to rural development was introduced. IRD strategy was to transform rural society through collective self-reliance. It mainly focuses on projects in selected or targeted areas would produce quicker and greater impact. In the selected areas, IRD will facilitate intensive planning and implementation that will help identify and solve the rural problems, integrate basic components of IRD and link micro-level village planning with macro target-setting and planning. IRD may be expanded as a regional development strategy that includes natural resources or land development programme, basic economic infrastructure and social amenities, the provision of agriculture support services like credit, marketing, research, extension, farm inputs and the development of the non-agriculture rural component like rural industries, rural public works and community development projects. Example of IRD projects with an agricultural component, known as the Integrated Agricultural Development Projects (IADPs), and with a non-agricultural component. Area development is emphasized on rural and agricultural development and includes in the New Economic Policy (NEP). It is to reduce poverty and to structure of society. The strategy was aimed at encouraging the modernising of the rural sector through modern techniques of production, to provide agricultural support services such as extension, credit and improved marketing arrangements and modernizing the rural sector through direct and indirect participation of the farming community in the establishment and running of rural industries and commercial enterprises and the expansion of urban services.
Continues...In Malaysia, the IADP is designed to regenerate and restore in-situ or existing agricultural areas that are faced with problems of poverty and low productivity. An integrated package of infrastructures, services, inputs and technology are provided and coordinated through institutional development specific to the IADP. One of the projects done by IADP was increasing rice production to meet the self-sufficiency target (Muda, Kemubu, Besut, Barat Laut Selangor and Krian/Sg. Manik and Kelantan Utara). Other IADPs which are based on mixed crops, the replanting of rubber, coconut, pineapple or rehabilitation through diversification into more profitable crops, such as oil palm and cocoa forms the major programmes. Examples of such IADPs are Johor Barat, Pahang Barat and Negeri Sembilan Timur. The project costs of IADPs are cheaper, resulting in lower per hectare development costs. The projects costs ranged between RM0.23 million for Pulau Pinang and RM646 million for Samarahan. The IADPs benefited a large number of receiver amounting to be about 514,000 households. The projects cover about 5.13 million hectares, 61 percent of which are agriculture areas. Out of the 17 IADPs, Muda and Kemubu are legal authorities which are run on a corporate model and are given powers including planning, promotion and undertaking agricultural, social and economic development in the designated area. In the corporate model, the authority is the main planning and implementing agency, with the activities of other agencies coordinated through the office of the General Manager. The other IADPs are run on a coordinative model through the Project Management Unit. The Project Director (from the Ministry of Agriculture) manages and coordinates the planning, implementation and monitoring of projects which are under the jurisdiction of various related agencies. In the presence of a large number of agencies, the issue of effective coordination always presents immense problem. In the case of large IADP such as the Pahang Barat (6 administrative districts), decentralization was undertaken which led to the creation of mini-IADPs to facilitate implementation at the local level.
Third is the implementation of rural industrialization. It focuses on the primary processing of agricultural raw materials for export such as rubber and palm oil milling and cocoa bean production, traditional activities which may loosely be described as handicrafts with such products as batik, basketry, pottery, silverware and woodcarvings, produced by small, home-based enterprise. It also include the small-scale production of consumer goods for local markets, with products such as bread and cakes, fish crackers, clothing, furniture, brick and cement blocks and automotive and electrical repairs, often involving only a working proprietor using informal premises. Public sector helps through providing loans and grants, consultancy and extension services, entrepreneurial development, training, infrastructure facilities and tax benefits (Sixth Malaysia Plan 1991-95) to promote and enhance rural industrialization. About six main areas of rural non-farm and industrial opportunities have been identified to have strong inter-sectoral linkages that is namely, low and medium-technology transfer, subcontracting, resource-based industries, local market-oriented activities, tourism-related activities and traditional manufacturing. Among the programmes which have been spread for the Seventh Malaysia Plan included provision of credit trough government agencies including the Agricultural Bank of Malaysia (BPM), development of industrial land and premises, provision of training and entrepreneurial development by government agencies, upgrading of technology and promotion of marketing, product and process development and preparation of possibility studies and development of additional industries. During the Seventh Malaysia Plan, appropriate institutional arrangements and incentives will be provided to facilitate the implementation of a more broad-based programme with greater emphasis on higher employment opportunities and increased productivity. The development of the rural non-farm industry is seen to be an essential component of the strategy necessary to achieve a more balanced growth in the rural areas. For that reason, the scope of rural industrialization programmes will be extended beyond cottage and handicraft industries and will not be restricted to only villages.Fourth is the implementation of rural growth centre. The rural growth centres (RGCs) involve the clustering of traditional villages, encompassing the main village or a grouping of villages to function as a single economic unit. The RGC shall be provided with the necessary facilities and infrastructure such as school, shops, markets, clinics, prayer halls, civic centers, water, electricity and other amenities. The objectives of the RGCs are to eradicate poverty, to ensure a balanced development between urban and rural areas, to improve the quality of life of the rural population and to establish and strengthen the rural urban linkages between the rural hinterland and the neighbouring towns. The RGCs involve the diversification of the rural economy based on the development of agro-based small scale industries and non-agricultural activities and services. These are aimed at enhancing the urban environment and infrastructure for more effective linkages with the mainstream economic activities. The strategy of RGCs through rural urbanization and agricultural commercialization and modernization are expected to provide the impetus for the growth of the rural areas. Rural urbanization could either come about through the location of industries in the rural areas, or resource-based industrialization, building upon strong and effective linkages between the rural and industrial sectors through employment, consumption, supply of inputs and raw materials, sub-contracting, marketing, transportation and other additional services.
Evaluation In the last quarter of the twentieth century, Malaysia’s economic transformation was little short of spectacular. At the time of independence in 1957, Malaysia was a low-income, predominantly agricultural and rural economy. Around half of the country’s households were living below the national poverty line, with very little changed up to 1970, at which time 49 per cent of households were poor. In the following three and a half decades, rapid economic growth and structural change have transformed Malaysia into a prosperous, urban, and industrialized economy. By the end of the century, Malaysia’s poverty rate had fallen below 10 percent, and in 2007 to less than 5 per cent. The nation has attained high human development. Malaysia’s economic transformation owes much to its human and its natural resources. It also owes much to the sound economic, social, and commercial policies pursued, as well as political stability and national unity. Two broad features of the post-1970s have helped to reduce poverty: the country’s enviable economic growth record and the national commitment to a more equitable distribution of income. At the beginning of the 1970s, the Malaysian economy relied largely on the production of primary products (natural rubber, tin, and palm oil) for world markets. Successive commercial policies gradually dismantled barriers to trade so that the country is today one of the world’s most globalized economies. Manufacturing, rather than agriculture, has been primarily responsible for the country’s export successes in recent decades. Exports of manufactured goods, particularly of electrical and electronic products, have been the key factor in sustained rapid economic growth. Malaysia has also enjoyed macroeconomic stability. Liberal commercial policies and bold financial management have been important factors behind Malaysia’s strong and sustained growth record. Some economists have argued that economic growth, with its correlate of increased modern sector employment, is an essential pre-condition for poverty reduction: Malaysia provides an excellent illustration. Malaysian governments have also aimed for a more equitable distribution of income and this is the second feature of the post 1970 period that has contributed to poverty reduction. Rural development programmes helped to raise the incomes of impoverish agricultural communities. The New Economic Policy (NEP), formulated in 1970, sought to lessen the association of race with economic function. Policies were motivated by the idea that all communities should share in the country’s growing prosperity. Successive five-year plans have sought to achieve ‘growth with distribution’. This open commitment to economic prosperity for all has been an important ingredient in Malaysia impressive poverty record. While the national poverty rate is extremely low by historical standards, there are still substantial spatial and community variations. Thus, for example, there remain relatively large numbers of poor households living in poverty in rural Sabah and Sarawak, as well as in the rural areas of Terengganu, Kelantan, and Kedah. The overwhelming majority of the country’s remaining poor are Bumiputera; especially prominent are the indigenous communities in Sabah and Sarawak. Malaysia aims to improve on the poverty targets set through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006–2010, repeated the commitment to achieve growth with distribution and set targets of reducing the overall poverty rate to 2.8 per cent and eradicating hard-core poverty by 2010. It also set ambitious targets to narrow income disparities and improve equity. In order to help achieve these targets, it is essential for policymakers to work with re.ned and disaggregated measures of poverty and inequality. This monograph describes and illustrates a range of useful approaches that can be used to measure and monitor poverty and income inequality.
Recommendation A few recommendations have been made to eradicate poverty in rural areas. The first suggestion is through education aspect in rural areas. For students from primary towards secondary, they should be exposed to agriculture-based education apart of basic education. This is because the knowledge about agriculture is important now as the government emphasize on agriculture sector. The expert in biotechnology, microbiology field and so on are required because we are lacking of the expertise. If the students were built up from the start, they will be easy to be taught. The government should invest more on education as the rural people deserve the same opportunity like the urban people. They should be taught more on English subjects as they are a bit poor on that language. If this problem can be overcome, the development of the rural area can be achieved. The farmers should be encourage to join proper training and seminars on how to use advanced technology to cultivate crops and also to venture in aquaculture. The government has allocate RM82 million to modernize aquaculture industry and conduct entrepreneurship training scheme for aquaculture breeders with focus on production of fish fry and ornamental fish. From the aspect of telecommunication, the rural area should be provided with better coverage. This is to link the urban and the rural people. The usage of broadband in high speed of connection should also be implemented. They can make deal in business although they are in rural areas. They can make price negotiations, bank in money and market their products online. The participation of women in agriculture should be encouraged. The knowledge of women is not limited on post-harvesting the paddy crop but they also can involve in business or agricultural. The banks and loans are usually reluctant to give loans to women. They usually not involved in the development project, programs are oriented for man only. They also have lack of knowledge about modern technologies that makes them left behind men. The women should empower their knowledge in agricultural sector besides of taking care of the household and children. The government should also decentralize and encourage good governance. In order to be able to seize new economic opportunities, decentralization of decision-making power from the national to the regional and the local level is necessary. Decentralization of decision making on local issues is critical to ensure that policies and programmes match the needs and conditions of the local population and that good and fair use is made of regional and local resources for development. Decentralization places a heavy burden on local governments and local communities, which have to assume many new responsibilities and undertake many new tasks. Building the capacity of local governments and local communities is a prerequisite for decentralization. Mistakes will be made and power will be misused for personal benefit, but decentralization is a learning process that takes time. The leader in rural areas tends to be bias. They will give the subsidies by the government first to their own relatives. This has caused inequality towards the rural people. Some of them do not receive the contribution by the government. It requires a central government that supports and assists local institutions rather than reluctantly cedes power, ready to take it back as soon as it can. That is why good governance, the quality of the process of decision-making by the government, is necessary.
Continues...Moreover, the development of rural areas should be able to connect areas and regions. For economic growth, isolated and economically backward areas and regions will need to be linked to markets at the local, regional, national and global levels. The condition of economically essential infrastructure is important to create economic opportunities. Such infrastructure will reduce the cost of agricultural and industrial goods produced in the region, and will make these more competitive in the world market. This is to enhance their participation in the economy farmers and rural enterprises need capacity-building and information so that they can take better decisions about farm inputs, the farming process and the marketing of their products. Furthermore, the government should also empower the poor. This is to ensure that the poor and not only the better-off benefit from development, they need to be organized to increase their economic and political standard. In this respect, organizing the poor into rural and urban cooperatives and community-based savings-and-credit schemes can strengthen their economic position. The experience of running an organization will build the capacity and confidence of the poor to participate in political decision-making as well. This requires a responsive government, particularly at the local level, that is prepared to recognize local communities as partners in development and to listen to them.
Conclusion Rural development has been the core focus of the government policy, strategy and programmes after Independence through the 1990s with a lesser emphasis in the next century. The rural sector was strategic to the country’s economic growth, social and political development. The sector was crucial in providing the agricultural labour and output to the country; while the high incidence of poverty that characterised the sector posed a major threat to the social and political stability of the nation. The multifaceted significance of this sector provides the underlying rationales for all the Malaysian development and economic policies since 1960s. Since the rural economy is agriculture-based, agricultural policy has been the major instrument that brought improvement to the rural life and welfare. Before 1984, that is the year National Agricultural Policy was implemented, agricultural and rural policies were embedded in the economic policy. In the early post independence period, agricultural and rural development programmes failed to spearhead the agricultural sector which was the backbone of the economy then. It was in the 1970s, under the First Outline Perspective Plan that the sector began its active contribution to the economy as a result of heavy government commitment to the sector. In fact it can be said that the sector not only provide the engine for economic growth of the country and but also laid the foundation for the country’s drive towards industrialisation in the1990s.The share of agricultural sector in the country’s GDP has declined from its peak at 30% in the 1970s to about 14% in the 1990s. The reduction of agricultural sector contribution to the economy is seen as an indicator of a country’s progress from an agriculture-based to an export-oriented economy. Although the contribution of agriculture to the country’s economy is declining but its absolute value is expected to increase and its economic and socio-political significance in terms of export earning, employment and food security will remain strong. The success of the agricultural and rural programmes in Malaysia is reflected in the reduction in the poverty incidence in the rural sector from almost 60% in the 1970s to about 15% in 1995. Agrarian reform was the major strategy that was instrumental in transforming the rural sector from a poverty-stricken farming community to a commercial-oriented sector. It was responsible in bringing structural and institutional changes in the sector, besides fostering greater equity in the rural and agricultural development. The agrarian reform measures implemented were tenancy reform, land development and settlement, land consolidation and in-situ development. Besides these agrarian transformations, the country also has implemented other programmes to complement the agricultural development like rural industrialisation and ensured a fully integrated development projects are being carried out and other institutional support and services. However, despite various policies and programmes to improve the life in the rural sector, poverty and income inequality still remain grave concerns when the economic being of this sector is compared to the non-agricultural or non-rural sectors. It cannot be denied that some progress have been achieved in poverty reduction along with improvements in socio-economic indicators such as life expectancy, mortality rates, literacy rate, proportion of population supplied with safe drinking water and electricity and nutritional adequacy. But the fact remains that there exists a disparity of income between and within the sectors and poverty incidence is still high and serious in some sectors and region. Hence, rural development is still an important agenda to the country’s future development plan.
CommentsRural development policies should be continues as it was the important agenda to expand the development our country. Especially in rural areas. Besides that, the improvement life standard in rural areas is very important to show our country is equal in distribution of the allocation. It also to ensure the objective of this policy can be achieved which is only 2 percent of issues poverty. If the government can achieve more, it is better to ensure zero percent of poverty problems.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICYby Lamban Isah Siti Mazeni bt Junaidi1.0 ABSTRACTThe Prime Minister of Malaysia introduced the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water on 9thApril 2009. The National Green Technology Policy was launched on 24thJuly 2009. It is focus as a guideline for companies and as a clear signal to the Malaysians that the government wants to improve their quality of life. There have are reason to minimizing the negative environmental impacts in the energy supply chain. As a rapidly developing nation, Malaysia is not excluded from the challenge of minimizing the negative environmental impacts in the energy supply chain. The effort to overcome the challenge was initiated already in 1979, with the formulation of the National Energy Policy, which was aimed at making the energy supply, secure, cost-effective and utilized more efficiently. To emphasize the seriousness of Malaysia wanting to create an economy based on sustainable solutions the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water has been established. The ministry has created the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) which can both be seen as a guideline for companies and as a clear signal to the Malaysians that the government wants to improve their quality of life. “It is my dream that one day we can live in a clean, healthy and high quality environment, where cities, townships and communities are built on the fundamental of Green Technology”PM of Malaysia 2.0 INTRODUCTIONTechnology is an invention or tools that would improve the lives of human kind. The term ‘technology’ has a Greek origin of “technologia”. The inventions, developments and uses of technology have progressed tremendously over the last century, starting from the industrial revolution in the 18thcentury. However, the excessive exploitation of our natural resources through these technologies, have led to the production of unwanted by products such as waste and pollution. Consequently, we are now facing bigger challenges in finding solutions to overcome the problem of depleting natural resources, climate change, energy supply, and food security.Today, the world is more circumspect. Green Technology application is seen as one of the sensible solutions which are being adopted by many countries around the world to address the issues of energy and environment simultaneously. Green Technology is a technology that allows us to progress more rapidly but at the same time minimizes the negative impact to the environment. However, the world needs to find more efficient and effective ways to adopt Green Technology against other technologies which have been widely used and though cheaper, not necessarily benevolent.In addition, the field of “Green Technology” encompasses a continuously evolving group of methods and materials from techniques for generating energy to non-toxic cleaning products. So, the present expectation is that this field will bring innovation and changes in daily life of similar magnitude to the “information technology” explosion over the last two decades. In these stages, it is impossible to predict what “green technology may eventually encompass.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY3.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE POLICY3.1 Environment issue in MalaysiaEnvironmental awareness is building up in Malaysia and with the 9th Malaysia Plan 2006-2010 the Malaysian government has placed further emphasis on preventive measures to mitigate and minimise negative environmental effects at source, to intensify conservation efforts and to ensure a sustainable development of both the exhaustible and the renewable energy resources. The past decade of rapid economic growth and industrialization has caused serious environmental challenges in Malaysia. The most prominent at the moment are considered to be air pollution from industrial emissions, solid waste management, ensuring long-term sustainability of the water supply and sewerage services industry and overall improvements of energy efficiency to re-establish a clean Malaysia.Denmark and Malaysia have co-operated in the area of environment protection since 1994, and more than 100 projects have been carried out. Danish support to the Malaysian energy sector under Danida, has greatly contributed to the Malaysian view of Denmark as a country with cutting-edge knowledge and technology within energy efficiency, particularly within manufacturing and consumer products. Energy saving in the industry, therefore, holds a major potential for Danish companies in Malaysia.3.1.1 Solid Waste ManagementDue to growing population and increasing consumption, Malaysia generates waste at 19,100 tons per day. In Kuala Lumpur waste generation is about 3,000 tons a day and forecast shows that this will increase each year. The disposal of solid waste has been done almost solely through open landfills. The Committee on Solid Waste Management announced in 2006 the closure of 16 open dumpsites and announced again in 2007 a closure of 16 open landfills. Another 17 open landfills out of a total of 155 are expected to be shut down. There will be a need to build further sanitary landfills and incinerator plants to prevent water contamination and environmental pollution. The Government has now focused on reuse, reduction and recycling of materials and promotes companies that undertake these activities.3.1.2 Water and WastewaterThe domestic and industrial water demand in Malaysia is expected to triple over the next 50 years and based on estimated doubling of the per capita water consumption by 2020 it is predicted that water shortages will occur within the next 5 years. Currently more than 95% of the urban and 85% of the rural population are served by piped water of which 45.746 km are Asbestos Pipes. During the 9th Malaysia Plan the Government plans to replace about 18.000 km of these pipes. Sewerage systems will continue to be expanded to ensure the quality of effluent discharged into receiving water bodies comply with environmental standard and safeguard public health. A sum of USD 0.45 billion is allocated for the implementation of environmental preservation projects and general water resource management. Malaysia will continue to upgrade, rehabilitate and refurbish existing sewerage treatment systems, and USD 860 million will be provided for repair of existing sewerage plants and construction of new plants. The 9th Malaysia Plan will furthermore intensify research and development on reuse of sludge for industrial, agricultural and landscape purposes as well as wastewater reclamation for non-potable purposes. At the recent mid-term review of the 9th Malaysia Plan it was highlighted that from 2006 to 2008 the rural water coverage was expanded and another 177.760 households will benefit from the governments Water Supply Programme. Another 650.000 people benefited from the sewerage service and 308 small sewerage treatment plants have been repaired and upgraded. In the 2009 budget RM308 million is allocated to upgrade and supply clean water to rural areas.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY3.1.3 Air PollutionWith the 9th Malaysia Plan a new Clean Air Action Plan will be undertaken to improve air quality in urban areas. Reduced sulphur content in diesel and petrol is a main focus area. Both EURO 2 and EURO 3 specifications will be introduced for further reduction.3.1.4 Renewable EnergyWithin renewable energy the focus is on better utilization of biomass resources, for example from the palm oil industry. In coming years also production of ethanol from palm oil side-production is expected to develop. Malaysia holds a large unexploited potential within this area. The Government has set up incentives to encourage the promotion, development and utilization of renewable energy for example solar, wind and biomass resources by waste products from the palm oil and wood industry as well as rice husk. The Government has implemented the program “The Malaysian Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project” to improve energy efficiency by removing barriers to efficient industrial energy use in 11 manufacturing sub sectors; cement, ceramic, food, glass, iron & steel, pulp & paper, rubber, wood, oleo-chemical, plastic and textile. Additionally, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) will be utilised in supporting the implementation of small renewable energy programmes (SREP).3.1.5 Energy EfficiencyThe overall energy demand is expected to increase at an average rate of 6.3 percent per annum, during the period of the Government’s 9th Malaysia Plan.Implementation of energy efficiency programmes focusing on energy saving features in the commercial and industrial sectors are supported by financial and fiscal incentives. The Government will encourage efficient lightning, air conditioning systems as well as changing energy usage patterns and appliance labelling measures. Following up on this demand-side-management the Government raised the tariffs on electricity in July 2008 in order to ensure optimal and efficient use.3.2 Related Stories3.2.1 Investing in wind powerUnderstanding the fundamentals of the wind energy industry, and its past successes and failures, is key to investing in wind power and making profits in the sector. Nick Hodge, co-author of a new book that helps investors invest in the renewable energy sector, takes a look at the risks and opportunities associated with investing in wind power.3.2.2 China to lead global wind energy developmentThere is good news in the wind for proponents of wind power. Wind turbine capacity has been increasing dramatically, and the unit cost of power generated by wind energy is expected to drop further. Much of this will continue to be credited to China’s efforts, according to a new report from the Global Intelligence Alliance.3.2.3 Green build for social housingThe cost of building green can be prohibitive, but when using a holistic approach, it becomes more appealing. Kate Shepherd at Ultra Green Group investigates green social housing.3.2.4 USGBC LEEDs the way in Green BuildThe future of green building is blue sky and beyond if the numbers from the US Green Building Council (USGBC) continue to hold true. It released its first leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) third-party certification tool for commercial buildings in the year 2000, and already there are over 6,900 LEED certifications in the US alone. Lyn Corum spoke to David Gottfried, founder of the USGBC and the World Green Building Council.3.2.5 Austin Energy looks to renewable energyThere are many potential challenges for utilities that look to integrate a larger share of renewable power into their generation mix. But none is more significant than whether a utility has the strategic will. Don C. Smith spoke with Roger Duncan, General Manager of Austin Energy about why it is undertaking an aggressive increase in the percentage of renewable energy in its generating portfolio.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY4.0 PURPOSES OF THE POLICY PURPOSED BY TH GOVERNMENTBasically, policy that implemented by government is to figure out the manners of the society. This is because it was useful equipment that use by government. So, there are the several purposes of implementation of this policy by the government. Firstly is to minimize growth of energy consumption while economic development. It is mean that the energy is useful to maintain economic development. By using energy, the economic development will increase from time to time based on the green technology policy that implement by government. Secondly is to facilitate the growth of the Green Technology industry and enhance its contribution to the national economy. Through implementing this policy the Green Technology industry will rapidly develop because the encouragement by government to develop national economy with taking care the environment in order to develop the country. Thirdly is to increase national capability and capacity for innovation in Green Technology development and enhance Malaysia’s competitiveness in Green Technology in the global arena. It is show that the ability and competence advanced of Green Technology was improved and developed Malaysia’s country so that accompany with other developing country such as Singapore, Japan and so on. Besides that, Malaysia will compete with other countries to develop the clean country which is protect the environment with introduce the National Green Technology to help rapidly development. Next is to ensure sustainable development and conserve the environment for future generations. This is because by implement this policy, it will protect our environment so that the future generation will know and seen the Green Technology. Lastly is to enhance public education and awareness on Green Technology and encourage its widespread use. Through this policy the children and youths generation know and learn how to protect and save the environment.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICYTHE APPLICATION OF THE FIVE STEPS IN THE POLICY MAKING PROCESS5.1 Agenda SettingAn agenda is defined as a standard of artefact of policy-makers which have their own agenda to achieve goals or objectives. The policy-maker is legislators, politicians, judges, bureaucratic officials etc.In agenda setting, the main questions that need to be answered are “who decides what will be decided?” Which is the decision is made by who are have an agenda or have a problem that need to be defined and solved in order to achieve particular goals. In the Green Technology Policy, the policy are decided by the government who are plays an important roles.The stages that important in the process of policy making are to define the problem of society which is the crucial part of the process and suggesting alternatives solutions.This policy is made by the Malaysian government responding to the world’s most pressing issues nowadays, namely climate change and energy security. The government feels that it can no longer ignore these issues but must now collectively and effectively address them together. In facing up to these challenges, new approaches are critical and it is for this reason that the government decided to escalate Green Technology which on the 9th April 2009 the Prime Minister announced the Cabinet, and introduced the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water.5.2 Formulation and ForecastingIn the policy analysis, policy formulation is same meaning with forecasting which is defined as “a procedure for producing information about the future state or society on the basis of prior information about policy problem or situation”. The purpose of forecasting is tells what happens between now and then and what is going to be achieved within period of time. The purpose of forecasting is tells what happens between now and then and what is going to be achieved within period of time.The government has predicted without such policy, the country will be at risks of environment degradation, increase of health problem, lower economy performance, and energy insufficiency. With the launched of NGTP, the government will able to introducing new ways to monitor, control, and solve these problems including introducing new laws and incentives or grants.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY5.2.1 Major SectorThe policy will focus on significant progress and major improvement in the following four (4) key areas: 126.96.36.199 Energy Sector Energy Supply Sector: Application of Green Technology in power generation and in the energy supply side management, including co-generation by the industrial and commercial sectors; and Energy Utilization Sector: Application of Green Technology in all energy utilization sectors and in demand side management programmes. 188.8.131.52. Buildings Sector Adoption of Green Technology in the construction, management, maintenance and demolition of buildings.184.108.40.206. Water and Waste management Sector Technology in the management and utilization of water resources, waste water treatment, solid waste and sanitary landfill; and220.127.116.11. Transportation Sector Incorporation of Green Technology in the transportation infrastructure and vehicles, in particular, bio fuels and public road transport.5.2.2 Goals of National Green Technology Policy18.104.22.168 Short-term Goals (10th Malaysia Plan)• Increase public awareness and commitment for the adoption and application of Green Technology through advocacy programmes;• Widespread availability and recognition of Green Technology term of products, appliances, equipment and systems in the local market through standards, rating and labelling programmes;• Increased foreign and domestic direct investments (FDIs and DDIs) in Green Technology manufacturing and services sectors; and• Expansion of local research institutes and institution of higher learning to expand Research, Development and Innovation activities on Green Technology towards commercialization through appropriate mechanisms. 22.214.171.124 Mid-term Goals (11th Malaysia Plan)• Green Technology becomes the preferred choice in procurement of products and services;• Green Technology has a larger local market share against other technologies, and contributes to the adoption of Green Technology in regional markets;• Increased production of local Green Technology products;• Increased Research Development and Innovation of Green Technology by local universities and research institutions and are commercialised in collaboration with the local industry and multi-national companies;• Expansion of local SMEs and SMIs on Green Technology into the global market; and• Expansion of Green Technology applications to most economic sectors.126.96.36.199 Long-term Goals (12th Malaysia Plan and beyond)• Inculcation of Green Technology in Malaysian culture; Widespread adoption of Green Technology reduces overall resource consumption while sustaining national economic growth;• Significant reduction in national energy consumption;• Improvement of Malaysia’s ranking in environmental ratings;’• Malaysia becomes a major producer of Green Technology in the global market; and• Expansion of international collaborations between local universities and research institutions with Green Technology industries.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY5.3 Policy AdoptionAt this stage, policy adoption is important to collect or gather the data and information in the policy for the policy choices from the policy maker which is consisted of analysis of alternatives, the forecasting of each alternatives and cost and benefit of the analysis of the policy. The data that have been collected will give good impact which can achieve the objective of the policy. Policy adoption is a stage where the selection of the appropriate methods of the policy selected before implementing the policy analysis process.Policy adoption is importance to minimize risk of the policy that might not achieve the objectives and goals, to choose suitable method for the policy implementation.As mentioned before, the issues of climate change and energy security if not taken seriously will bring negative impacts to our country. Therefore, the government launched this policy in order to address the issues. Malaysia’s new inter-ministerial green technology council has promised to galvanise efforts to form an integrated national green strategy.The key challenge faced by the Malaysian government in going green has been the absence of an institution tasked solely to drive green technology, Encik Mohd Rosli bin Haji Abdullah told FutureGov.Senior under Secretary Haji Abdullah is heading the Green Technology Division, which was set up two months ago following the launch of the country’s National Green Technology Policy. The first of the five strategic thrusts under the National Green Technology Policy is to establish the National Green Technology Council. The council, chaired by Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, will have ten to 12 members from various ministries to discuss green technology issues.Green technology efforts have always been fragmented with different ministries and agencies running their own projects. Environmental initiatives often involve several parties across the government, so we need to first strengthen the institution. The council will take a consolidated approach, providing a national strategic focus and plan.According to Prime Minister Razak, the government will lead by example by adopting green technology in government facilities. The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water – which the Green Technology Division falls under – will be the key coordinator and facilitator for the green technology roadmap. It has already taken a lead in going green. Its building is the first to be rated a ‘Low Energy Office’ in Malaysia and reported energy savings of more than 50 per cent compared to new office buildings.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY5.4 Policy ImplementationThe fourth steps in policy making process are policy implementation or called as monitoring. Implementation, viewed most broadly, means administration of the in which various actors, organizations, procedures, and techniques work together to put adopted policies into effect in an effort to attain policy or program goals. Implementation is the realization, application or execution of plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard or policy.This policy is still new and just launched last year on 24th July 2009. The policy is governed by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology, and Water, which is lead by a minister, Datuk Peter Chin Fah Kui. 5.4.1 Strategic Thrusts188.8.131.52 Strategic Thrust 1: Strengthen the institutional frameworksThe first thrust is aimed at strengthening the institutional frameworks especially among Government Ministries, agencies, private sectors and other stakeholders. To this end, processes for implementation must be put in place. In nurturing the adoption and growth of Green Technology, it is critical to have strong institutional arrangements to promote Green Technology applications through establishment of the Green Technology Council for high-level coordination among Government Ministries, agencies, private sectors and key stakeholders for effective implementation of the Green Technology policies. This Council would be chaired by Y.A.B. Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak as Prime Minister and Y.A.B. Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin as Deputy Prime Minister. The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water will be the focal point to coordinate and facilitate the role of all stakeholders for the successful implementation of the Green Technology roadmap. The establishment of the Malaysia Green Technology Agency for the effective coordination and implementation of Green Technology initiatives and programmes to the agencies so that their may cooperate with other to ensure that this policies was implement successfully. Besides that, this first strategic thrust also use to review and establish legal mechanisms to foster an accelerated growth of Green Technologies in line with National Objectives and Goals; and enhancement of institutional clarity so that all agencies are aware of their respective roles and responsibilities.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY5.4.1 Strategic Thrusts184.108.40.206 Strategic Thrust 1: Strengthen the institutional frameworksThe first thrust is aimed at strengthening the institutional frameworks especially among Government Ministries, agencies, private sectors and other stakeholders. To this end, processes for implementation must be put in place. In nurturing the adoption and growth of Green Technology, it is critical to have strong institutional arrangements to promote Green Technology applications through establishment of the Green Technology Council for high-level coordination among Government Ministries, agencies, private sectors and key stakeholders for effective implementation of the Green Technology policies. This Council would be chaired by Y.A.B. Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak as Prime Minister and Y.A.B. Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin as Deputy Prime Minister. The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water will be the focal point to coordinate and facilitate the role of all stakeholders for the successful implementation of the Green Technology roadmap. The establishment of the Malaysia Green Technology Agency for the effective coordination and implementation of Green Technology initiatives and programmes to the agencies so that their may cooperate with other to ensure that this policies was implement successfully. Besides that, this first strategic thrust also use to review and establish legal mechanisms to foster an accelerated growth of Green Technologies in line with National Objectives and Goals; and enhancement of institutional clarity so that all agencies are aware of their respective roles and responsibilities.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY220.127.116.11 Strategic Thrust 2: Provide Conducive Environment for Green Technology Development The Second Strategic thrust aims to provide a conducive environment for Green Technology Development. This includes the introduction and implementation of innovative economic instruments as well as the establishment of effective fiscal and financial mechanisms to support the growth of green industries. The growth of the Green Technology industry, either in manufacturing or service sectors, is critical towards fulfilling the objectives of the Green Technology Policy. This industry would supply the Green Technology to the local and global markets, create jobs and contribute towards the national economy. These policies are aware that not everyone is familiar with the various business opportunities of the Green Economy; therefore it is important that the understanding of these local players be strengthened through various enhancement programmes. This policy is planning for greater promotion of foreign direct investments (FDI) on green technology to foster domestic direct investments (DDIs) and local industry participation. It is one of the biggest hopes to make Malaysia a regional hub for green technology particularly for renewable energy such as solar photovoltaics which is the use of solar cells for energy by converting solar power directly to electricity. For example, June 2009 attracted almost RM 12 billion worth of investments from the solar photovoltaics industry through FDIs from top companies such as First Solar, SunPower, Q-Cells and Tokuyama. The existence of these companies have and will continue to create a spill-over effect on to the local industry players thus encouraging greater domestic direct investments and expanding the pool of highly skilled and trained local workers in the country. This introduction and implementation of innovative economic instruments, supported by the necessary monetary and fiscal measures to foster an accelerated growth of Green Technology in line with the National objectives and goals. Is use to strengthening the understanding of local players in Green Technology industries and their value chain, including the supporting industries through various industries’ enhancement programmes. As a result, the establishment of strategic Green Technology hubs throughout Malaysia, expanding from the core value chain to the upstream and downstream of the industry and funding mechanisms.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY18.104.22.168 Strategic Thrust 3: Intensify Human Capital Development in Green TechnologyStrategic Thrust 3 will seek to intensify human capital development by availing training and education programmes and by providing financial packages and incentives for students embarking on green technology related subjects. Thus, it uses to increase the Skilled, qualified, competent and productive human resources are crucial to Green Technology development. The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water and the Ministry of Higher Education together with the Ministry of Human Resources will make available a system for a formulation of grading and certification mechanisms for competent personnel in Green Technology. This would help build our skilled and semi-skilled human capacity for green technology industries to prosper in the country. Design and enhancement of training and education programmes to improve human resource capacity related to Green Technology. So the provision of financial and fiscal incentives for students to pursue Green Technology disciplines at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Through this strategic, it was easy to Implementation of retraining programme and apprenticeship scheme to enhance competency of semi-skilled labour to meet the demands of the Green Technology industry. Formulation of grading and certification mechanism for competent personnel in Green Technology and exploitation of brain gain programmes to strengthen local expertise in Green Technology.22.214.171.124 Strategic Thrust 4: Intensify Green Technology Research and InnovationsStrategic Thrust 4, of the Green Technology Policy is to Intensify Green Technology Research and Innovation towards commercialization. This is because Research and Development is greatly important in any field, but R&D results will remain inconsequential as long as they remain on bookshelves and stay un-commercialized. So to facilitate research and innovations there is of course a need to provide financial grants or assistance to the public and private sectors. There is also a need to enhance smart partnerships as well as to establish effective coordination between agencies and Centres of Excellences in green technology. This policy form to also establish networks and collaborations with international leading research organisations and agencies to escalate development of new technologies and innovations on green technology between local and leading international researchers. In the long run this will increase our competitiveness in the international markets. To achieve all this incentives will be offered, the details of which will be announced in due course. In other word, Research, Development, Innovation and Commercialization (RDIC) is very crucial in creating new technologies, techniques and applications which would be able to reduce the cost of Green Technology and promote its usage. Research, Development and Innovations (RDI) could be enhanced through provision of financial grants or assistance to public and private sector in RDIC and Implementation of Green Technology foresight. The establishment of an effective coordinating agency for RDI and Centre of Excellence or new research institute for Green Technology development and enhancement of smart partnerships between the Government, industries and research institutions. In addition, the establishment of strong linkages between local research institutions and regional and international centres of excellence in Green Technology RDI also encourage this policy was implement successful in the future.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY126.96.36.199 Strategic Thrust 5: Promotion and Public AwarenessThe final thrust is for green technology to move forward is grounded on strong promotion and public awareness. This is because Green technology is a new sector for the country and not many people could relate well to this subject. So this policy can only succeed when there is wide-spread acceptance. Effective promotion and public awareness are two of the main factors that would affect the success of Green Technology development. Hence, the government will embark on a focused effort to increase public awareness so that the development of green technology would be well received by all members of the society. There will be effective, continuous promotion, education and information dissemination through comprehensive roll-out programmes to increase public awareness on Green Technology and also to create the buy-in of the public to support the ‘green economy’ and adopt ‘green practices’ as part of their lifestyle. In addition, the effective involvement of media, non-governmental organizations and individual stakeholders in promoting Green Technology will Inculcation of a culture that appreciates Green Technology among students at all levels through the development of effective syllabus in the education systems. Besides that, the demonstration programmes of effective Green Technology applications. Under this thrust, the Government will lead by example by adopting Green Technology in all government facilities and Government linked entities.5.5 Policy EvaluationPolicy evaluation is the assessment of the overall effectiveness of a national program in meeting its objectives, or assessment of the relative effectiveness of two or more programs in meeting common objectives. It concern with all of the consequences of public policy.Change the mind of Malaysian regarding its importance towards the development of our country. As the result:5.5.1 Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (PTM)In conjunction with the unveiling of the Green Technology Policy today, formally launch the Pusat Tenaga Malaysia’s iconic building. It is a source of pride for Malaysia as the PTM building was designed and built as a natural follow up to the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water’s Low Energy Office (LEO) objectives.5.5.2 Low Energy Office (LEO)The Low Energy Office is a building with a significantly lower Building Energy Index performance which was conceived even before the question of promoting sustainable buildings was widely adopted. The cost premium for the LEO Building was only 10% to achieve electricity use reduction of over 50%, giving a simple payback period of only about 8 years at the pre-2006 electricity tariffs. At today’s electricity tariffs the payback period would be only about 5 years. Moreover, the cost premium for the energy efficient (EE) technologies employed for the LEO building have also declined and some have become the standard norm.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY5.5.3 PTM’s Building Energy Index (BEI)PTM’s Building Energy Index (BEI) of 65 Kilowatt hour per square-meter per year (kWh/m2/year) is the lowest for any comparable office building in Malaysia. Additionally, the Photovoltaics systems which are incorporated as the building material and architecture generate about 50% of its total electricity consumption, giving it an even lower net BEI of 30 kWh/m2/year. The PTM building’s performance shows to what extent efficient use of electricity, coupled with local electricity generation from solar photo-voltaic systems, can be exploited to minimise energy use in air-conditioned office buildings.5.5.4 Energy Efficient technology (EE)This building project had been developed as an experimental project using “cutting edge Energy Efficient technologies” to achieve its low net building energy index. These EE technologies were not fully “cost-effective” at the time of design, but will be so in a few years as the EE technologies’ cost premiums decline and electricity prices escalate. Some of these technologies are produced locally and that their cost premium has also declined from the days when they were incorporated into the PTM building. This is a welcome development indeed and clearly shows the wisdom of “going Green” in the construction of this building.5.5.5 PTM’s Green Technology office (PTM GEO)Pusat Tenaga Malaysia’s building the Green Energy Office or GEO. PTM GEO is the first Green Building Index (GBI) rated building in Malaysia.5.5.6 Green Building Index (GBI)The GBI is the Malaysian initiative by professional bodies, namely PAM (Persatuan Akitek Malaysia) and ACEM (Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia), together with the building industry to enable green grading and certification of Malaysian buildings. To further promote and encourage GBI and Green Technology applications, some interesting incentives in relation to that may be in the pipeline. Indeed the possibilities for green technology are quite numerous and hope that all Malaysians from individuals to corporations will enthusiastically embrace this Green initiative and work together to make a name for Malaysia as a model of widespread green technology adoption.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY6.0 CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETYNational Green Technology Policy can give contribution to society. Firstly this policy is as a platform to support the government aspiration to be closed with the society. So government play important role to develop the sustainability. This is implementing through meeting the needs of society in ways that can continue indefinitely into the future without damaging or depleting natural resources. In short, meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. So government will give campaign and talks to the society about the important to them together with government to protect and save the uses of energy in their daily life. Secondly by implementation these policies the society will aware about their responsibility towards the environmental problem which is some activities that done by irresponsible society was brought negative impact to the economy development. So the introducing of cradle to cradle design will have the ending of the cradle to grave cycle of manufactured products by creating products that can be fully reclaimed or re-used. In other word, the product that producing can recycle such as paper bag. So the negative impacts such as pollution that created from the factories.Thirdly the implementation of National Green Technology was useful to maintain the quality of the Green Technology. Through this policy it helps every company to reduce the uses of tools that produce carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to the environment. So the National Green Technology Policy has been developed with intense thought and cooperation with all stakeholders from all segments of society. It is the culmination of efforts from a number of workshops to define the scope of the endeavour and formulate thoughts for the prospective long term achievements for the nation in a business friendly environment. In addition, the launching of Green Technology Policy today signals the way forward to a sustainable environment in a coherent and integrated manner to ensure a brighter world for our future growth of our nation.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY7.0 CONCLUSIONNational Green Technology is a new driver for economic growth of the country as it offers enormous opportunities and immense potential in economic regeneration, innovation and wealth creation. It also can create a revolutionary impact on our lives and reduce Malaysia’s carbon footprint while enhancing environmental sustainability. Green Technology will deliver the double impact of accelerating our economic growth while addressing pressing environmental issues. In addition, investing in a ‘green economy’ will increase the number of ‘green collar’ jobs to the labour force which in turn will further contribute to the strengthening of the economy. Besides that, all Malaysians should embrace Green Technology and lend your fullest commitment to the implementation of the National Green Technology Policy. The Malaysian Government will continuously give its unlimited commitment towards Green Technology. Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak also agreed with this policy because according to him, we should live clean, healthy and high quality environment. So the cities, townships and communities are cooperating each other to ensure this policy were implement successfully.8.0 RECOMMENDATIONThe development of national green technology must consider thinking skills and constitute creativity which contributes for the improvement of productivity or service quality; the employees must have initiative to think to get the best desired result. The employees should always full of high spirit, and have commitment and believe or confident to perform their task and job. National Green Technology should constitute with communication skills so that the task message given can be achieve to measure that the country become green. Organization must avoid bureaucracy so the delivering mechanism and system in government agencies and private sectors become more effective. Team cooperation must become a culture in any department. It must nourish in all exercises and continually practised in organization.
NATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY POLICY9.0 COMMENTSThe existence and introduction the National Green Technology Policy by Malaysian Government bring more benefit to the Malaysia people. It is because at the same time, the world community collectively facing two of the world’s most pressing issues which is climate change and energy security. So by the establishment this policy also we can longer to solve these issues. In other word, in facing to these challenges the new approaches must be implemented which is National Green Technology to mainstream ministerial portfolio.In addition, Green Technology is one strategic role which spans beyond achieving energy autonomy and mitigating climate change and one of the emerging drivers of economic growth for our country. Green Technology will facilitate the development of knowledge society, which would encourage us to embrace a sustainable and better way of living. The new Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water has a paramount task of implementing the National Green Technology which would guide us in our journey towards greener Malaysia. Lastly, it will build the green communities in Malaysia. It also will be as a road to our future sustainability that may be more challenging. However, the unity and commitment under the spirit of 1-Malaysia will drive us successfully to our target destiny.
NATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE POLICYPrepared By:Isabelle George (2009629292)Stefanie Ema (2009654874)Emelda Lah Wan (2009833884)Group: AMB4P2ABSTRACTThe National Automotive Policy (NAP) was introduced on 22 March 2006 to facilitate the required transformation and optimal integration of the local automotive industry into regional and global industry networks. The Malaysian automotive industries enjoyed considerable growth but now face intense competition from Asian and other global manufacturers. Based on that, there is a strong need for this concept in designing a vehicle. It could provide assistance in making decisions at the early stage of the vehicle design and development process in order to avoid the costs and time consumed through later redesign. It is believed that this project is becoming a key factor in order to help National Automotive Policy (NAP) to achieve their objective and make it reality and also the proposed output in this research can help Malaysian car manufacturers to become more competitive.The Malaysia Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) will be releasing the review of National Automotive Policy by October 2009. NAP is the main thrust for the formulation of the strategic directions of the industry under the Third Industrial Master Plan (IMP3), 2006-2020.
INTRODUCTIONSince the establishment of Proton in 1985, Malaysia has succeeded in developing integrated capabilities in the automotive industry, which include local design and styling capability, full scale manufacturing operations and extensive local participation in the supply of components. Today, Malaysia is ASEAN largest passenger vehicle market with more than 500,000 vehicles sold annually with 90% of that manufactured or assembled domestically. Nevertheless, much of the country success in developing the domestic automotive industry has been facilitated by policies that have promoted local vehicle manufacturers and moving forward, global and domestic challenges put the sustainability of this industry at risk.The global industry is seeing slow growth, value destruction and massive rationalization, driving vehicle manufacturers to merge to achieve even higher levels of scale. Recognizing this global environment, the National Automotive Policy (NAP) seeks to address the manifold issues and challenges and transform the domestic automotive sector to become a more viable, competitive and significant contributor to the economy.Given the significant challenges facing the automotive industry, in particular globalisation, liberalisation and increasing competition, there is a need to review thestrategic direction and policy framework for the domestic automotive sector. This is crucial to maintain the competitiveness of participants in the automotive sector, in order for them to be viable in the long term.Moving forward, Government policy and support will be focused towards automotive industry participants providing sustainable economic contribution. The key drivers for such contribution will be economic scale, industry linkage and competitive value added activities.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF POLICYCurrently the automotive sector is characterized by several industry participants across the entire value chain. There are 4 passenger and commercial vehicle manufacturers including Proton and Perodua. There is one motorcycle manufacturer which is Motosikal dan Enjin Nasional Sdn Bhd (MODENAS).In addition, there are 9 motor vehicle assemblers and 9 motorcycle assemblers. To support the manufacturers and assemblers, there are 343 motor vehicle components and parts manufacturers, of which 23 are Tier 1 status. In turn, there are 100 motorcycle components and parts manufacturers. In terms of vehicle importers, there are 76 Open Approved Permit (AP) holders and 37 Franchise AP holders. On the sales and distribution side, there are a total of 1,978 dealers for motor vehicles and 158 dealers for motorcycles.Given its track record of economic growth and stability, the automotive sectorin Malaysia has significant potential for future growth. In 2004, Malaysia was the largest producer of passenger cars in ASEAN, accounting for 24.4 percent of total ASEAN production. For commercial vehicles, in 2004, Malaysia was the third largest producer in ASEAN, accounting for 11.0 percent of total ASEAN production.Underpinning this high production capacity is the substantial investments that have been made in the automotive sector. To date, up to RM 11.2 billion have been invested by the manufacturers and assemblers whilst automotive components and parts manufacturers have invested over RM 8.2 billion. The total sales in the automotive market have also been strong and on the uptrend since the last few years. In 2004, there were 530,025 units of motor vehicles sold with passenger cars accounting for more than 420,000 of that total. The total exports for the automotive sector has been increasing whereby the export figures in 2004 showed a total of more than RM 2.5 billion. Malaysia is dedicated to fulfill its multilateral commitments under WTO and AFTA and has taken steps to liberalize its duty structure. Other measures have been taken as well. Since 2001, the equity policy for the automotive sector has been relaxed to allow up to 51% foreign equity on a case by case basis. In addition, domestic manufacturers and assemblers are currently free to multi-source from the most competitive suppliers globally, uninhibited from local content policy requirements.
PURPOSES OF THE PROPOSED BY GOVERNMENT The purposes of the proposed by government is the first purpose was to promote a competitive and viable automotive sector, in particular national car manufacturers. The Government will provide support and incentives to enhance the competitiveness of automotive manufacturers in the country, in particular national car manufacturers Proton and Perodua, as well as provide the necessary support for existing assemblers to continue to be viable in Malaysia. The Government will ensure that sound policies are in place to enhance the long term competitiveness of the automotive components and parts manufacturers, given their contribution towards the competitiveness of vehicle manufacturers and assemblers. Imports of vehicles will continue to be allowed, but pertinent changes to existing policies and procedures will be made. Preferably, importers would, over time, traverse the value chain and become assemblers or even manufacturers. The Government will promote competitive manufacturers and assemblers, in terms of range, quality and prices, in order to encourage the provision of affordable vehicles for the general public, including for the lower income groups. Secondly is to become a regional hub for manufacturing, assembly and distribution for automotive vehicles. The Government will continue to provide incentives and infrastructure as well as implement favourable policies to attract manufacturers or assemblers to remain or to set up in Malaysia. Priority will be given to manufacturers and assemblers which plan to use Malaysia as a launch pad to tap the regional and international markets. The Government will also continue to promote policies and incentives to attract components and parts manufacturers to invest in Malaysia. This is particularly pertinent in light of the global outsourcing trends currently taking shape in the international automotive industry. Other purpose that being proposed is to enhance value added and local capabilities in the automotive sector. The Government will continue to implement the necessary policies to encourage the development of value added throughout the automotive supply chain as well as to further enhance local capabilities. Such development of value added and local capabilities can be through the enhancement of processes, technology or human capital.Fourthly is to promote export-oriented Malaysian manufacturers as well as component and parts vendors. The Government will continue to provide direction and assistance for industry participants to establish or expand their penetration in the export markets, particularly through export promotion incentives. The Government will also extend support to equip manufacturers with the necessary prerequisites for success in the export markets, which include quality certification, testing standards and others. Emphasis will be given to Malaysian owned manufacturers as well as components and parts vendors, in order to develop local and indigenous capabilities. Finally is to promote competitive and broad-based Bumiputera participation in vehicle manufacturing, distribution and importation as well as in component and parts manufacturing. The Government will provide support and incentives to enhance the participation and competitiveness of Bumiputera companies in the automotive sector. This includes Bumiputera equity shareholding levels, ensuring progressive Bumiputera human resource development and fostering Bumiputera entrepreneurship in the relevant areas.
THE APPLICATION OF 5 STAGES IN POLCY PROCESSSTAGE 1: AGENDA SETTINGAn agenda is the list of subjects or problems to which government official are paying some serious attention at any given time. Some problems never make it to the public agenda whereas others are immediately acted on or at least considered at a later date. The problem stream is essentially concerned with how the public problem is defined including how it comes to the public’s attention in the first place. The political stream has to do with the national mood, public opinion, electoral politics and all the factors that make the proposed solution a likely reality or not. For this policy, the subject or problem that should handle by government is most of Malaysia citizens choose to buy imported car rather than buying Malaysia car production. Malaysian actuated to choose to buy imported car because they think that imported car are good in quality of production and provide more safety to the buyer. Secondly is less of Bumiputera participation in the domestic automotive sector. There are less bumiputera to participate in this automotive industries because they are not be given change to explore in this field. Besides that, they also do not have any skills or experience in order to explore in this automotive industry. Other reason why government should pay seriously attention is because less competitive in the automotive sector at the local market and global market. There are less competitive especially among the bumiputera to involve in the automotive sector at local market and global market. This is because they are not exposed to this sector and have less experience and knowledge in this field. Therefore, the manufactured of the automotive products itself encourage the peoples or buyers to buy import car because import car have more safety provided and high quality of manufactured. So, the government must take any action because less safety in Malaysia car production. Malaysian perception is Malaysia car production have low quality in term of safety. They do not confident with the quality level of Malaysia automotive production. Lastly is most Malaysian citizen prefers to buy imported used spare part. Malaysia citizen preferred to buy imported used spare part because it cheaper and save cost. Buy brand new spare part is cost more money and expensive.
STAGE 2: POLICY FORMULATIONThe passage of legislation designed to remedy some past problem or prevent some future public policy problem. It also the viewed as the result of a multitude of forces that affect policy outputs such as historical/geographic conditions, socioeconomic conditions, mass political behavior(including public opinion, interests groups, and political parties) governmental institutions as well as elite perceptions and behavior.There are several measures that have been reviewed and formulated after observe the National Automotive Policy. First is manufacturing license where it uses to have promoting higher impact segment. The current policies on issuance of new manufactured license will be lifted for several industry segments which are considered strategic and have a high impact on Malaysia economy. New manufacturing licenses will only be issued after over-capacity in the domestic automotive sector is resolved. In the meantime, vehicle assemblers will not be allowed to use or make available their existing excess capacity to third parties to assemble new makes or models that compete directly with those produced by national car manufacturers. Where an increase in production capacity is required, companies in the high-volume and middle-volume segments will be encouraged to use existing excess capacity. New assembly facilities will only be allowed on a strictly case-by-case basis. New measure are, luxury passenger vehicles with engine capacity of 1800 cc and above and on road price not less than RM150,000, pickup track and commercial vehicles, hybrid and electric vehicles and motorcycles with engine capacity of 2000cc and above.Secondly is tax or duty which promoting export of value added product. The excise duty structure has been streamlined resulting in an overall reduction in the effective tax rate on most motor vehicles and a reduction in the tax differential between the different categories of motor vehicles (e.g. cars, MPVs, 4WD and between the different engine capacities). It is intended that the streamlining of the tax structure will promote greater transparency in pricing. Tax Exemption on the value could increase exports of vehicles and parts/component. The country goal is to expand the amount and quality exports. The tax exemption on statutory income for
manufacturer in the automotive industry enhance from 10 to 30 percent of value of increased exports, provide the goods attain at least 30 percent value added and from 15 to 50 percent of the value of increased exports provided the good attain at least 50 percent value added. For the import Duty, it can promote free and prosperous international trade under free trade agreement. Import and excise duty for complete build (CBU) and complete knocked down. Gazette price of imported used vehicle is to address under declaration.For the technology it can be use to promote high value and green technology. Better Incentives for Critical and High Value-added Parts and Components Production. Promoting the production of critical and high value-added parts and components is a crucial scheme to increase the country's human and technological capital and contribute to long-term development goals. Companies manufacturing transmission systems, brake systems, airbag systems and steering systems are eligible for better fiscal incentives i.e. Pioneer Status (PS) of 100 per cent fiscal deduction for 10 years or Investment Tax Allowance (ITA) of 100 per cent for five years. Promote Hybrid and Electric Vehicles and Development of Related Infrastructure. Investing in the development of hybrid and electric vehicles bears the benefits of the acquisition of new, high end technology and the promotion of a more sustainable energy policy. A comprehensive mix of fiscal incentives, duty exemptions and customized training and R&D grants was included in the NAP Review to maximize return on investments.Next is effort to increased safety. Enforce full implementation of Vehicle Type Approval (VTA) and under road transportation department. Gradual introduced and enforcement of mandatory standards for parts and component due to the lack of specific regulation body responsible in enforcing standard there is insufficient coordination in the enforcement of mandatory require for parts and component. Under NAP review the ministry science, technology and innovation will coordinate and formulate a roadmap for the introduction and enforcement of mandatory standards for automotive product. Gradual Phase out Imported used commercial vehicles imports of used commercial vehicles are allowed. Under the new policy, imports of used vehicle will be prohibited effective from 1 January 2016 in line with the gradual phase out of imported of used component and parts of the termination of AP system for used vehicle. Besides that, provides clear road mapping for
implementation of fuel standard also better and useful. The ministry of natural resources and environment will establish a roadmap for fuel standard and quality. For gradual Introduction of vehicle end of life policy, Malaysia presents a very low vehicle scrap rate and relatively high average vehicle age and NAP introduced mandatory annual inspection as a requirement for road tax renewal for all vehicle age 15 year older. Other measure formulate after NAP reviewed is the approval of permit system. The current system of Approved Permits (APs), primarily used as a monitoring and data collection measure, will be phased out by 31 December 2010. In the interim, APs will be made available based on economic contribution. Priority will be given to vehicle assemblers that have committed to a significant increase in production volume (with significant exports) in a particular model and require APs to import models that complete their product range for the Malaysian market. APs will be made available for a limited number of vehicles not assembled in Malaysia in order to ensure a sufficient choice of products for Malaysian consumers. The importation of second hand cars (other than individual personal imports) will be progressively phased out culminating in a total ban in 2010, in order to stimulate demand for locally manufactured and assembled vehicles. The Government will encourage and support companies currently awarded open APs (PEKEMA members) to transition into other related business activities e.g. sales and distribution or component manufacturers/vendors. Finally is a strategic partnership for Proton model. A new strategic partnership between proton and globally established Original equipment manufacturer will be established to enhance proton’s competitiveness in a global market and its long term viability.
STAGE 3: POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONMost often been described as what happen after a bill becomes a law. Simplify enacting is no guarantee that action to put the law into effect of that the problem will be solved. The implementation process can be defined as a series of governmental decisions and action towards putting an already decided mandate into effect.For the National Automotive Policy, the policy was introduced and been reviewed by Minister of International Trade and Industry Datuk Mustapha Mohamed. Also involved are Ministry of Transportation (MOT) and Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The policy was implemented in March 2006 to facilitate the required transformation and optimal integration of the local automotive industry into regional and global industry network.
STAGE 4: POLICY EVALUATIONConcerned with what happen as a result of the public policy and what happen after a policy is implemented. It is concerned with the actual impacts of legislation or the extent to which the policy actual receives its intended results.National Automotive Policy was disappointing that the automotive Industry has not really moved towards openness, which has contravened the Prime Minister’s commitment to implement economic liberalization. A protection which is too strong will undermine the country’s efforts to attract foreign investment.
STAGE 5: POLICY CHANGEPolicy change absorbs several stages of the policy cycle including policy formulation, policy implementation, policy evaluation and policy termination. As an analytical concept, policy change refers to the point at which the policy is evaluated and redesigned so that the entire policy process begins anew. Moreover, one must examine public policy over a period of a decade or more so that one can begin to appreciate the evolution of policy through time.The National Automotive Policy (NAP) review do not deviate much from the original policy announced in 2006, the government has spelt out it intention of growing the industry and developing the industry its long term competitiveness. The NAP review has also clearly signaled that Malaysia will go through the process of gradual rather than rapid liberalization.
CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETYThe National Automotive Policy can give many contributions to society. Firstly, it helps to improve the safety standards for consumers and promote environment-friendly opportunities. NAP offers a safer, greener and technologically more advanced vehicles. Therefore, society can be benefited by purchasing a better quality of national car in future. Secondly, it helps to promote competitive and broad-based Bumiputeraparticipation in vehicle manufacturing, distribution and importation as well as in component and parts manufacturing. The Government provides a support and incentives to enhance the participation and competitiveness of Bumiputera companies in the automotive sector. This includes Bumiputera equity shareholding levels, ensuring progressive Bumiputera human resource development and fostering Bumiputera entrepreneurship in the relevant areas. Therefore Bumiputera people are benefited by having the opportunity which is given by the government to further expand their participation in business in terms of automotive industry. Thirdly it provides a significant contribution to the overall growth of the industry and the country. Emphasis is given in attracting investments in high value-added manufacturing activities using latest and high technology. The opening up of Manufacturing License (ML) for manufacturing and assembling activities in the selected segments particularly for luxury cars and hybrid/electric vehicles will encourage new investments and expansion of existing investments in the country. So, society benefited in term of having a sustainable economic in a region.
CONCLUSION As a result of the implementation of these policy measures, the Government expects to see an industry with two strong national vehicle manufacturers, complemented by a number of foreign vehicle manufacturers (potentially with local joint-venture partners) who will upscale their assembly operations and at the same time rationalize the models assembled, to drive sustainable industry linkage.Consequently, the components sector will also become more viable there will be fewer companies (as incumbents merge), but their volumes will be higher and more networked into the global automotive industry. Gradual liberalization will lead to reduced scope for importers, but genuine distributors will benefit from the increased sales volumes. The NAP aims to provide a clear and transparent direction for all industry participants to enable them to make the optimal plans and investment decisions for the future. Going forward, any Government policies and measures introduced for the domestic automotive sector will be based on this NAP. The NAP will be a long term policy base for the domestic automotive sector subject to reviews and refinement dictated by the global automotive industry environment. The Government believes that this NAP will be a key measure towards driving the transformation of the domestic automotive sector to one that is viable, competitive and resilient, for the benefit of industry participants, consumers and the Malaysian economy.
RECOMMENDATIONAfter observe through this policy, we found that the manufacturers of automotive policy should be improved to protect and prevent the users face with any problem. Our recommendations for NAP are;i. Auto parts manufacturers would benefit strongly.ii. Creating a transformed business environment in the Malaysia to provide a more compelling investment proposition. iii. Further developing the technology roadmaps for low carbon vehicles and fuels.iv. Exploiting opportunities to promote the Malaysia as a strong candidate to develop these and other technologies.v. Establish a senior level joint industry/government Automotive Council to develop, guide and implement a long term strategic framework for the industry.vi. Coordinate R&D efforts to follow the industry-consensus technology roadmap.vii. Simplify and maximize incentives and funding for upgrading and developing existing (and new) manufacturing locations and provide new funding for investment in collaborative testing and research facilities (tied to the technology roadmap).viii. Developing a stronger and more competitive supply chain.ix. Establish an Institute of Manufacturing Technology to provide a focal point for the revitalisation of automotive supply chain manufacturing.
introductionMALAYSIAN MINISTRY OF DEFENCEThe military of Malaysia is known officially as the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF, Malay: Angkatan Tentera Malaysia-ATM). It consists of three branches; the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN, Malay: Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia-TLDM), the Malaysian Army (Malay: Tentera Darat Malaysia-TD) and the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF, Malay: Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia-TUDM).Malaysian Armed ForcesThe role of the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) is to defend the sovereignty and strategic interests of Malaysia from all forms of threat. It is responsible to assist the civilian authorities to overcome all international threats, preserve public order, assist in natural disasters and participate in national development programs.It is also sustaining and upgrading its capabilities in the international sphere in order to uphold the national foreign policy of being involved under the guidance of the United Nations (UN).Malaysian ArmyMalaysian Army implement since the recovery from the 1997 economic crisis, MA along with other branches of the MAF regains momentum in its modernizing programs.Royal Malaysian Air ForceTUDM has traditionally looked to the West for its purchases, primarily to the United States. However, limitation imposed by the United States on "new technology" to the region such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM fire and forget air to air missiles has made TUDM consider purchases from Russia and other non-traditional sources. Royal Malaysian Navy The RMN Future Fleet programmers is component of second batch of Lekiu class frigates, Scorpène class submarines, New Generation Patrol Vessels (NGPV), Multi-Purpose Support Ship (MPSS) and maritime patrol aircraft. The ultimate goal is to build a six vessels squadron of each class by year 2020.National ServiceIn early 2004, the Ministry of Defense also initiated a compulsory National Service program for 18 years old Malaysians. Participants of the Malaysian National Service are chosen randomly. Currently, only 20% of those eligible are inducted but plans call for this program to eventually cover all 18 year olds.The Ministry of Defence is led by the Defence Minister and assisted by the Deputy Minister. The Ministry of Defence organization contains two main services: civilian and Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF). The ministry is responsible towards the implementation of National Defence Policy and resources provided to the armed forces to defend the country. After Malaysia achieved its independence on 31 August 1957, the Ministry of Defence has been officially operated in a building under the name of Ministry of Defence which is located in Brockman Road (now Dato' Onn St), Kuala Lumpur. The office of the first Defence Minister which was the late Tun Haji Abdul Razak bin Datuk Hussein who had served from 31 August 1957 until 22 September 1970 was also located here. Malaysian Defence is the ramblings of Marhalim Abas, a senior writer with The Malay Mail. Malaysian Defence hopes to fill the void by the mainstream media which regard defence and security as a passing fad. Covering Malaysian Defence without fear or favour and with dignity
ABSTRACT Today most of the societies still do not know the existing of the total defense concept, because this concept has never been put into practice. Total defense concept underlying principle that the defense of the nation does not solely rest on the shoulders of the armed forces, but the nation as a whole. But until now people not aware about the principle and they still rely on the armies. If people or societies still not understand about this concept how they can protect they own country? It will bring a big problem in the future. Our societies should increase their awareness about the problem. They should understand the national defense policy that implement by government. So government should do something about this concept how to start again this concept and introduce again to the public. So that public or people realize and know about this concept and will understand well about the principle as well.
Purpose The purpose of this concept is to introduce the principle that the defense of the nation does not solely rest on the shoulders of the armed forces, but the nation as a whole. The concept prescribes total mobilization of material and human resources which includes government agencies and private sectors. Besides that this concept was to make people familiar about the national defense. Where government want increase awareness among the society on how to defense our self when the critical situation occurs. They cannot rely 100 percent on army. Government also wants society to know the total defense concept not just only in military but it covers the whole thing where all people have their responsibility toward the national defense. It is also important during the critical situation, if societies already know and realize about their responsibility so there will no problem in the future if something happen because everybody was make a preparation earlier.
Agenda setting The agenda setting that we identify from this policy is society or people still not understand about the Total Defense concept. It is because this concept never been implemented or practice by the people as well as government it self. So that people still confuse about our defense concept. Where society still think that 100 percent of security of our country is on the army. When it is continues, society will avoid about the security and they will not make any preparation to face any treat or critical situation in the future. During that day society will only depend on army and they do not know what to do to depend their self because they never know and learn about it. These entire problems occur because there is not much activity implementation from the government. They never practice this concept and because of that society failed to understand the concept of this policy and their never aware about this problem. They also lack of information about it especially in the internet it is very difficult to search about Total Defense Concept.
POLICY FORMULATIONPolicy formulation can be defined as the passage of legislation designed to remedy some past problems or prevent some future policy problem. In this policy of the Malaysia national defence policy, we will redesign, modified and seek the past problem that occur during the implementation and also to know the problem that will be facing on the future policy problem that we assume that will happen. By doing formulation so this will make the policy more successful because the entire problem that happen and will happen already known by the policy maker. After formulate this policy it have several problem. This may be because of the absence of any threat to the country, and the comfort and prosperity enjoyed by the people resulted in a lack of commitment and need for `hanruh'.In fact, the concept is only known by a handful of public service officers, particularly those directly involved in the nation's security and defence. So this make most society not familiar of this concept.Curriculum for BTN courses is revamped to portray the concept of 1Malaysia. But, a new problem may surface because there will be accusation by the same people that the new curriculum is more of a propaganda by the Barisan Nasional government because there are certain groups who simply do not want to understand the concept of 1Malaysia.
IMPLEMENTATIONPolicy implementation describe as what happens after a bill become a law. This means the law has to be translated into specific guidelines for successful implementation.Total defence in national security, which has been implemented by several countries since the Cold War, is still at the concept and strategy stage in Malaysia. Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak said that several inter-agency discussions held since the 1990s to study the implementation of its components had produced no concrete action. Perhaps the absence of threats, and the comfort and peace the people have enjoyed resulted in a lack of commitment towards total defence, he said after launching the Workshop on Total Defence Concept and Implementation, co-organised by the Defence Ministry and National Security Division of the Prime Minister’s Department. Najib, who is also Defence Minister, said that the concept was still relevant today especially since it was the third strategy of the National Defence Policy. The objective of total defence, as implemented in countries such as Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Switzerland and Singapore, is to prevent war and defend the country, through a concerted effort by the private and public sector. Najib said the concept should not be limited to dealing with security threats (war and conflicts) but must also cover national crises such as natural disasters or an energy crisis. “The recent floods in Johor, Malacca and Pahang needed the collaboration of government agencies, the private sector and volunteer bodies. Here, total defence can play an effective role. Implementation of "hanruh" at the Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) the concept was still relevant as the third strategy of the nation's defence policy on the basis of capacity development and not founded on any form of threat. Therefore, our major challenge is to adapt the needs of the concept to make it practical and meaningful in facing various challenges in terms of building on the nation's prosperity.The concept is actually more effective if implemented during peaceful time than during emergency.On the workshop, organised by the National Security Division of the Prime Minister's Department and the Policy Division of the Defence Ministry, Najib said he hoped that it would clear any ambiguity regarding "hanruh" and translate the concept into a strategy of implementation.The time has come for the country to implement Hanruh through BTN, Otherwise it will be a loss to the country. Although the Hanruh strategy is not practised directly among Malaysians, but indirectly, the concept is found in courses organised by the National Civics Bureau (BTN). It is saddening that of late, there have been claims that the BTN courses could create racial disintegration among Malaysians. DAP adviser Lim Kit Siang has called for the BTN to be closed on grounds that it is responsible for the building of a united Malaysians. In this matter, it is a relief when Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, Datuk Seri Nazri Abdul Aziz said that the Cabinet has decided to revamp the BTN course curriculum.
Policy evaluation One of the evaluations is on national defense that are include army, Navy and Royal Malaysian Air force. We will collect information from them because they were more familiar with this concept. We evaluate them through their understanding and there feedback about the concept. For Navy after this concept have been introduce, they start to increase their performance and upgrade all their material, equipment, their tactics and the most important aspect is man power. There is also responsible for ensuring continuous production supply and communication of strategic and raw material for defense purposes.
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONFirstly, he said, the concept should not be restricted to the need to face threats to security alone but should also cover national challenges and crises, such as natural disasters and the energy crisis. For example, the recent massive floods in Johor and Pahang demanded the integrated action of government agencies, the private sector and voluntary organisations, and `hanruh' could have played an effective role. Besides that, "hanruh" should also play a role in shaping and strengthening the people's mindset, particularly in relation to the nation's economic resilience in terms of facing the tide of globalisation.Thirdly, "hanruh" should come up with programmers’ and activities towards forging greater integration of the people on the basis of life's values because unity of the people could not be ignored or taken lightly but should be developed and fostered continuously.
Conclusion As a conclusion being an independent and sovereign state, Malaysia has realised that the preservation of its national interest and security is best attained through the pursuit of self-reliance which is the core of its defence policy. This principle emphasises Armed Forces self-reliance within the structure of national self-reliance. It involves not only the combat forces but also logistical support network of military-industrial cooperation in line with the country’s development priorities. Self-reliance in this regard should not be limited to the efforts of the Armed Forces but should also involve all relevant agencies of the government and the people. However, taking into account its limitations, Malaysia’s self-reliance capability can be drawn from two premises. These are, firstly, having the capability to act independently without the need for foreign assistance in matters concerning internal security and secondly, having the capability to act independently in protecting its territorial integrity and security interests within the immediate vicinity from low and medium level external threats. On the other hand, the concept of total defence refers to the total and integrated efforts taken by the government, non-¬governmental agencies, private sectors and the citizens to defend the nation. Safeguarding Malaysia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity necessitates the commitment of all citizens and not just the Armed Forces. While the defence of the country is the physical responsibility of the security forces, the burden of ensuring that such forces are able to meet the challenges confronting them is a national responsibility. Even though it recognises the importance of regional cooperation and external assistance, Malaysia believes that self-reliance should continue to be the cornerstone of its defence. In this regard Malaysia will strive towards enhancing and developing its Armed Forces capabilities as well as promoting defence consciousness and patriotism among its citizens.
Abstract Quality Control In nowadays life, we as a customer are very concern of the quality of goods that we purchased. There is an increasing awareness about the significance of Zero Defects as a tool for improving work, organizational efficiency and quality control of their product. Zero Defects has been advocated as the ultimate target for quality control and assurance. This paper conducts an analysis of such a of zero defects concept. The traditional frame work of quality costs analysis is used to provide the basis of analysis. A modified quality costs model is formulated to incorporate the revenue effects of quality and the dynamic nature of the manufacturing environment. It is shown that, for the quality cost model specified in this paper, the optimal dynamic strategy for the producer is to continuously improve product quality. Furthermore, the consumers’ perspective and the existence of hidden or unidentifiable defects further reinforce the importance of quality improvement. In this way, a sound heavy industry basis is provided for the Zero Defects concept.
Introduction For a past 5O years, Malaysia is comes more and more developed industrial country which is focusing on producing a better excellence quality goods and services in nation. Through this, as in track to achieve this goal, government comes with strong commitment to quality is reflected in its quality policy. Every producer and factory has to strive for quality excellence and aims to meet its customer’s high quality expectations. This can be done through having a goal of zero defects. Conceptually an untiring effort to ensure that only products of the finest quality are shipped, stringent quality control is practiced using the most up-to-date measuring equipment and techniques. As to shows up of the government concerned of their commitment on this quality policy, their do had established several authorized body agency to handle and do measurement of qualified quality product produced by producer. The Department of Standards Malaysia (DSM) is one of the authorized body which responsible on this quality aspect. DSM is mandated by the Government of Malaysia to function as the National Standards Body (NSB) as well as the National Accreditation Body (NAB) through the Standards of Malaysia Act 1996 (Act 549). DSM's vision is 'To lead the Nation to be an effective global player in Standards & Accreditation in consonance with Malaysia’s Vision 2020'. Then for building, government had established BUILDING INSPECTION SERVICES (BIS). This is due to poor Quality and Defects in construction of both residential and commercial properties have been time and again reported in the Media. Professionals, Developers and Contractors have not been able to arrest the situation. Many including the Local Authorities and even buyers of property are quick to blame the Contractors. BIS’s aim to both educate and bring awareness of the rights of buyers of property. To achieve the Vision 2020 as propagated by our political leaders, many tend to forget that it takes each and every person and agency involved in the production of houses and property to keep him updated and also to perform and produce quality products of housing in line with the standards expected of a developed country.
In fact, all defects are not equal. Defects, depending on their size and type, have different probabilities of impacting the finished product. And these probabilities depend on the technology. In fact, the impact probability of a particular defect may vary within the technology - that is, at the stage or layer in which it occurs. When it comes to the practical definition of a defect, "bad" is a relative term. Many defects are simply neutral. They are never good, but - again, depending on the technology - they may cause no harm either. If all defects are considered bad, then prioritization is difficult.This Policy serves to guide the practice of the good quality of the product in production and provide a better standard service which is reasonable and satisfied the customers. The Department of Standards Malaysia Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation with other relevant government agencies and non-governmental organizations shall take active measures to promote awareness of the important of a good quality in this country. This Policy shall be implemented and enforced through various existing mechanisms. This Policy shall be reviewed every five years or as the need arises and necessary amendments shall be made accordingly. Historical of Zero defect PolicyZero Defects was a quality control program originated by the Denver Division of the Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin) on the Titan Missile program, which carried the first astronauts into space in the late 1960s. It was then incorporated into the Orlando Division, which built the mobile Pershing Missile System, deployed in Europe; the Sprint antiballistic missile, never deployed; and a number of air to ground missiles for the Vietnam War.While Zero Defects began in the aerospace and defense industry, started at Martin Marietta in the 1960s, thirty years later it was regenerated in the automotive world. During the 1990s, large companies in the automotive industry tried to cut costs by reducing their quality inspection processes and demanding that their suppliers dramatically improve the quality of their supplies. This eventually resulted in demands for the "Zero Defects" standard. It is implemented all over the world.
Purpose of the zero defect policy pursued by the government The purpose of this policy is where every producer and factory in our country has been encouraged to strive for quality excellence and aims to meet its customer’s high quality expectations. This can be done through having a goal of zero defects. Conceptually an untiring effort to ensure that only products of the finest quality are shipped, stringent quality control is practiced using the most up-to-date measuring equipment and techniques. As our national’s vision 2020, we want to become a fully develop country as west country, thus policy zero defect is also one of the main factors to achieve this goal, where government and private sectors comes with strong commitment to achieve quality in management, services and productions. This policy aim to bring understanding about the current changes & challenges in the industry such as construction, manufacturing and any business involve in produce product with good quality and preparing for the future. Besides that, it aims to be practice by suppliers and any organization to prevent defects than to discover and correct them. It makes sense to always strive for a better process or product, to reduce costs, satisfy customers and gain market share. Absolute perfection can never be achieved, but an organization can move closer to do better quality in every production by follow the strategies to achieve the zero defects.
The application of the 5 steps in the policy making process. STAGE 1: Agenda SettingAn agenda setting is defined as the list of subjects or problems to which government officials are paying some serious attention at any given time. For instance, the list of items to be seriously considered at a public meeting of a council is a public agenda. This could be issues like where a cemetery should be built or the issue of police abuse where there are three aspects of agenda setting which is the problem stream, policy stream and political stream. An agenda also can be defined as a standard of artifact of policy-makers which have their own agenda to achieve goals or objectives. Policy makers include legislators, politicians, judges, bureaucratic officials etc. The main question that needs to be answered in agenda setting is “who decides what will be decided?” Which is the decision is made by who are have an agenda or have a problem that need to be defined and solved in order to achieve particular goals. In the Zero Defect Policy, this policy are decided by the government who are plays an important roles. This policy can apply be apply in many way such as in manufacturing product, housing industry, and automotive industry. This policy has been address to resolve some problem that may occurs and affect the society’s life. In every daily live, as a customer they have the right to have a good product and better services from the seller or supplier. People should be free to enjoy the things that have buy or use without any defect or bad quality which may suffer injury, illness or death towards them. Thus all party include government agencies, private sector, construction industry, manufacturing, and service industry should play their role in solving society problem by taking an action toward any parties who not follow the require standard and they should be responsible for society welfare.
First issue here is in housing industry. As we know previously, there are issues toward low quality on housing industry in Malaysia. Construction industry, in Malaysia had experienced a continuous rapid growth, in tandem with the progressive boom of the national economy before it was affected by the economic recession of 1997 1998. However, unlike the manufacturing and services industries, the construction industry was plagued with defective works and poor quality. This was mainly due to the fact that the prevailing construction processes corresponding with the materials and construction technologies readily and cheaply available. Unskilled construction workers, inexperienced site supervisors, sub-standard materials, disorganized and labour intensive construction works, rushed construction job and huge demand for the properties regardless of the quality were among the causes of the state of affairs. Thus this create unsatisfied among the customers. There is a complaint where they have pay the constructer but, the quality was not satisfied them.Examples of defective houses arising from poor construction work are legion. An example often cited is a major housing project, consisting of 1,800 low-cost flats and terrace houses at Bandar Indera Mahkota, Pahang, undertaken by the Pahang State Economic Development Corporation. The contractor for the project was a joint-venture company set up by the Pahang SEDC and a South Korean company. Soon after the housing project was completed, complaints started surfacing – cracked walls and floors, collapsing door frames, generally shoddy workmanship, sub-standard building materials, cement bags and Styrofoam stuffed into walls instead of bricks, and shoddy wiring which short-circuited when rain water seeped in. The project was ultimately condemned as unsafe and the residents were resettled by the SEDC. Over time, the owner’s needs, values and beliefs began to take significance on what is on offer in the market. They began to put more importance on the quality of the properties they bought. The majority now want the house that can fulfill the functional and symbolic needs of “home”. On the other hand, stabilizing demands and the gaining pressure on the needs of the owner has prompted the developers to improve the “product” for market share. As the market share is very highly correlated to the ability to
satisfy owner’s needs, developers have got to change accordingly. In short, “quality” properties are essential for effective competition in today’s market. The quality in the housing industry is defined as those meeting the needs, requirements and expectations of the owners, designers, builders, and regulatory agencies at all time. Thus, other major causes of quality failures in the Malaysian construction sector attributed to poor workmanship, improper design, improper specification, and defective materials. In order to achieve high quality in housing the root causes of the above must be tackled. Next issue is the global manufacturing industry today is facing many business challenges in the current global financial crisis. Due to this unforeseen circumstance, most manufacturers today are going through high demands to ensure cost-effective production without jeopardizing innovation & quality. Organizations are therefore always looking forward to infuse efficiencies to sustain large-scale growth and are on constant look out for advanced techniques in improving production techniques. By adhering to our Quality Policy, our manufacturing process has incorporated a series of quality controls to ensure zero-defect products. STAGE 2: Policy FormulationPolicy formulation is defined as the passage of legislation designed to remedy some past problems or prevent some future policy problem. For example to ensure that developers consult the neighboring owners before developing their piece of land, the EPA was passed by Parliament to ensure that the other stakeholders’ rights and health was protected. It is described as “what happens after a bill becomes a law”. This means the law has to be translated into specific guidelines for successful implementation. We need to differentiate between implementation outputs and outcomes. There are four principal of zero defect policy in order to strengthen and make people clear and understand the policy and term of zero defects. 1. Quality is conformance to requirements
Every product or service has a requirement: a description of what the customer needs. When a particular product meets that requirement, it has achieved quality, provided that the requirement accurately describes what the enterprise and the customer actually need. This technical sense should not be confused with more common usages that indicate weight or goodness or precious materials or some absolute idealized standard. In common parlance, an inexpensive disposable pen is a lower-quality item than a gold-plated fountain pen. In the technical sense of Zero Defects, the inexpensive disposable pen is a quality product if it meets requirements: it writes, does not skip nor clog under normal use, and lasts the time specified.2. Defect prevention is preferable to quality inspection and correctionThe second principle is based on the observation that it is nearly always less troublesome, more certain and less expensive to prevent defects than to discover and correct them.3. Zero Defects is the quality standardThe third is based on the normative nature of requirements: if a requirement expresses what is genuinely needed, then any unit that does not meet requirements will not satisfy the need and is no good. If units that do not meet requirements actually do satisfy the need, then the requirement should be changed to reflect reality. 4. Quality is measured in monetary terms – the Price of Nonconformance (PONC). The fourth principle is key to the methodology. Phil Crosby believes that every defect represents a cost, which is often hidden. These costs include inspection time, rework, wasted material and labor, lost revenue and the cost of customer dissatisfaction. When properly identified and accounted for, the magnitude of these costs can be made apparent, which has three advantages. First, it provides a cost-justification for steps to improve quality. The title of the book, "Quality is free," expresses the belief that improvements in quality will return savings more than equal to the costs. Second, it provides a way to measure progress, which is essential to maintaining management commitment and to rewarding employees. Third, by making the goal measurable, actions can be made concrete and decisions can be made on the basis of relative return.
Zero Defects, pioneered by Philip Crosby, is a business practice which aims to reduce and minimize the number of defects and errors in a process and to do things right the first time. The ultimate aim will be to reduce the level of defects to zero. However, this may not be possible and in practice and what it means is that everything possible will be done to eliminate the likelihood of errors or defects occurring. The overall effect of achieving zero defects is the maximization of profitability.Literally zero defects correspond to a defect level of infinity sigma, which most practitioners will admit is not possible. And yet an enthusiastically institutionalized zero defects program may unfortunately promote the belief and expectation that true zero can and should be achieved. This is evidenced by several phrases that quality professionals may have heard spoken - or at least heavily implied - by business strategists:• "All defects are the same, since all defects are bad" • "There is no such thing as a benign defect." • "If we can get rid of the defects, then we can get rid of the testing."These expectations are worth examination. Other approach for zero defect policy is through Strategic Manufacturing Excellence Forum held in Malaysia which will provide participants with in-depth knowledge, up to date information and valuable discussion sessions on best world class manufacturing practices. The forum would highlight the opportunities that can be gained through manufacturing methodologies such as lean manufacturing & Six Sigma by improving the implementation of these manufacturing techniques to ensure improved quality and reduced waste. Some of the areas being discussed in this forum would be on:
• Meeting demands, challenges & opportunities in developing an industry/ business focusing on quality manufacturing in the region• Balancing product quality and efficient flow of material through continuous breakthroughs of Lean Six Sigma strategies• Understanding the importance of continuous improvements in a lean based culture• Reducing costs and creating capital wealth through good manufacturing practicesThrough this forum it can help people especially in manufacturing sector on how to achieve quality product and learn on how to achieving zero defects in every production in our country. It is the role of statistically minded scientists and engineers to classify defects and their potential impact, based on data and engineering judgment. This allows them to systematically reduce defect levels in a prioritized fashion, starting with the worst and progressing toward the more benign. Without this kind of problem-solving prioritization, progress may be slow and confused - perhaps even at a standstill. The ability to prioritize is absolutely necessary in the continuous improvement process.The statement that if fewer defects are produced, then less inspection will be required is incorrect. Actually, the opposite is true. A higher level and sophistication of testing is required to detect a smaller level of defect.More recently the concept of zero defects has lead to the creation and development of Six Sigma pioneered by Motorola and now adopted worldwide by many other organizations. This is how zero defect policy can be used. The concept of zero defects can be practically utilized in any situation to improve quality and reduce cost. However it doesn’t just happen, as the right conditions have to be established to allow this to take place. A process, system or method of working has to be established which allows for the achievement of zero defects. If there is no right process and the associated conditions are not created then it will not be possible for anyone involved in the process to achieve the desired objective of zero defects. In such a process it will be possible to measure the cost of none conformance in terms of wasted materials and wasted time.
Any process that is to be designed to include this concept must be clear on its customer expectations and desires. The idea is to aim for a process and finished article that conforms to customer requirements and does not fall short of or exceed these requirements. For example, in recent years many financial organizations have made claims regarding how quickly they can process a home loan application. But what they may have failed to realize is that in spending a great deal of time and money reducing processing time they are exceeding customer requirements (even if they believe that they know them). In these cases they have exceeded the cost of conformance when it was not necessary to do so.The formulation of this policy is also important to help resolve public problem in housing and in construction industry. The present construction process in our country is slow. The idea of introducing the modular co-ordination was introduced in the 1980s, but it has taken root only lately under the zero defect programme. Modular co-ordination system will be pursued aggressively in next millennium in order to make housing delivery be more efficient since components can be systematically factory-built and installed on site. This will help to reduce the industry's dependence on foreign labour. For this purpose, open industrialized buildings system will be used. All buildings are to be designed according to modular co-ordination principles as laid down in Malaysian Construction Industry Standard.For manufacturing industry, the formulation of zero defect policy can help to achieve steering towards world class manufacturing standards, meeting demands, challenges & opportunities in developing an industry/ business focusing on quality manufacturing in the region, discussing developments in information technology (IT) to further enhance developments & process implementations in the manufacturing sector.
STAGE 3: Policy AdoptionPolicy adoption is important to collect or gather the data and information in the policy for the policy choices from the policy maker which is consisted of analysis of alternatives, the forecasting of each alternatives and cost and benefit of the analysis of the policy. The data that have been collected will give good impact which can achieve the objective of the policy. Policy adoption is a stage where the selection of the appropriate methods of the policy selected before implementing the policy analysis process. Policy adoption is important to minimize the risk that the policy that might not achieve the objectives and goals, to choose suitable method for the policy implementation.For zero defect policy there are no step-by-step instructions for achieving zero defects, and there is no magic combination of elements that will result in them. There are, however, some guidelines and techniques to use when any management or companies decide that they are ready to embrace the zero defects concept. Management must commit to zero defects. Zero defects require a top down approach: a) The best-intentioned employees cannot provide zero defects if they are not given the tools to do so. First, when management decides that zero defects is the approach that they want to take, recognize that it likely represents a significant change to the way people do things. Manage the introduction using the principles of change management. b) Companies should understand what their customers expect in terms of quality. Design systems that support zero defects where it matters, but don't over-design if the end-user just doesn't care. Beside that zero defects require a proactive approach. If they wait for flaws to emerge they are too late. c) It is also important to create quality improvement teams. Zero defects must be integrated with the corporate culture. Zero defects needs to be accepted as "the ways things are done around here". Companies in Malaysia also can learn poka - yoke (POH-kay YOH-kay.) where this is invented in the 1960s by Shigeo Shingo of Japan, it
translates to "prevent inadvertent mistakes". It's an approach that emphasizes designing systems that make defects almost impossible or, if they can't be avoided, easy to detect and address. To implement zero defects, management has to have strong systems in place. Other than that is companies must monitor their progress. Build mechanisms into their systems and methods of operating that provide continuous feedback. This allows them act quickly when flaws do occur. Rather than that, measure company quality efforts. It is important to express your progress in terms of the bottom line. Take baseline measurements so you understand the cost of defects in your organization, and can measure the benefits you are achieving in eliminating them.It is important for every company and management to build quality into their performance expectations. They should encourage members of their team to think about how they can achieve zero defects, and reward them when they're successful. Finally recognize that although zero defects are a destination, circumstances keep changing. Monitor, evaluate, and adapt in a continuous, never-ending cycle.Business that adopt the zero defect policy. Since Zero Defect Policy is a culture, it is going to add to company in terms of employee output. The cost of doing things will shrink with lesser efforts. It is also about managing various controls to deliver service. You can reduce a lot of costs by automation but you cannot automate everything. Hence adoption of this culture will tune people in organization to contribute to work in a systematic way. Like, we have analyzed the reworks and have reduced it. This has further reduced operational cost. Customers look at these things and as a supplier they are meeting their expectations.Master Builders Association Malaysia’s (MBAM) is one of the companies in Malaysia that follow zero defect policy. It highlighted issues of concern to the media such as the stabilization of prices and liberalization of building materials especially cement and steel bars, supply of steel bars and the training of skilled manpower resources in the construction industry thus enhancing the image, visibility and the
public’s awareness of MBAM and its role in the construction industry. They have design some draft of MBAM, for their working committees of CIDB like the drafting of: * Construction Industry Standards (CIS) * Standard Conditions of Contract * Zero Defects in Building Construction * Green Card Programme * Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) training modules and * Steering Committee on Quality in Construction Besides that, Naim has Doubles Defects Liability Period on Its Properties. This company also has adopt zero defect policy whereby they had announce the launching of the Group’s “Zero Defects, My Priority" campaign. On 10 July 2009, Leading Malaysian home builder and contractor, Naim Holdings Berhad (Naim), is offering an extended defects liability (or warranty) period for all properties developed by them to 24 months. The Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Datuk Hasmi Hasnan said the defects liability period for all properties built by Naim will be extended by a further 12 months from the normal statutory requirement of 12 months, meaning they will make good any defects for a total period of 24 months following handing over of properties to their buyers. He believes Naim is the only developer from East Malaysia to offer this extended warranty period. Thus this shows that our developer has a commitment in order to improve the quality which also helps to increase the customer’s satisfaction. Naim is able to make this pledge as they are confident of the quality of their products and from now on are aiming to achieve "zero defects" for all their properties. It was stated that the objective of the campaign is to make quality a culture among the staff and all their stakeholders. By having this campaign it can reminded the staff that for most of their customers, buying a property is a "once in a lifetime" investment and "we must not disappoint them. We must deliver a product of the quality they expect".Not only that, all staff of the Group present signed a pledge to make zero defects their priority. Another step to this is the giant board will be placed prominently at the entrance to their office to act as a constant reminder to them to deliver quality products and services to their customers. Its focus on excellent quality and timely delivery is a philosophy that has earned Naim a host of industry awards, including the prestigious Builder of the Year Award from the Construction Industry Development Board. It remains the only Company from East Malaysia to win the award.
Sony EMCS (Malaysia) Sdn BhdThis company also strive toward achieve zero defect policy (Public Company; SNE; Consumer Electronics industry). This company have own target such as supervised production floor to meet certain quality requirements, coordinated with team members to meet specific timeline during product design phases, cooperated with external departments to solve problems, performed value analysis and carried out cost down activities and nurtured in production and manufacturing environment (Poka-yoke approach, Six Sigma, FMEA, TQM, Zero Defect, Kaizen culture, inventory and quality audits)The zero defect policy in Manufacturing & Restructuring.Yeo’s Quality AssuranceIn the year under review, the Malaysian retail sector has performed relatively poorer than the preceding year. This is due to the regional and global economic slowdown. Under such challenging market conditions, YHSM (Yeo Hiap Seng (Malaysia) Berhad (" YHSM") which produce Yeo’s recognizes the need to strategically adapt to environmental changes and expand market share to sustain growth. YHSM's policy in Quality Assurance is to work Towards Zero Defects. With this mindset strongly ingrained, YHSM is able to ensure the integrity of products. Consequently, staff will enjoy a cleaner and safer working environment, and this will further reinforce our consumers' loyalty to the YHS brand name. As such, YHSM will continue to adhere strictly to its Sales and Operations Planning process, managed by Supply Chain Management, to create an efficient control system for business plans and effective usage of resources through Discipline, Communication & Teamwork. YHSM recognizes that consumer needs are ever demanding and changing, and in this regard, the Group will continue to be proactive in executing strategies and initiatives in order to fulfill the Group's mission of being a forerunner in the Food & Beverage industry in Malaysia. As part of its current consolidation of resources to decrease logistic costs and increase production efficiency, the Group is continuing with its plans to rationalize its five manufacturing plants into one or two sites in the longer term. The Group is also reviewing its plans to outsource logistics and warehousing services in order to achieve cost and related efficiencies. Quality professionals already have specific, descriptive methodologies that are aimed at achieving the same goals as zero defects. Here are but some of the methodologies already in use and being developed to minimize the defects in the end product, such as Design for manufacturability (DFM) ,Design for yield (DFY) and Design for test (DFT) - "DFM: Worlds Collide, Then Cooperate" and Robust design that can be followed by suppliers in our country
Policy Implementation When come to fourth steps in policy making process it is about policy implementation. Implementation of the policy is refer to the administration of the in which various actors, organizations, procedures, and techniques work together to put adopted policies into effect in an effort to attain policy or program goals. Implementation is the realization, application or execution of plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard or policy.As what we know, zero defect policy is strictly implemented in various fields such as production, manufacturing, housing developer and heavy industry. An extend of the policy has positively related to the quality of output in every production. Development policy is as a vital means to achieve the mission of our government program of “Buying local Products”. In order to encourage people to fulfill this mission, firstly the government has to b aware the standard quality of those productions. Most people think the strategy not in the right path or inconsistence towards achieving of buying a local products, because still quiet a lot of the people who are prefer a imported goods. However, those people now realize and understand and appreciate the rational efforts to promote our local products by more particular in quality control. Government played proactive important role by taking immediate action to enhance of high quality production by imposing of the strict procedure and Law to make sure that the manufacturer and firm fulfill the requirements standard that had been set up. In Malaysian there several means that company used in track to achieves this policy in manufacturing field is through 5’S, Product Quality Assessment, Pat Average Testing and Outlier Detection. A > 5’S 5’S is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of five Japanese words which, transliterated and translated into English, start with the letter S. The 5S's are :Phase 1 - Seiri (整理) Sorting: Go through all tools, materials, etc., in the plant and work area. Keep only essential items. Everything else is stored or discarded.Phase 2 - Seiton (整頓) Straighten or Set in Order: There should be a place for everything and everything should be in its place. The place for each item should be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow. Workers should not have to repetitively bend to access materials. Each tool, part, supply, piece of equipment, etc. should be kept close to where it will be used (i.e. straighten the flow path). Seiton is one of the features that distinguishes 5S from "standardized cleanup".
Phase 3 - Seisō (清掃) Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness (Systematic Cleaning): Keep the workplace clean as well as neat. At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place. This makes it easy to know what goes where and ensures that everything is where it belongs. A key point is that maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily work - not an occasional activity initiated when things get too messy.Phase 4 - Seiketsu (清潔) Standardizing: Work practices should be consistent and standardized. Everyone should know exactly what his or her responsibilities are for adhering to the first 3 S's.Phase 5 - Shitsuke (躾) Sustaining the discipline: Maintain and review standards. Once the previous 4 S's have been established, they become the new way to operate. Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways. While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yet better ways. When an issue arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of working, a new tool or a new output requirement, review the first 4 S's and make changes as appropriate.B > Product Quality AssessmentProduct quality assessment program is to conduct an "analysis of need," including product type and volume, information needed, time available, cost of test method/instrument, laboratory set-up and personnel, and, most importantly, top management support. Thus, there is no clear-cut single method for shelf-life/ quality assessment for each and every situation. This is more concentrate on the program that I feel offers the necessary attributes of a successful quality control program. This is one of the famous methods that many companies use in make sure their product quality in high standard. C > Pat Average TestingParts Average Testing (PAT) has recently been adopted by a number of semiconductor companies, primarily to help them meet the stringent requirements of the automotive industry (Automotive Electronics Council: AEC-Q001-Rev C). Indeed, reliability studies have shown that semiconductor parts that have abnormal characteristics tend to be higher contributors to long-term quality and reliability problems. That is, devices that originally passed all manufacturing tests but could be considered "outliers" compared to other parts in the same population or lot, are more likely to fail in the field. This is the basis for the process known as Parts Average Testing (PAT), which proactively identifies these outliers for exclusion from production shipments. This is done by modifying the pass/fail test limits based on statistical sampling of multiple devices.D > Outlier Detection Outlier detection has been used for quite long time to detect and, where appropriate, remove anomalous observations from data. Outlier detection can identify system faults and fraud before they escalate with potentially catastrophic consequences. The original outlier detection methods were arbitrary but now, principled and systematic techniques are used, drawn from the full gamut of computer science and statistics.There are three fundamental approaches use to overcome the problem of outlier detection:• Type 1 - Determine the outliers with no prior knowledge of the data. This is essentially a learning approach analogous to unsupervised clustering. The approach processes the data as a static distribution, pinpoints the most remote points, and flags them as potential outliers. • Type 2 - Model both normality and abnormality. This approach is analogous to supervised classification and requires pre-labelled data, tagged as normal or abnormal. • Type 3 - Model only normality (or in a few cases model abnormality). This is analogous to a semi-supervised recognition or detection task. It may be considered semi-supervised as the normal class is taught but the algorithm learns to recognize abnormality.
Then for the Production field, to achieve zero defect policy company are using some kinds of ways. Such of the ways were Design for manufacturing, Design for test and Safe launch. Design for manufacturability (DFM) is the general engineering art of designing products in such a way that they are easy to manufacture. The basic idea exists in almost all engineering disciplines, but of course the details differ widely depending on the manufacturing technology. DFM is intended to prevent:• Product designs that simplify assembly operations but require more complex and expensive components • Designs that simplify component manufacture while complicating the manufacture process • Designs that are simple and inexpensive but are difficult or expensive to service and support By DFM, the company can improve their product quality in order avoid defects which only can brought big portion of losses to the company. Next is Design for Test (DFT). Design for test is also known as Design for Testability is a name for design techniques that add certain testability features to a microelectronic hardware product design. The premise of the added features is that they make it easier to develop and apply manufacturing tests for the designed hardware. The purpose of manufacturing tests is to validate that the product hardware contains no defects that could, otherwise, adversely affect the product’s correct functioning. Tests are applied at several steps in the manufacturing flow and, for certain products, may also be used for hardware maintenance in the customer’s environment. The tests generally are driven by test programs that execute in addition to finding and indicating the presence of defects (i.e., the test fails), tests may be able to log diagnostic information about the nature of the encountered test fails.Safe launch Plan(SLP) is other initiative way to achieve of zero defect policy in production. Safe launch is combines innovative design, high quality materials and precision engineering to provide a reliable, durable and cost-effective release hook which sets new standards of operational safety with the added benefit of low lifetime cost of ownership. Safe Launch Plan encompasses its reliability in supporting the verification of product and process robustness and reliability. It is normally production implemented to minimize or protect risk parts assumed to be acceptable, meeting customer requirements. It is also provides documented evidence of process stability, establishing the process reliability growth baseline. SLP requires the creation of an enhanced Pre-Launch Control acts as the Pre-Launch Control Plan. It implements an elevated, short-term Quality Inspection process.In term of housing /building developer, our government had established of BUILDING INSPECTION SERVICES 'BIS' to both educate and bring awareness of the rights of buyers of property. To achieve the Vision 2020 as propagated by our political leaders, many tend to forget that it takes each and every person and agency involved in the production of houses and property to keep agency updated and also to perform and produce quality products of housing in line with the standards expected of a developed country. The established BIS is due to the poor quality and defects in construction of both residential and commercial properties have been time and again reported in the Media. Professionals, Developers and Contractors have not been able to arrest the situation. Many including the Local Authorities and even buyers of property are quick to blame the Contractors.
Policy Evaluation.Policy evaluation is the assessment of the overall effectiveness of a national program in meeting its objectives, or assessment of the relative effectiveness of two or more programs in meeting common objectives. It concern with all of the consequences of public policy. Zero Defect Policy already changes the mind of Malaysian regarding its importance towards the development of our country. As a consequences of the implementation of this policy :1. The establishment of Department of Standards Malaysia Ministry of Science, Technology and innovation. The department is mandated by the Government of Malaysia to function as the National Standards Body (NSB) as well as the National Accreditation Body (NAB) through the Standards of Malaysia Act 1996 (Act 549). They provide Credible Standardization and Accreditation of Conformity Assessment services in order to facilitate Malaysian products and services to be competitive globally; to support Government policy makers and regulators; and to advance quality of life of Malaysians'. 2. Abortive strategic partnership with Volkswagen AG in automotive industry. (Proton ) .3. True Management Quality Consultancy Sdn Bhd (TMQCSB) is one of the leading consultancy and training firm in Malaysia. They provide an experienced team of consultants who help with the implementation of ISO 9001, ISO 14001, internal auditing, documentation development, system monitoring and review, business and quality improvements.4. 'BIS' BUILDING INSPECTION SERVICES which is aid of helpless house and property owners and occupiers out from being a victim of irresponsibility housing developer by rejected second level or sub grade quality of workmanship. 5. Professionals are sent to overseas to gain knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform better and more competence.Personal Recommendations towards the Policy :The implementation of this policy brought great benefits to the development of the manufacturing, production and even the quality building in Malaysia. When we talk about quality of any production in New Industrialized Country such as Malaysia, we cannot deny that a lots of improvements need to be taken to make it more valuable and achieving more toward same standard as Develop Country.1) There are many new and infant firms which are still in new experience and still lots more things that have to learn. So that, zero defect must consider thinking ways to develop and constitute creativity which contributes for the improvement of productivity or service quality; the employers must have initiative to thinking outside the box in improving their productivity.2) In order to make this policy to be worth and fulfill it goal, government have to help the firm providing any initiatives and programs to insist they in improving their quality. For example is training programs.3) Development and introduction in new advance technology are also important in track to achieve good quality in industry. This technology may helps firm to produce good products. 4) Cooperation among industry and firm is invited and encourage developing among them especially in term of quality. This can be done through sharing information and research and development R&D. 5) The firm must be ready to adapt this policy by doing a research to improving the quality. This can be done through sending their qualified worker to abroad to gain some knowledge from develop country so that they may helps in introducing a new advance technology. So that the quality can be improve. 6) Then, for housing developers, the Certificate of Fitness or CF is only can be given if the contactors are really fulfill the quality standard which had been
set up by the government. The government agencies must to make complete investigation first be hand this CF to them.7) In service field, the imposed of Look East policy which is really essential. This by the practicing of 5’s in every department. This practice must be introduced and explain to every new employees when their first week work or during orientation. Moreover, in producing a better quality, the employees must be in fit and high concentration of work. The firm can set up one day for them to doing exercise together such as weekend. Through this, it is not only for good health but also for strong bond relationship among teamwork. Conclusion Zero Defect Policy has close relationship towards the achievement of Malaysia as a developed nation. This is as a road to achieve 2020 Vision as had been set by our previous premier Tun Mahathir Bin Mohamad. This is can be show by the efforts putting by Malaysia government to improve the production produce by local firm. In other word, government is trying to promote our local product to oversea which has a same standard with their product too. The firm in Malaysia must be ready to cooperate among themselves to achieve a high quality with no defect. Defects can lead high cost of production because whenever there are defect, so this means the company need recall back the products. Zero defects is a message that can carry with it confusion and misinterpretation, mixed with technical impracticality. Then for housing, this is the best solution to reduce the number of abandoned housing projects problems in Malaysia in order to provide a better quality of house as Malaysia want to achieve goal of Malaysia as a Second home for foreigners.
Comment on the Policy Since the slogan zero defects implies immediate compliance to a defect-free standard, it may not leave time for the continuous improvement process to occur. In fact, it may even slow down the continuous improvement process because of the massive resources that inspected-in quality entails. It may be appropriate that the idea of zero defects be replaced with a policy of "zero escapes," since the latter has limited interpretation.This Zero defect policy have pro’s and con’s. For instead, are it is hard to be exposed to some industry especially in oil/gas sector (Fabrication & Installation),But again it is depend on nature of work /process/scope/project. In actual life, production & quality control should always be as a strong combination. They cannot be separated in order to prevent defect. But some sector such as especially in oil/gas sector is impossible to expose to this policy. This is because if there is any defect that had detected so this can mean they have to reproduce a new one. Then contribute to delay process of production. According to one Quality Control Officer, (real interview conducted) of oversea company of oil/gas, any delay of in one production process the company may incur a loss of USD 20,000 per hour. The concept of continuous improvement is intuitive. So kept in mind that Zero defect policy is not for being prefect but it is as a way of improvement. It makes sense to always strive for a better process or product, to reduce costs, satisfy customers and gain market share. Absolute perfection can never be achieved, but an organization can move closer and closer with good statistical and engineering practices. Con’s of this policy is teaching the producer to be more particular and always aware of their quality of production. This is for the benefits of customer and the profit of the company too because the customer will satisfy and trust them. .
DAYANG EMMA PERKIAH BINTI AWANG ALIHAZELINA BT AFFENDYtopic : NATIONAL CHILD PROTECTION POLICY1.0 ABSTRACTChild abuse and neglect have been occurring throughout human history and it had happened for a many years before. Yet, nowadays, history repeats itself whereby many cases such as baby dumping and child abusing occurred especially in Malaysia which is keep in increasing from day-to-day. This work paper had determined the weaknesses and strengthens of the policy that related to the child protection such as abuse, baby dumping, ignorance and many more.The tragedy continues till today, and in a number of circumstances appears to be becoming increasingly frequent and shockingly brutal. Apart from that, we had come out with our own recommendation and to strengthen the policy so that it can be more effective and efficient in order to prevent the cases keep on increasing. A child who is abused will be traumatized and will need counselling and professional intervention by a child psychologist or psychiatrist. Non-abusing parents usually keep silent about the abuse because of fear, hopelessness and isolation or lack of support from other family members.2.0 INTRODUCTION Nowadays, in Malaysia we can hear about the issues of child abusing whereby the issues form now and onwards had become worsen. It was becoming worries especially to the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development whereby the ministry has to tackle all the issues arise and make awareness to the society so that they realize the consequences apart from their behaviour towards the toddlers especially because we know that child is the apprentice towards the leadership of the country. Once the rights of the child had been abuse or being treating unfairly it will affect towards the society and also the development of nation. The case of dumping babies becoming a serious dilemma as we can see through the mass media about the case throughout the Malaysia. It also shown that the social problem among the society especially teenagers who are tend do the dumping babies besides that the role or parents also recently becoming a problem. As a parent, they know what their responsibility towards their child and have to protect the child form being abuse by others such as maid, but of the parents itself who committed did it, means that the role of parents should be questioned. Recently, case of dumping baby at Kuching had happened and being dumping at the area drain at Stutong area. It shows that the civilization among the people becoming varnished parallel with the development of the country. The more once country develops the more of social cases happen. Child abuse can be many ways such as physical abuse such as physical injury to a child, or failure to prevent physical injury, or suffering, to a child, including deliberate hitting and so on so forth. Whereby form the aspect of mental abuse likely severe adverse effect on the emotional and behavioural development of a child caused but persistent or severe emotional ill treatment or rejection. May involve conveying to the child that they are worthless, unloved or inadequate and cause children to feel frightened, in danger and corrupted.
DAYANG EMMA PERKIAH BINTI AWANG ALI(2009434158)HAZELINA BT AFFENDY(2009425466)TOPIC: NATIONAL CHILD PROTECTION POLICY1.0 ABSTRACTChild abuse and neglect have been occurring throughout human history and it had happened for a many years before. Yet, nowadays, history repeats itself whereby many cases such as baby dumping and child abusing occurred especially in Malaysia which is keep in increasing from day-to-day. This work paper had determined the weaknesses and strengthens of the policy that related to the child protection such as abuse, baby dumping, ignorance and many more.The tragedy continues till today, and in a number of circumstances appears to be becoming increasingly frequent and shockingly brutal. Apart from that, we had come out with our own recommendation and to strengthen the policy so that it can be more effective and efficient in order to prevent the cases keep on increasing. A child who is abused will be traumatized and will need counselling and professional intervention by a child psychologist or psychiatrist. Non-abusing parents usually keep silent about the abuse because of fear, hopelessness and isolation or lack of support from other family members.
2.0 INTRODUCTION Nowadays, in Malaysia we can hear about the issues of child abusing whereby the issues form now and onwards had become worsen. It was becoming worries especially to the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development whereby the ministry has to tackle all the issues arise and make awareness to the society so that they realize the consequences apart from their behaviour towards the toddlers especially because we know that child is the apprentice towards the leadership of the country. Once the rights of the child had been abuse or being treating unfairly it will affect towards the society and also the development of nation. The case of dumping babies becoming a serious dilemma as we can see through the mass media about the case throughout the Malaysia. It also shown that the social problem among the society especially teenagers who are tend do the dumping babies besides that the role or parents also recently becoming a problem. As a parent, they know what their responsibility towards their child and have to protect the child form being abuse by others such as maid, but of the parents itself who committed did it, means that the role of parents should be questioned. Recently, case of dumping baby at Kuching had happened and being dumping at the area drain at Stutong area. It shows that the civilization among the people becoming varnished parallel with the development of the country. The more once country develops the more of social cases happen. Child abuse can be many ways such as physical abuse such as physical injury to a child, or failure to prevent physical injury, or suffering, to a child, including deliberate hitting and so on so forth. Whereby form the aspect of mental abuse likely severe adverse effect on the emotional and behavioural development of a child caused but persistent or severe emotional ill treatment or rejection. May involve conveying to the child that they are worthless, unloved or inadequate and cause children to feel frightened, in danger and corrupted.
In the other hands, neglect abuse is the persistent or severe neglect of a child or the failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger, including cold and starvation, or extreme failure to carry out important aspects of care, resulting in the significant impairment of the child’s health or development, including non-organic failure to thrive, begging and child labour and last but not least is in the form of sexual abuse which is the exploitation of a child or adolescent, representing the involvement of dependent, developmentally immature children and adolescents in sexual activities they do not truly comprehend, to which they are unable to give informed consent or that violate social taboos or family rules, such as touching a child’s genitals, forcing a child to watch or take part in pornography or coercing the child to have sex. It is considered abuse whether or not the child consents. Child abuse is a form of violence on a hapless human being who is unable to seek the necessary help and protection. It is therefore imperative that stern action be taken on perpetrators of abuse and violence on children as a protective and preventive measure taken by press statement made by YB Senator Dato’ Sri Sharizat Jalil. As in Malaysia, there are two policies that regarding the Children which is had been implemented on 2009. The policies were Child Policy and National Child Protection Policy whereby it is needed in order to strengthen the law so that people will realize about the importance of children’s protection and right which had been neglected by their own parents. Before the policy had been imposed, lot of cases regarding with the child right and protection had been ignored and abuse. For instance here we would like to relate it with the previous case whereby a 27-year-old jobless man was rearrested by the police on his release after a 15-day remand to facilitate investigations into the rape and murder of 10-year-old Nurul Huda Gani at the guardhouse of the Tenaga Nasional Berhad main intake sub-station in Gelang Patah on Jan 17 2004. The case was the tragic had happened during that time. The victim was been abused without any manner by the rapist whereby the victims had been abused and been raped with violence and been killed which Nurul Huda's naked body was found in the toilet of the security booth.
Another cases that recently happened such as baby dumping whereby it is tremendously happened nowadays whereby it keep on increasing for instance had happened in 2010 is on February 2010, a baby had been left in front of Police Central as it was reported in the Utusan Online. Besides that, there a case whereby a child 3 years old had been abused by her mother’s boyfriend who the kid had been abused until she died. It shows that immorality of the people nowadays towards the children and now the mother’s boyfriend had been arrested. Not only the abusing comes from the parents or else but there are involving outsider or foreigners in Malaysia which illegally come to Malaysia and we knows that Malaysia had facing the problems with the illegal people and it sometimes cause a sense of afraid and insecure. The case of an African man is accused of abusing, raping and sodomizing a three-year-old girl in Kajang and the girl died. And that is why there is needed for the ministry and the government to tackle this issues before it can give bad image towards our country.3.1 HISTORY BACKGROUND OF NATIONAL CHILD PROTECTION POLICY The National Child Protection Policy has been implemented and approved by the Cabinet of Malaysia on 29th July 2009 parallel with the implementation of the National Child Policy under the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development. It is in order to ensure the rights of children to survival, protection in the forms of neglect, abuse, violence and exploitation, development and participation whereby it is comprehensive policies meant to safeguard the welfare of 10.5 million children in the country. They also provide guidelines to the various agencies, non-governmental organizations, volunteers and community to work together to ensure that children grow up in a safe and conducive environment. This policy has came out due to the case that involved with the unfair of treatment to the child whereby they need to be loved, protect, caring and taken care well but unfortunately the right of the child has been taken for granted either from their parents or to the society as well.The National Child Policy is all about the concerning on the child’s rights that had been ignored by the parents or those who are responsible towards for instance the Doctors, Teachers and many more. The policy had been made as to create sense of awareness so that there are no violence on a hapless human being who is unable to seek necessary help and protection according to the press statement by YB Senator Dato’ Sri Sharizat Abdul Jalil, Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development of Malaysia.There are 7 objectives in the policy whereby all of it stressing on the child’s protection and welfare. It is very important to protect them from being abuse by those irresponsible people because children are the catalyst towards the development of the country and be a leader who will lead the country at the future and perhaps with the policy it can increase or raise the awareness and commitment from all people about the effort to protect the children. All of the objectives are stressing on about the child welfare, health, protection which have to be taken care especially parents.
The vision and mission of the National Child Protection Policy is in order to move towards a world that upholds the rights and dignity of every child, our vision is to build safer communities where children are protected from sexual abuse and exploitation. Besides that as to create this environment, our mission is to establish prevention mechanisms, strengthen treatment and support services and forge synergistic partnerships within communities. Means that, the cooperation among the society itself is very important because we need to help each other whenever there is a problem arise. The National Child Protection Policy is accordance with the law regulated in the Child Act 2001 whereby under the act, children can be defined as a person who is below 18 years. It is in order to ensure that we can have stronger collaborative efforts between various organisations to ensure a safe environment for children. Ministry had already started improvements on the Child Act 2001, which included abolishing caning and incorporating community service. Besides that, the Act will be extended from protection to fostering, recovery, and participation.Ministry which takes the lead in children’s issues especially the Social Welfare Department has taken various measures to protect honour and uphold the rights of children. The Action Plan for Children, the Child Act 2001 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) are the guidelines adopted in the efforts to create a conducive environment for the growth, protection, development and participation of children. As a result of the seriousness of the government in implementing these guidelines, Malaysia has successfully fulfilled almost all the objectives of the Action Plan for Children.In the policy, it have their own strategies and the implementations that will be run by under the ministry with the cooperation of Social Welfare Department and also Police Department as to enhance towards the efficiency and effectiveness of the policy. Various strategies have also been lined up for the implementation of the policy, with priority given to advocacy, prevention, support and R&D aspects whereas there are 29 strategies were drawn up in accordance with the provisions of the Convention on The Rights of The Child (CRC).The ministry also drew up the National Child Action Plan which outlined the programmes and action to be taken by the relevant parties in the short, medium and long term. The policy is vital to ensure that children get to grow and develop in a safe and peaceful environment.
3.2 PURPOSED OF CHILD POLICY PROTECTION PROPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENTIn this National Child Protection Policy the government has stated 7 main objectives as follows:i. To increase the awareness and commitment from all people about the effort to protect the children as all responsibility.ii. To create a safety and conducive environment for the childreniii. To encourage an organization to connect directly and indirectly towards the children through the introduction of the National Child Protection Policy in their own organizationiv. To protect every children from any violence, neglect, abuse, and exploitation.v. To state that only a suitable individual can directly manage the children.vi. To increase the research and development in order to enhance the protection towards the childrenvii. To gain more support service in order to tackle problem of neglect, abuse, violence and exploitation. 3.3 THE APPLICATION OF 5 STEPS IN THE POLICY MAKING PROCESS3.3.1 AGENDA SETTINGAgenda setting is the list of the subjects or problems to which government officials are paying some serious attention at any given time. Meaning to say, agenda setting is something which the issues been stressed on that affected the society especially living environment. Although children in our country do not face the sufferings and miseries experienced by children in some other countries, we are confronted with other problems that are quite worrying. Statistics have shown that cases of abuse, including abandoning of babies, rape and incest, have increased from year to year. Cases of juveniles involved in social problems are also rising. These statistics remind us to be more vigilant concerning issues that are related to children. Immediate action should be taken to prevent, curb and eradicate these problems. Abuse or violence on children should not be allowed to happen and every one of us as members of society has a role to play. Neighbours, family members, relatives, friends, teachers, child minders and child careers have a moral responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of children by reporting cases of abuse immediately.The National Child Protection Policy has been made as to ensure the right of children are being taken care because with the statistics that obtained from the Police Department, it showed that, before the policy had been implemented, the rate of cases is keep increasing whereby with the number of physical abuse and rape cases increasing to 5,744 compared with only 2,236 in 2005. Moreover, for January and December last two years, a total of 982 missing child cases were reported, of which only 482 were found while 500 are still missing. Statistics from the Department of Social Welfare Malaysia, Roslee in 2001, and sexual abuse topped the list with 189 cases, followed by physical abuse which is 138, For neglect it have 136 cases, abandonment were 37 and emotional abuse is only 20 cases.
This Statistics showed that before the Policy been imposed as we can see types of child abuse reported whereby most of case been ignored or neglected recorded 761 cases followed by sexual abuse cases that always happened which stated 754 cases and the total of cases on 2007 were 2279 cases and it shows from the statistic it keep on increasing. Rape cases were on 2006 had recorded as the highest cases happened before it slightly decrease on 2007 from 1708 to 1327. Mothers who are reported as the highest abuser towards children from 2006 to 2007 recorded 493 to 559 cases followed by father. It should be happened because as parents they should know their own responsibility and not easily hit and canning their children wisely. It shows that role of parents are lacking among the people nowadays.Apart from the statistics that had been showed, we can predict that why the National Child Protection Policy had been made. It is in order to protect the child from abuse and the rights of the children. As to tackle this issues become worsen, crucial steps had been taken by implementing National Child Protection Policy. PAST CASES OF CHILD ABUSE May 4, 2009A 12-year-old girl was scalded with a hot iron and beaten with a mop by her mother at a house in Petaling Jaya after the child told her father about the woman’s alleged extra-marital affair. A school teacher had spotted several burn marks on the arms of the victim, the eldest of three children, and bruises on her thighs and back of her head. The housewife was detained by police. May 4, 2009A 36-year-old woman kicked her 10-year-old stepson in his stomach after he refused to put away his toys in their home in Damansara Jaya. After she had packed several of his toys in a plastic bag and put them in the storeroom, the boy took the bag out March 10, 2009A 35-year-old father threw his four-month-old daughter on the mattress to quieten her after her constant crying often agitated him. The incident happened at Kampung Masjid Sungai Ara, Bayan Lepas. A medical officer later confirmed the baby died on arrival at 4pm and checks showed that she was a victim of abuse. There were bruises on the cheek and left ear. Jan 9, 2009A 29-year-old man hit his four-year-old girlfriend’s son with a hammer and burnt him with a lighter, all because the child had urinated on his bed. The boy, N. Iswaran was locked in the bathroom and beaten several times at the house at Jalan Kok Doh, Taman Sejahtera, Kepong. The neighbours rushed the boy to Selayang Hospital but he was pronounced dead on arrival. Police later detained his mother and the boyfriend.
3.3.2 POLICY FORMULATIONThe idea when formulate the policy by concerning forecasting in which the idea behind forecasting is to make possible good estimate or inform guesses concerning the future consequences of alternative process of action and also help improve choices. First of all, what is policy formulation?Policy formulation is the development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda. It is also a passage of legislation designed to remedy some past problems or prevent some future policy problem. This policy is to ensure the rights of children to survival, protection (from all forms of neglect, abuse, violence and exploitation), development and participation. They also provide guidelines to the various agencies, non-governmental organizations, volunteers and community to work together to ensure that children grow up in a safe and conducive environment. In order to achieve the objectives, The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development has taken a serious action in order to reduce this problem. Eleven strategies have been proposed based on the four main aspects which are advocacy, prevention, support services and R&D. Among each of the aspect we have identify several strategies that we think suitable for the policy. In term of advocacy, the Ministry has stated 3 main concerned under advocacy which are to increase the awareness and commitment by all people as an effort to protect the children as all responsible, established a safety and conducive facilities or environment for the children, and compulsory for all institution under the Department of Society Welfare and Non Government Organization (NGO) that receive the government allocation to establish the child protection policy with the current template ( E.g: document template in the National Child Protection Policy).In term of preventing, the Ministry stress out on two strategies which are creating the early warning system such as “Amber Alert System” to handling the children kidnapping cases and self defense among the children. In term of support services, the government will provide counseling service to individual, family and community. This formulation is one the actions of government that they focusing more as the family and as well as the offenders can be rehabilitated so that they can recover from their own offences. This is to avoid them for not do the same thing again by supporting and advice them. Lastly in term of research and development the Ministry will encourage the research and development regarding the child protection as well to enhance the research to be better. For example, by establish the research directory on children protection and creating a comprehensive a child protection database and information system.
3.3.3 POLICY ADOPTIONThe next stage is policy adoption. At this stage, policy adoption is a positive form that can be an enactment of legislation or issuance of executive order. So, what is the important matter in policy adoption is an action preferred policy alternative for which proponents of it think they can win approval from authority. Policy adoption is to choose, adopt and accept among the various alternatives recommended or presented to the Cabinet. Policy decisions involve action by the policy makers to adopt, modify, or even reject a policy alternative given to them. The Minister of Women, Family and Community Development, YB Senator Dato’ Sri Sharizat Abdul Jalil has stated that she takes this issue of abuse and violence against the children as a very seriously and will not hesitate to take legal action on those found guilty of causing harm, injury and death on children. Child abuse is an offence under Section 31 of the Child Act 2001 whereby a person found guilty of such an offence can be fined not more than RM20, 000 or jailed for not more than 10 years or both. For cases of child abuse resulting in death, such cases are usually charged under the Penal Code as culpable homicide and punishable by death.This policy has come out with action plan with specific guideline containing the period time and the target outcome in order to make the implementation easier. The Ministry of Women and Family and Development Community has stress out with these three actions by concerning government agency, NGO, medical expert, social worker, volunteer, and certain individual that expert in children aspect.The first action is compulsory for all institution under the Department of Society Welfare and Non Government Organization (NGO) that receive the government allocation to establish the child protection policy with the current template ( Eg: document template in the National Child Protection Policy). The Ministry was concerned with this issue by issuing this policy in every government body by introducing the template so that, society and customer who attend and come to the respective company will manage to get the template. Thus, from this the society as well as the company itself will realize regarding the issue. (Example of the template will be attached at the references of this assignment)The second action is to establish the child helpline. The establishment of this child helpline is in order to combating the issue become worst. The public as well as the children can make a report directly through this helpline. They can report if any neglect, abuse, exploitation and abuse towards the kids. For this child helpline the government has introduce Talian Nur as one of the establishment. They public can contact this Talian Nur 15999 and they will deal with the police or the department of welfare. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the NGO’s are working hard to strengthen this child helpline. The third action is to continue the discussion with all government agencies. The discussion will be attended by security forces such as Police and Immigration in order to strengthening and recover back the development of alert system which is the alert system of kidnapping and losing of children. The actions will be taken immediately in order to combating the problem. From this the security forces will take action from time to time in order to enhance the safety and security of the children.
3.3.4 POLICY IMPLEMENTATION Policy implementation is the program that is designed in order to ensure the implementation can be successfully succeeded. It is very important as it can be a catalyst towards goal can be achieved. Within the National Child Protection Policy that has been implemented on the previous year, there are many ways been implements as to strengthen it be more compatible and parallel with the policy objectives. Apart from that a total of 35 children’s institutions have been established by the Social Welfare Department in the next five years, run-down institutions will be upgraded to make them more children-friendly. The ministry also had prepared more comprehensive programmes for the care, protection and development of children. Ten community child care centres also been set up to help low-income families obtain quality childcare. Improvement to the Childcare Centres Act 1984 and the Care Centres Act 1993 will also be made. Here will be further details on the explanation of programs been made. Hari Kanak- Kanak Sedunia as known as World’s Children Day In the international level, mostly it known as ICD stands for International’s Children Day which has mostly celebrated on 1st July in every year. The World Children's Day Celebration was the brainchild of the International Union for Child Welfare of the United Nations. The first celebration was in 1953 where 40 countries participated. In 1954, the United Nations approved the celebration and 1 was given the responsibility to manage the celebration in order to create awareness of the responsibilities of all members of society especially parents, private and public agencies have to protect the rights and the future of children as well as to enable members of the public to appreciate the need to uphold the rights and dignity of children in accordance with the rights as accorded to them by the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Malaysia first celebrated World Children's Day in 1959 and now it has been over 150 countries in the world celebrates World Children’s. UNICEF is one of the NGO that always support this issues whereby the aim of UNICEF which stands for United Nations International Children's Fund been established is in order to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. In Malaysia it will be celebrated on 4th July in every year and when it comes to the celebration, it will have their own theme and activities and it will be a public holiday in the country. For instance in 2003, the theme was “Dengarlah Suara Kami: Hayati dan Lindungi Hak Kami”. Every theme came out will bring different main issues and objectivity.
Recently, at the previous year in 2009, the World’s Children Day at national level had been launched by YB Dato’ Sri Shahrizat Jalil located at Putra Perdana, Taman Putra Jaya and Puchong at Pusat Aktiviti Kanak- Kanak whereby the theme was “Keluarga Selamat Kanak-Kanak Terpelihara” and the theme was about to stress on the responsibility that should parents played and also for the society that have to give full cooperation in order to combat the issue before it becomes worse. This theme has been chosen apart from the recent cases whereby the child abuse cases keep on increasing from 2279 to 2780 from 2007 till 2008. It shows that rapid increasing of the cases within a year. The World’s Children can be a catalyst for the ministry to make an awareness among the parents because due to some of the situation whereby the parents is working, and they had neglect their child because of feel tired after spend a whole day at workplace and more worse, some of the parents release all the stress and tension towards their children whereby it should not be happened in our society. Besides that, during the day there will be activities that will be held such as exhibition of the statistic cases abuse, the victims and many more so that, it will create sense of responsible towards their children and for sure there will be a talk given as to give acknowledge the parents, society and to whom the responsible hold. Usually those who participated with the World’s Children Day were the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Department, The Welfare Department, Police Department, Doctors, Parents and also society and NGOs. The objective of the World Children’s Day celebration in Malaysia is to honour and give recognition to children and raise awareness in all of us that we are responsible for ensuring that their protection, welfare, well-being and rights are constantly upheld. Childline Malaysia Childline Malaysia is a national 24-hour free phone emergency outreach service for children in need of care and protection and aims to link children to long-term services. It was been established with the collaboration by concerned NGOs and private sector Organisations together with Government as well as Child Helpline International and UNICEF. The concept of Childline Malaysia is it is nationwide whereby it is to be privately funded project that will be run in partnership with the NGO such as UNICEF and also the state government as long as the corporate sector. In order to make it fully efficient, it was 24 hours accessible at all times and there will be no charge imposed. It is vey useful when it comes to the emergency whereby the period that could last of the time of the cal to such time with that withdrawing assistance would put the child back into crisis and at the same time it provides an outreach services as the Childline Malaysia reaches out to meet the child who dials the free phone number and also creating awareness amongst the most marginalized group of children in the country through extensive outreach. And every children is needed to be protected and care enough as well as their deserved to be care and give full of attention while their growing up because children is the future generation that will be leading the country and as a catalyst into a future generation leadership. In order to promote the Childline Malaysia, many events had been held and organised such as in the previous year likes event of “Seminar Lindungi Anak kita & Internet Anjuran Kursus Tetap Kebajikan Negeri Selangor bersama Childine” Malaysia dated 27th JULY 2009 at De Palma Hotel, Shah Alam. Besides that, “Majlis Dialog Bersama Badan Bukan Kerajaan (NGO) Dan Agensi Kerajaan Yang Memberi Khidmat Tele-kauseling” on 20th JULY 2009: located at KPWKM (Kementerian Pembangunan Wanitta, Keluarga Dan Masyarakat) building and also 1st Childline Malaysia CRC workshop on 19th until 24th June 00 at TAS Auditorium Glenmarie.
Convention on the rights of child ( CRC)All people have basic human rights and children are no different in this respect every child and young person under the age of 18 has rights, no matter who they are, where they live or what they believe in. These rights are protected by an international agreement called the United Nations. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. In 1989, world leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for them because people under 18 years old often need special care and protection that adults do not whatever their race, religion, abilities, whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from. And every child, young person and adult has a responsibility to make sure that the way they behave doesn't stop others from getting their rights. The leaders also wanted to make sure that the world recognized that children have human rights too. All of the countries in the world have now signed up to it except for Somalia and the United States of America. A convention is an agreement between countries to obey the same law. The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols. It spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. The four core principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services. Malaysia ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1995 and declared the provisions applicable as long as they are in conformity with the Constitution, national laws and national policies of the government, with expressed reservations with respect to articles 1, 2, 7, 13, 14, 15, 28, [paragraph 1 (a)] 37, of the Convention. That means that our government now has to make sure that every child has all the rights in the convention, except for the expressed reservations. Besides that, the the Child Act 2001 was enforced in August 2002 which is stated that children should be accorded special care and their welfare given paramount importance. The Act is an amalgamation of three comprehensive Acts now repealed - the Juvenile Courts Act 1947, Women and Young Girls Protection Act 1973 and Child Protection Act 1991. The Child Act 2001 affords protection for children and tackles the problems of juvenile delinquency, child prostitutions and children out of control. It imposes severe punishments for child trafficking, abuse, molestation, neglect, and abandonment. It also mandates the formation of children's courts.
Talian Nur ( NurHotline) Talian Nur which can be dialled 15999 is the hotline link to enable early intervention for victims of domestic violence, child abuse, and natural disasters which had been launched by Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, whereby it is in order to integrate one-stop call centre that has been set up by the Women, Family and Community Development Ministry. According to Women, Family and Community Development Minister Datuk Seri Shahrizat Jalil said the 29 call agents would work on three shifts to answer calls 24-hours a day and seven days a week from the call centre based in Kuala Lumpur which with help by ministry’s existing two Helplines whereas TeleDera and Healthline had been consolidated with Talian Nur, adding that the police would also help dealing with calls involving criminal activities. The call centre allowed assistance to all types of social woes victims with greater speed the hotline was a necessity with the increasing number of social issues and natural disaster cases being reported whereby it becomes worst from day-to-day. Talian Nur just like Childline Malaysia whereby the aims and objective is more or less same which want to help those children needed. In addition, with the hotline, people can seek for the information regarding what they want to know and how they get for the help. The hotline is not only focusing on the children but it is as a whole for instance those people who had been neglected or ignorance by the family, they can go seek for a help at the hotline so that, the officers who responsible can take an action such as people at the golden age who suffered alone at home without been taken care anyone, people can get the help by dialling the number and the officer will be sent to the respective house. And for sure those at the neighbourhood who witnessed the child abuse also compulsory to report and all the details will be confidentially keep.
3.3.5 POLICY EVALUATION/ASESSEMENTPolicy evaluation simply refers to a proper examination of the consequences of the policy being implemented. The major tasks in policy evaluation are of two types. Firstly to determine what the consequences of policy are. That is to examine the impact of the implemented policy. The second thing is to judge the success or failure of the policy according to a set of standards or criteria. Based on the second task, some policy analysts have defined policy evaluation as the use of scientific method to estimate the successful implementation and resultant outcomes of policy program in meeting its objective set for. Based on our perspective and point of view we have concluded that this National Child Protection Policy is a good policy and the Ministry has taken a full effort in combating the issue. As we can see, the issue of child abuse and baby dumping still increase from year to year. Since this National Child Protection Policy was a new policy we could not see the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy. As far as we concerned, based on the statistic obtained from PDRM, showed that physical abuse case, molestation and raping towards child are increasing from 2236 cases on 2005 to 5744 on 2008. In the previous year, for the first within 7 months, 2193 cases have been reported to PDRM, while missing cases becoming worried whereby total of cases on 2008 is at 982 cases and from these total 500 cases still unresolved. From this statistic it shows that, the issue of child abuse still becoming serious matters. Recently case from the Malaysian Mirror on Monday February 15, 2010 stated that Wanita UMNO was commenting on the growing incident of baby dumping including a recent case in Kuala Krai, Kelantan where a new born baby boy was found dumped and burned inside a waste disposal bin. From this cases the government has take a various action in order to solve the problems. The National Child Protection Policy was approved by the Cabinet on 29 July 2009. So we could not see the impact of this policy. But the Ministry has made an Action Plan in which they plan the short term and the long term of this policy in order to achieve the objectives. This Action Plan takes a period from year 2009 – 2015. As for the example, the Action Plan that already established in year 2009 is the introduction of “Amber Alert System”, the awareness of Convention Right of Children (CRC), the programmed of the use of template by all organizations and so forth. For a long term period, the Ministry will set up a research and development in order to recover all the weaknesses that they need to do. This policy as we can see is still new and there is still lack of support services that seem not well known about the issue of Child Right and this policy is not considered to be fail but need to see the result in about a couple more years. If the issue of child abuse and baby dumping not occurred in this couple of test year, then this policy is suitable to combating the issues. If not the Ministry should re-evaluate the policy it back and find the problem by investigate, analyze, decide and do an accurate decisions that can rebuild back the policy. This is to ensure that the government resource would not be wasted and to avoid any misunderstanding regarding the issue.
3.4 CONTRIBUTION TO THE SOCIETY. Be More Alert The Policy can make awareness towards the society because nowadays, people are taken the issues for granted as they had their own mindset. It truly happened whereby there are irresponsible people who did not reported the abuse cases and it was caused death to the child who had been abused. For instance, one neighbour suspected that three-year old Aaliyah Aiman Hussin Abdullah, a child abuse victim found dead early this month, had been beaten prior to her death but nothing was done to stop the tragedy. And it shows that no cooperation among the neighbourhood and society. By enforcing more strict laws that anyone who had saw the abuse but did not reported also will be fine. W e want to decrease the case of child abuse and it is needed to be cooperated together and apart from that it can create sense of alert and instil sense of responsible in take care the welfare of the children who being abuse. Role of Parents As a person who had given a baby or kid, they should know what their responsibilities are. In previous year and the statistic were obtained, a mother who a top abuser followed by father. It shows that lack of parenting knowledge among them. It may because, some of them get married early and not ready yet to be a parents and did not know well how to raise a children. Most of the time, person who get marriage at the early age may because of their parents’ decision who want a girl to be married early and some of the cases were wedlock child. And it can be factor why sometimes people are not ready yet in raising the children. And there are cases why the child abuse happened are caused by family conflict between parents and the child become victims. It can be considered in manner parents who used to use their kids to stress out all the tension by hitting them. Family conflicts stated the highest percentage derived from the statistic had been showed above. A research on child abuse in Malaysia in 2001showed that 60 per cent of the perpetrators were female with an average age of 25, and 41 per cent were male with an average age of 34. In his paper on Children, Abused Children and Children’s Rights, Roslee Hj Abas, a lecturer with the School of Social Science, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), revealed that approximately 80 per cent of the victims were abused by a parent. Mothers alone were responsible for 47 per cent of neglect cases and 32 per cent of physical abuse cases. With this policy the parents should realised their mistake and be more responsible in raising up their children and that is why World’s Children Day is celebrating as to make parents realised what they had been neglected before this and changed their behaviour.
Guarantee of child lifeAs parallel with the objective of National Child Protection Policy, it can give guarantee towards children who had been abused. We know and realize that the cases is becoming serious and it is needed to take crucial solutions in combating the issues such as baby dumping that keep increasing from day-to-day. On 2008, at Tawau a 30-year-old local was shocked to find the body of a newborn dumped in a public toilet in town, Tuesday - the third such instance of new-borns placed in sewerage and beside rubbish bins. In all, it was also the fourth baby-dumping case to be reported in the State in less than a month. The man in the latest incident found the dead boy in a flush tank in one of the toilets at about 10am. Punishment to those who committed the fault By amending in the Child Act 2001, it can help to give more punishment either to those who committed to the fault or to the person who knows but did not report it to the Police. Before this according to the Child Act 2001, the punishment is those who did child abuse is an offence under Section 31 of the Child Act 2001 whereby a person found guilty of such an offence can be fined not more than RM20,000 or jailed for not more than 10 years or both. For cases of child abuse resulting in death, such cases are usually charged under the Penal Code as culpable homicide and punishable by death. And in here it does not mention about the society who knows but did not report will be punish and by amending the law it should be noted also that they should be imposed the fine also and make it more strict so that people will afraid to do the abuse and also be more responsible towards the children.
4.0 CONCLUSIONAs a conclusion, Child abuse is a form of violence on a hapless human being who is unable to seek the necessary help and protection. It is therefore imperative that stern action be taken on perpetrators of abuse and violence on children as a protective and preventive measure. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development takes this issue very seriously and will not hesitate to take legal action on those found guilty of causing harm, injury and death on childrenAs overall we can see that the issue of child abuse and baby dumping become worst from day to day. With the implementation of the National Child Protection Policy, the government hopes that it can reduce the problem. The government would not be able to create this policy if there is no help from the publics. Publics should know their roles Abuse or violence on children should not be allowed to happen and every one of us as members of society has a role to play. Neighbours, family members, relatives, friends, teachers, child minders and child careers have a moral responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of children by reporting cases of abuse immediately. The media, both print and electronic, has a significant role to play in continuing with the efforts to sensitize members of the public on the various avenues to report incidences of child abuse. Billboards, posters, flyers, crawlers and other forms of reminders are also effective.So it is up to the public to decide in react towards the policy if the public react to combating the issue and thus the problem will easily to be solved. But by hook or by crook we as a Malaysian must have own responsibility to help the government in order to have a harmonious and peaceful country.
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